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2006年硕士研究生入学考试英语命题预测试卷(3)及答案

2006-6-3 19:05  

  SectionⅠ Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.( 10 points )

  In the past few decades, remarkable findings have been made in ethology, the study of animal social behavior. Earlier scientists had 1 that nonhuman social life was almost totally instinctive or fixed by genetics. Much more careful observation has shown that 2 variation occurs among the social ties of most species, showing that learning is a part of social life. That is, the 3 are not solely fixed by the genes.

  4, the learning that occurs is often at an early age in a process that is called imprinting. Imprinting is clearly 5 instinctive, but it is not quite like the learning of humans; it is something in between the two. An illustration best 6 the nature of imprinting. Once, biologists thought that ducklings followed the mother duck because of instincts. Now we know that, shortly 7 they hatch, ducklings fix 8 any object about the size of a duck and will henceforth follow it. So ducklings may follow a basketball or a briefcase if these are 9 for the mother duck at the time when imprinting occurs. Thus, social ties can be considerably 10, even ones that have a considerable base 11 by genetics.

  Even among the social insects something like imprinting 12 influence social behavior. For example, biologists once thought bees communicated with others purely 13 instinct. But, in examining a “dance” that bees do to indicate the distance and direction of a pollen source, observers found that bees raised in isolation could not communicate effectively. At a higher level, the genetic base seems to be much more for an all-purpose learning rather than the more specific responses of imprinting. Chimpanzees, for instance, generally 14 very good mother but Jane Goodall reports that some chimps carry the infant upside down or 15 fail to nurture the young. She believes that these females were the youngest or the 16 child of a mother. In such circumstances, they did not have the opportunity to observe how their own mother 17 for her young. Certainly adolescent chimps who are still with their mothers when other young are born take much interest in the rearing of their young brother or sister. They have an excellent opportunity to learn, and the social ties that are created between mother and young 18 Goodall to describe the social unit as a family. The mother offspring tie is beyond 19; there is some evidence to 20 that ties also continue between siblings of the same sex, that is “brother-brother” and “sister-sister”。

  1Aassumed  Badopted  Cbelieved  Dsurmised

  2Aconsiderate  Bconsiderated  Cconsiderable  Dconsidering

  3Astatues  Bstatuses  Cstatutes  Dstatures

  4AWhats more  BHence  CBut  DHowever

  5Anot  Bonly  Cbut  Dsolely

  6Aclarifies  Bclassifies  Cdefines  Doutlines

  7Athan  Bbefore  Cwhen  Dafter

  8Aon  Bwith  Cin  Dwithin

  9Aappropriated   Bsubstituted   Cassigned   Ddistributed

  10Avaried   Bdeviated   Cdiffered   Daltered

  11Afashioned   Bmodified   Cinfluenced   Daffected

  12Amay   Bshould   Cmust   Dcan

  13Aby   Bout of   Cfrom   Dthrough

  14Aprove   Bmake   Cturn   Dcreate

  15Aotherwise  Bstill   Cyet   Deven

  16Aone   Bsole   Csingle   Donly

  17Alooked   Battended   Ccared   Dprovided

  18Aguide   Bcause   Cdirect   Dlead

  19Alimitation   Bimagination  Cdoubt   Dexpectation

  20Aadvise   Bhint   Cimply   Dsuggest

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

  Text 1

  New figures from France,Germany and Italy—the three biggest economies in the 12 country Eurozone—suggest the continent's economic woes may have been exaggerated. In France, evidence emerged that consumer spending remained solid in July and August, rising 1.4% and 0.6% respectively. Forecasters had generally expected the July figure to show a 0.1% slippage, with August unchanged. But the figures were flattered slightly by a down grade to the June figure, to 0.7% from 1.5%.

  With manufacturing in the doldrums across Europe and the US, consumer spending has been increasingly seen as the best hope of stopping the global economic slowdown from turning into a recession. The French government said the news proved that the economy was holding up to the strain of the slowdown.

  Meanwhile in Germany, new regional price figures went someway towards calming fears about inflation in Europe's largest economy—a key reason for the European Central Bank's reluctance to cut interest 15 states said consumer prices were broadly stable, with inflation falling year on year. The information backed economists' expectations that inflation for the country as a whole is set to fall back to a yearly rate of 2.1%, compared to a yearly rate of 2.6% in August, closing in on the Euro wide target of 2%. The drop is partly due to last year's spike in oil prices dropping out of the year-on-year calculation.

  The icing on the cake was news that Italy's job market has remained buoyant. The country's July unemployment rate dropped to 9.4% from 9.6% the month before, its lowest level in more than eight years. And a business confidence survey from quasi governmental research group ISAE told of a general pick up in demand in the six weeks to early September. But the news was tempered by an announcement by Alitalia, the country's biggest airline, that it will have to get rid of 2,500 staff to cope with the expected contraction as well as selling 12 aeroplanes. And industrial group Confindustria warned that the attacks on US targets meant growth will be about 1.9% this year,well short of the government's 2.4% target. And it said the budget deficit will probably be about 1.5%,nearly twice the 0.8% Italy's government has promised its European Union partners.

  21We know from the first paragraph that .

  Anew figures from the three European countries show the prediction of forecasters is exactly right

  BEuropean economy gets on better than forecasters have predicted

  Call of the forecasters expect the fully figure to show a reduction

  Din three European countries the consumer spending continues to rise

  22The term “in the doldrums” in Paragraph 2 refers to .

  Ain the process of rising Bexperiencing a sharp turning Cin the recessionDrising rapidly

  23Which of the following statements is true according to the text?

  AThe reason for the ECB's unwilling to cut interest rates is inflation was actually expected to fall in Germany

  BIn Germany consumer prices were falling

  CLast year's oil prices dropping out of the year-on-year calculation directly leads to the drop of inflation

  DThe European Central Bank is willing to cut interest rate

  24In this passage, the word “buoyant” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to the word .

  AdepressingBgloomyCactiveDcalm

  25Industrial group Confindustria warned that .

  Athe attacks on US targets lead to the comparatively lower growth

  Bthe growth had been well short of the government's target

  Cthe budget deficit must be about 1.5%

  Dthe budget deficit will probably be great different from the country's promise

  Text 2

  Survey results indicate that smoking and alcohol and marijuana use increased among residents of Manhattan during the 5~8 weeks after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center which took place on September 11, 2001. Almost one-third of the nearly 1,000 persons interviewed reported an increased use of alcohol, marijuana, or cigarettes following the September 11th attacks. The largest increase was in alcohol use. About one-fourth of the respondents said they were drinking more alcohol in the weeks after September 11; about 10% reported an increase in smoking, and 3.2% said they had increased their use of marijuana.

  The investigators found survey participants by randomly dialing New York City phone numbers and screened potential respondents for Manhattan residents living in areas close to the World Trade Center. Interviews were conducted with 988 individuals between October 16 and November 15, 2001. Participants were asked about their cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and marijuana use habits before and after September 11. During the week prior to September 11, 2001, 22.6% of the participants reported smoking cigarettes, 59.1% drinking alcohol, and 4.4% using marijuana. After September 11th, 23.4% reported smoking cigarettes, 64.4% drinking alcohol, and 5.7% smoking marijuana. Among those who smoked, almost 10% reported smoking at least an extra pack of cigarettes a week and among those who drank alcohol, more than 20% reported imbibing at least one extra drink a day.

  The researchers found that people who reported an increase in substance abuse were more likely to suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and from depression. People who reported an increase in cigarette smoking or marijuana use were also more likely to have both PTSD and depression, while those who reported an increase in alcohol use were more likely to have depression only. Persons who were living closer to the World Trade Center were more likely to increase their cigarette smoking, but other factors such as being displaced from home, losing possessions during the attacks, or being involved in the rescue efforts were not consistently associated with increased substance use. Symptoms of panic attack were associated with an increase in the use of all substances.

  Increase in substance abuse did not differ significantly between men and women or among racial or ethnic groups. Demographic factors such as age, marital status, and income seemed to play a more critical role in determining if the events of September 11th led to an increase in substance use.

  26. The survey results suggest that the largest increase in substance use was .

  Aalcohol   Bmarijuana   Ccigarettes   Dcocaine

  27. The survey participants were .

  Arandomly selected United States citizens

  Brandomly selected New York City citizens

  Crandomly selected Manhattan residents who live close to the World Trade Center

  Drandomly selected American citizens who witnessed the terrorist attack

  28. The author is trying to show that .

  Ause of substances may vary from time to time

  Babuse of certain substances is harmful for health

  Cthe attack of September 11th has left incurable harm to people's mental health

  Dterrorist attack increase anxiety and sense of insecurity among residents

  29. What can be said about substance abuse after September 11?

  APeople who reported an increase in alcohol use were more likely to have PTSD.

  BPeople who were living closer to World Trade Center were most likely to increase cigarette smoking.

  CDisplacement from home and involvement in rescue efforts were consistently associated with increased substance use.

  DSymptoms of panic attach were unrelated with increased use of substances.

  30. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

  ADemographic information such as gender, race and marital status was not collected.

  BGender and race do not have much effect on the amount of substance abuse.

  CAge and marital status do not make any difference on substance abuse.

  DIncome is a better predictor of substance abuse than age.

  Text 3

  The entrepreneur, according to French economist J.B. Say, “is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield.” But Say's definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and nonmonetary rewards.

  The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonald's. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fast-food chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.

  Many of the sharp, black-and-white contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faced to a gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive, or market oriented. They were “above” the market-driven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the mavericks of society. They were risk-takers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more price-conscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents, and competencies; Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses(e.g., consulting and law) to serve clients.

  Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors; searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. Many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonald's is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.

  31.According to the first paragraph, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?

  A.The CEO of a big company.

  B.The owner of a profitable restaurant.

  C.A man who started a new kind of business but eventually failed after 5 years because of some financial problems.

  D.A successful salesman.

  32.Which of the followings are necessary for an entrepreneur?

  ①a resource shifter②one who starts a new business

  ③non-professional④money-gaining

  ⑤a risk taker

  A.①②③  B.①②④⑤  C.①②⑤  D.①②③④⑤

  33.From the text, we learn that .

  A.an entrepreneur should be very extroverted

  B.an entrepreneur should be quick to seize opportunities

  C.change is not norm in an entrepreneur's eyes

  D.the French economist J.B. Say is the first person who gave the definition of “entrepreneur”

  34.The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to .

  A.complete the definition of entrepreneur

  B.tell the readers what is entrepreneur and the main characteristics of entrepreneurs

  C.show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs

  D.illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur

  35.What will most possibly follow the text?

  A.An example of how an entrepreneur operates.

  B.Another theory about entrepreneurship.

  C.The bad effects of entrepreneurs.

  D.The good effects of entrepreneurs.

  Text 4

  Modern technology and science have produced a wealth of new materials and new ways of using old materials. For the artist this means wider opportunities. There is no doubt that the limitations of materials and nature of tools both restrict and shape a man's work. Observe how the development of plastics and light metals along with new methods of welding has changed the direction of sculpture. Transparent plastic materials allow one to look through an object, to see its various sides superimposed on each other(as in Cubism or in an X-ray)。 Today, welding is as prevalent as casting was in the past. This new method encourages open designs, where surrounding and intervening space becomes as important as form itself.

  More ambiguous than other scientific inventions familiar to modern artists, but no less influential, are the psychoanalytic studies of Freud and his followers, discoveries that have infiltrated recent art, especially Surrealism. The Surrealists,in their struggle to escape the monotony and frustrations of everyday life, claimed that dreams were the only hope. Turning to the irrational world of their unconscious, they banished all time barriers and moral judgments to combine disconnected dream experiences from the past, present and intervening psychological states. The Surrealists were concerned with overlapping emotions more than with overlapping forms. Their paintings often become segmented capsules of associative experiences. For them, obsessive and often unrelated images replaced the direct emotional message of expressionism. They did not need to smash paint and canvas; they went beyond this to smash the whole continuity of logical thought.

  There is little doubt that contemporary art has taken much from contemporary life. In a period when science has made revolutionary strides, artists in their studios have not been unaware of scientists in their laboratories. But this has rarely been a one-way street. Painters and sculptors, though admittedly influenced by modern science, have also molded and changed our world. If break-up has been a vital part of their expression, it has not always been a symbol of destruction. Quite the contrary: it has been used to examine more fully, to penetrate more deeply, to analyze more thoroughly, to enlarge, isolate and make more familiar certain aspects of life that earlier we were apt to neglect. In addition, it sometimes provides rich multiple experiences so organized as not merely to reflect our world, but in fact to interpret it.

  36.According to the passage, it is true that .

  Aartistic creations seem to be the reproductions of modern technology

  Bartistic creations have made great strides scientifically

  Cartistic creations appear to be incapable of ignoring material advances

  Dartistic creations are the reflection of the material world

  37.The welding techniques .

  Acan cause a lot of changes in sculpture arts

  Bpermit details of an object to be seen clearly

  Ccan superimpose multiple sides of sculptor's designs

  Dcan make artists adaptable to be surroundings

  38.We can learn from the text that Freud's studies .

  Aare more ambiguous than any other scientific invention

  Bhave influenced other scientific inventions

  Ccause Surrealism

  Dhave infiltrated Surrealism

  39.Which of the following is true about Surrealists?

  AThey diminished all time barriers and moral judgments to combine disconnected dream experiences.

  BThey tried to express their subconscious world.

  CThey could transform real existence into incoherent dreams.

  DThey wanted to substitute direct expressions for fragmented images.

  40.The sentence “But this has rarely been a one-way street.” in the last paragraph means that .

  Acontemporary art has been nourished by modern science

  Bmodern science has been nourished by art

  Cartists can become scientists and scientists can become artists

  Dthe impacts of modern art and science are actually mutual

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices,which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  Aremote Patagonian town that's just beginning to prosper by guiding tourists through the virgin forests nearby is being shaken by the realization that it's sitting on a gold mine. Literally. 41)___________________________________________________________________

  Esquel's plight is winning attention from international conservation and environmental groups such as Greenpeace. 42)__________________________

  About 3.2 million acres already are under contract for mineral exploration in poor and sparsely settled Chubut Province, where Esquel is, near the southern tip of South America. 43)______________________________________

  Meridian's project, about 5 miles outside Esquel at a higher elevation, is about 20 miles from a national park that preserves rate trees known as alerces, a southern relative of California's giant sequoia. Some of them have been growing serenely in the temperate rain forest for more than 3,000 years.

  The greatest fear is that cyanide, which is used to leach gold from ore, will drain downhill and poison Esquel's and possibly the park's water supplies. The mine will use 180 tons of the deadly chemical each month. Although many townspeople and some geologists disagree, the company says any excess cyanide would drain away from Esquel.

  “We won't allow them to tear things up and leave us with the toxic aftermath,” said Felix Aguilar, 28, as he piloted a boatload of tourists through a lake in the Alerces National Park.“ We take care of things here, so that the entire world can hear and see nature in its pure state. The world must help us prevent this.”

  44)__________________________________________________________________________

  A young English botanist named Charles Darwin, the author of the theory of evolution, was the first European to see alerces, with trunks that had a circumference of 130 feet. He gave the tree its generic name, Fitzroya Cupressoides, for the captain of his ship, Robert Fitzroy. Argentina, pressed by the United States, Canada, the World Bank and other global lenders, rewrote its mining laws in the 1990s to encourage foreign investment.45)________________________________________

  Argentina took in more than$1 billion over the past decade by granting exploration contracts for precious metals to more than 70 foreign and domestic companies. If the country were to turn away a major investor, the message to its mining sector would be chilling.

  [A]Whether Meridian Gold Corp. gets its open-pit gold mine outside Esquel could determine the fate of mining in Patagonia, a pristine region spanning southern Argentina and Chile.

  [B]Forest ecologist Paul Alaback, a University of Montana professor who studies the alerces, said Argentine authorities could gain from Alaska's successful nature-based tourism.

  [C]More than 3,000 worried Esquel residents recently took to the streets in protests aimed at assuring that their neat community of 28,000 becomes a ecotourism center, not a gold-rush town.

  [D]American Douglas Tomkins, the founder of the Esprit clothing line and a prominent global conservationist, has bought more than 800,000 wilderness acres in Chile to preserve alerces and protect what's left of the temperate rain forest. Ted Turner, the communications magnate, also has bought land in Argentine Patagonia with an eye to conservation.

  [E]Residents also complain that Argentina hasn't given nature-based tourism a chance.

  [F]Mining companies received incentives such as 30 years without new taxes and duty-free imports of earth-moving equipment.

  [G]In Argentina, the town has become a national symbol in the debate over exploitation vs. preservation of the country's vast natural resources.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  For better or worse, multiple marriages aren't just for actress Elizabeth Taylor (renowned for her eight marriages)anymore.

  More Americans than ever are tying the knot (getting married) for the third time or more. Lynn Y. Naugle Haspel,a 53-year-old family therapist in New Orleans, says that people's personal needs and desires simply changes as their life evolves.

  “What functions well in the first part of our lives may not function well in the second or third parts of our lives,” she explains. She didn't start her career as a therapist until her children from her first marriage went to school. That marriage lasted 21 years, her second marriage five years. Two years ago, she wed for a third time,and she describes this union as an “extremely easy marriage”。

  Today, at an estimated one of seven weddings, the bride, the groom or both are making that trip down the aisle for at least the third time. That's twice as many as a generation ago, according to the US National Centre for Health Statistics.

  46)In part, the surge in multiple marriages is a side effect of the 1970s divorce boom that has supplied an ever-expanding pool of divorced singles. Even the simple fact that people are living longer has opened the door to marrying more often. No-fault divorce laws (meaning no one is blamed for the failure of the marriage), and cultural changes have also meant there's less peer pressure than in past generations to stay in a joyless or abusive marriage.

  47)While a single divorce didn't block either Ronald Reagan or Bob Dole from seeking the most highly scrutinized job in America—the US presidency—modern society still raises an eyebrow at more than one matrimonial mistake.

  Indeed, there are signs that attitudes are changing. Even the language is softening. Clinical papers in social science journals no longer probe for “neurosis” or mental depressive disorder among the “divorce prone”。 More and more marriages are said to “end,” not “fail,” and one author has coined the term“encore marriages”。

  “It's coming out of the closet or becoming more accepted,” says Glenda Riley, a Ball State University professor who wrote a book on the history of divorce in the US.48)“There's still embarrassment on the personal level, while there is growing acceptance on the public level” for three or more marriages in a lifetime.

  49)Some experts say that the trend toward multiple marriages shows an erosion in Americans' capacity for commitment.“ We live in the age of light. We have light cream cheese, light beer, light mayonnaise,” says Wayne Sotile, a psychologist and marriage counselor in Winston Salem, North Carolina. But, he adds, “There's no such thing as light, long-term, intimate, romantic marriage. You've got to commit yourself to those things.”

  There's no guarantee, of course, that the third time is the best.50)To the contrary, second and third marriages run an equal or greater risk of divorce than first marriages, which today are given 4-out-of-10 odds of failing, and they tend to end more quickly. Divorce statistics show that failed second marriages typically end two years sooner than first marriages, lasting six years on average rather than eight. That leaves some doubly divorced people open for a third try at a relatively young age.

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51.Direction:

  You've just come back from a tour in Jiu Zhai Gou, and you're writing to your friend Mary.

  1)tell her that you've been back at the very day

  2)share your traveling experience with her

  3)invite her to a tour in Zhang Jia jie in the coming year

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Jane” instead. You do not need to write the address.(10 points)

  Part B

  52.Direction:study the following picture carefully and write an essay of about 200 words.In the essay you should

  1)interpret the picture's meaning

  2)give your comments on the phenomenon

  3)give your suggestions to solve the problem

  SectionⅠUse of English

  1Aassumed

  根据题意,“早期的科学家,假定非人类动物的社会生活几乎完全是天生的,或是由遗传决定的”,assume多用于未证实的假定;adopt意为“采用,接受”;believe意为“相信”;surmise意为“猜测,推测”,相当于“guess”。如:She surmised as much.她如此猜测。

  2Cconsiderable

  considerate意为“体谅的,为别人着想的”;considered意为“经过考虑的,被尊重的”;considerable意为“相当多的,可观的”;considering意为“就……而论”。显然A、B、D项意思不符。

  3Bstatuses

  statue意为“雕像、塑像”;status意为“身份、地位”;statute意为“成文法,法规”;stature意为“身材,身高”。由句意,A、C、D项很容易被排除。

  4AWhat's more

  上一段提到“学习是动物的社会生活的一部分”,第二段接着讲“学习发生在动物小时候的印象中期”,两段间不存在递进(What's more)或因果(Hence)关系。而but表转折时,一般不与句子分开,所以A项What's more为最佳答案。

  5Anot

  根据上下文,“印象”不是天生的,而是经过学习得到的。

  6Aclarifies

  A项clarify“使清楚,阐明”。B项classify“分类,使……成为机密”。C项define“下定义,界定”。D项outline“画轮廓,作大纲”。

  原文的意思是“一个例证很好地阐明了‘印象'的本质”。所以A项clarifies最适合题意。

  7Dafter

  shortly after为固定词组,意思是“……之后立即”。

  8Aon

  fix on为固定搭配,意思是“选定”。

  例如:I've fixed on a little house near Paris.我已选定了巴黎附近的一间小房子。

  9Bsubstituted

  substituted A for B,意思是“用A代替B”。

  这句话是说“如果在‘印象'发生时,用篮球或公文包代替母鸭,小鸭子也许会跟随它们。”

  appropriate意为“拨作(款项等)供专用”,如:10, 000 dollars have been appropriated for the new school building. (已拨款)1万美元为建新校舍之用。

  10Daltered

  A项vary“变化,使不同(强调范围变化)”,多用在“vary from…to…”中。B项deviate“越出正轨,违反”。C项differ“使相异”。D项alter“改变,更改”,相当于change.

  11Afashioned

  fashion在这里作动词,意为“构成,做成……形状”。如:fashion a lump of clay into a bowl用粘土塑成碗。

  12Cmust

  这里考查的是情态动词。由蜜蜂的例子可以看出,甚至在昆虫之中,类似“印象”的东西也必然影响着其他社会行为,may、should、can的语气均不如must强。

  13Aby

  by instinct为固定用法,意思是“出于本能”。

  例如:Birds learn to fly by instinct.鸟靠本能学会飞行。

  14Bmake

  make在这里的意思是“变为,证明为”,例如:He will make her a good husband.他将成为她的好丈夫。

  这句话的意思是说“大猩猩通常会成为很好的母亲。”

  15Deven

  otherwise意为“在不同情况下,在其他方面”。例如:

  The rent is high, but otherwise the house is satisfactory.租金很贵,但在其他方面,这座房子还令人满意。

  16Donly

  A项only child为固定用法,意思是“独生子”。

  17Ccared

  cared for意思是“关心,照料”。look for“寻找”。

  attend一般与on/upon连用,意思是“看护,照料”,例如:

  She has three servants attending upon her.她有三个仆人伺候。

  provide for“准备,扶养”。例如:He has a large family to provide for.他有一大家子要养。

  provide for作“扶养”时,多指提供食物,所以四个选项中,只有C项最合题意。

  18Dlead

  lead sb. to do sth.意思是“领导……的行动和意见;影响,引诱”。例如:

  What led you to this conclusion? 什么使你下这个结论?

  I'm led to believe his words.某些事实使我相信他所说的。

  19Cdoubt

  A项beyond limitation“超出限制范围,不受限制”。B项beyond imagination“不可想像”。C项beyond doubt“不容置疑”。D项beyond expectation“出乎意料”。

  这句话的意思是“母子之间的联系是毫无疑问的”,所以C项doubt为最佳选择。

  20Dsuggest

  advise意为“建议”;hint, imply意为“暗示”;suggest意为“表明,显示”。

  如:Your wheezing breathing suggests asthma.你的哮喘显示你可能患哮喘病。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  词语注释

  woe痛苦slippage下滑

  contraction缩减temper缓解

  文章概要

  本文主要讲欧洲三大国的经济现状。

  Para.1:新数据显示欧洲经济状况比预测的要好。

  Para.2:通货膨胀率下降。

  Para.3-4:失业率居高不下,经济增长率过低,财政赤字增大。

  答案点评

  21B由第一段第一句:从法国等国获得的新数据表明,对欧洲大陆的经济危机的预测可能有所夸大,A项“来自于三个欧洲国家的新数据显示预测者们的预测是完全正确的”与题意不符,B项“欧洲经济的进展比预测者们的预测要好些”显然符合题意。C项说“all of the forecasters”则与文中“Forecasters had generally expected”不符,过于绝对。D项中指三个欧洲国家的消费情况,文中则仅谈到France,所以D项错误。

  22C这个短语的意思可由第一段乃至全文的意思推导出来。注意:这是一道词汇题,在解这类题时,要向上或向下最接近本词的地方寻找答案,它正是包含在你对文章的正确理解中。根据我们知道的欧洲大陆正面临着经济危机的情况A、D必然不是正确选项,而B说“正在经历一场大的转折”则较笼统,并且文中并未表示这层含义,所以只能选C.

  23A如第三段所说,“德国作为欧洲最大的经济国,其新的区域价格指数在一定程度上安抚了人们对于通货膨胀的恐惧。”这是欧洲中央银行直到“9.11”袭击几天之后才决定降低利率的一个关键原因。因此A项说“ECB不愿降低利率的原因是期望通货膨胀可以降低”是正确的。C项错在“directly”,油价下跌只是部分原因。

  24C对这一词的理解要从下面的叙述中寻找答案,意大利的失业率从6月份的9.6%降低到9.4%恰恰说明了就业市场的景象是活跃的,有希望的。因此选C项。

  25D在最后一段中,工业集团Confindustria做出警告:“对美国的袭击意味着今年的经济增长将为1.9%,远远低于政府的2.4%的目标,而预算赤字可能为1.5%,几乎比意大利政府向欧共体伙伴所作保证的0.8%高出一倍”。D项“预算赤字可能与这个国家的承诺大不相同”是最符合题意的。

  Text 2

  词语注释

  marijuana n.大麻terrorist attack恐怖袭击

  random adj.随机的prior to在……之前

  imbibe v.喝;吸取traumatic adj.创伤的

  depression n.抑郁,忧郁displace v.替换,转移

  panic attack惊慌失措demographic adj.人口统计学的

  marital status婚姻状况

  文章概要

  本文主要介绍了9.11事件后,曼哈顿居民吸烟、喝酒以及吸食大麻的比例有所上升,从而表现出9.11事件增加了人们的焦虑感和不安全感。

  答案点评

  26. A文章第一段介绍说,9·11事件后,吸烟、喝酒以及吸食大麻的比例有所上升。其中,The largest increase was in alcohol use.(其中增加最快的是喝酒现象)。

  27. C文章第二段的开头说,The investigators found survey participants by randomly dialing New York City phone numbers and screened potential respondents for Manhattan residents living in areas close to the World Trade Center.研究人员先是随机地抽取纽约的电话号码,然后只挑选了那些曼哈顿岛上,住所离世界贸易中心比较近的居民。

  28. D文中调查的目的在于揭示9·11事件对人们生活习惯的细节影响,从而揭示出人们焦虑感的增加和不安全感的增加。

  29. BB的说法和文章第三段的内容一致Persons who were living closer to the World Trade Center were more likely to increase their cigarette smoking(住在世贸大厦附近的人更可能会增加吸烟的数量)。

  30. B文章最后一段说,Increase in substance abuse did not differ significantly between men and women or among racial or ethnic groups. (性别和种族的差别,在是否增加喝酒、吸烟和吸毒的数量上,不起作用;也就是说,是否多喝酒多抽烟,和性别种族无关。)

  Text 3

  词语注释

  entrepreneur n.企业家yield n.产量,收益

  Mcdonald's麦当劳(一种快餐)Hamburg汉堡包

  allocation n.分配,分派,配给venture n.商业冒险,投机

  maverick n.自行其是的人,持异见者agressively adv.有进取心地,敢作敢为地

  saturate v.使饱和;浸透,渗透competency等同于competence n.能力,胜任

  introverted a.内向的analytical a.分析的,解析的

  extroverted a.外向的

  文章概要

  本文是一篇关于entrepreneur的科普性文章。

  Para.1:列举了关于“企业家”的几种定义并做出结论。

  Para.2:以Ray Kroc为例进一步说明什么是“企业家”。

  Para.3:专业人士与企业家的比较。

  Para.4:介绍企业家的主要特征。

  答案点评

  31C要想成为一个“entrepreneur”,必须具备三个条件:①他必须能有利于资源的有效配置并使自己有所得;②他必须是一位创业者;③他必须冒风险。答案A中的CEO,只是首席执行官,并不一定是一位创业者;B中的老板也不一定是创业者;D中的销售商也不一定是创业者。对于答案C,有人可能会提出这样的疑问,就是此人没有营利,但事实上他并不是没有营利,只是在长期的经营过程中出现了财务问题。他的创业是成功的。

  32C理由同第一题所提到的三个条件。

  33B文中第四段提到“entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors,”“Some qualities many of them share. Viewing change as the norm”,所以一个“entrepreneur”,并不一定要是“extroverted”,也不能认为“change is not norm”,而是要抓住机遇。所以,A、C错,B对。至于D,文中并没有说J.B.Say是给entrepreneur定义的第一人,因此D也错误。

  34B此题迷惑性很强,可以说A、B、C、D都不错。但本文从文体来看,是一篇介绍什么是entrepreneur的科普性文章。开始说J.B.Say的定义只是文章的一个引子,并不是作者的写作意图;谈到Ray Kroc只是举了一个成功的例子;而怎样才能成为一个创业者,更是需要有心的读者自己去学习了。最能表达作者写作意图的还是B.

  35A文章最后说:“Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.”但并没有例子证明,怎样使用其创造力、经验和信心,所以A最合适,而B、C、D都没有什么明显的标志表明会被讲到。

  Text 4

  词语注释

  weld锻焊,焊接(金属物)infiltrate渗透,透入

  capsule蒴果;胶囊sculpture雕塑,雕刻

  banish放逐,排除smash(使)粉碎,破碎

  superimpose将某物置于另一物上(尤指后者仍可见,可闻)overlap重叠,重合,重复

  canvas帆布,画布obsessive萦绕于心的,有执着想法的

  monotony单调,乏味,无聊

  文章概要

  本文主要介绍现代科技中新材料的出现和使用原材料的新方法的运用对艺术创造的影响。

  Para.1:举例说明现代科技中新材料和新方法的出现为艺术带来广阔的发展机会。

  Para.2:以超现实主义为例,说明科学对艺术的影响。

  Para.3:科学与艺术的影响是相互的。

  答案点评

  36.C本文是讲现代科技中新材料的出现和使用原有材料的新方法的运用对艺术创造的影响。A项reproductions of modern technology(现代技术的复制品)过于广泛,不合原文;B项文中没有提及;D项the material world(物质世界)过于广泛,不合原文;C项最符合文意,故选C.本题各选项中分别使用了文中出现过的modern、technology、scientifically、material等词,具有很强的迷惑性。

  37.A根据题意,该题是关于welding techniques(焊接技术)的,可以在第一段后半部分找到相关内容。B项和C项指的是新材料的作用而不是焊接技术的作用;D项artists与文意不合;A项说明焊接技术对雕刻艺术的影响,与题意相符,故选A.

  38.D该题是关于Freud's studies的,因此可以从第二段找到相关内容。A项than any other有误,太绝对了;B项other scientific inventions应改为recent art;C项意为“导致了超现实主义”,不合题意;D项符合文意,应选D.

  39.B本题是关于Surrealists的,可以在第二段找到相关内容。A项diminish(减少)与原文中的banish(排除、有意忘却)意思不符,不可选;C项意思是“可以将现实存在转换成不连贯的梦境”,与原文中的第二段第三句不一致;D项意思是“他们想用直接的表达方式取代片断性的想象”,与文意完全相反;B项意思是“他们试图表达他们的潜意识世界”,subconscious(潜意识)与文中的unconscious(无意识)相近,符合题意,故选B.

  40.D此题考查的是对句意的理解。这句话的意思是“但这几乎从来就不是单行道”。联系上下文,这句话是说明科学与艺术之间的影响不是单方面的,而是相互的。A项和B项的说法都是单方面的,不全面;C项意思是艺术家可以成为科学家,科学家也可以成为艺术家,理解有;D项的mutual一词意思是“相互的”,正确表达了句意,故选D.

  Part B

  答案解析

  41.C由上文可知,艾斯圭尔镇爆出一个令人震动的消息,即该地蕴含金矿。那么此处根据行为逻辑,应讲述该地居民反对这片净土成为淘金城。

  42.G上文说艾斯圭尔获得了环保团体的关注,而G项正是对此的顺承,即这个小镇成了关于自然资源的开发与保存的争论焦点。

  43.A上文讲了艾斯圭尔的丰富资源,下文又提及Meridian的计划,从备选项来看A项的Meridian,gets its open-pit gold mine outside Esquel 都与上下文呼应,有较强的提示作用。

  44.D上文讲的是人们要求保护生态环境的态度,而下文讲的是落叶柏的渊源可知此处的内容也应与环境保护有关。D项的内容正是知名人士保护环境的措施。

  45.F上文讲的是阿根廷被迫修订了矿业法令以促进外商投资,F项正是顺承其意,指出矿业公司因此而得到的优惠政策。

  文章大意:阿根廷巴塔哥尼亚一小镇艾斯圭尔因发现金矿而成为焦点,人们面临着生态环境保护与自然资源开发之间的决择。环保人士和民众强烈要求保护珍贵的生态环境,然而面临采矿业的危机和外国压力,阿根廷政府处境尴尬。

  Part C

  参考译文

  46.在某种程度上,现在的多次婚姻潮是70年代离婚高潮的副作用,因为大量的离婚导致单身人数的激增。

  47.离过一次婚并不能够阻碍罗纳德·里根或鲍勃·都谋求最令人注目的工作——美国总统之职——但是现在社会仍然会对一次以上的婚姻失误表示反感。

  48.一生中有三次或更多的婚姻,“从个人角度看仍让人难堪,但是越来越为大众所接受了。”

  49.一些专家认为多次婚姻这一趋势说明美国人的责任感滑落了。

  50.相反,第二次和第三次的婚姻与第一次婚姻一样冒险,甚至会有更多风险,今天大约有四成这样的婚姻失败,而且它们往往结束得更快。

  Section Ⅲ  Writing

  参考作文

  Part A

  51.Dear Mary,

  I've been back this morning. What a tiring but exciting trip.

  JiuZhaigou is an excellent place and really worth going. The tour guide led us visited several traveling sites, which made us feet like in heaven. The most wonderful site is the Huohuahai Lake. The water there was so clear that we could see different colors of stones at the bottom, as if the water didn't exist except for the pure blue. We also visited the waterfall which was found scene by the famous TV play “Xiyouji ”。

  How are you at present? Is anything coming along successfully? Don't be so occupied with your work, try a little bit to relax yourself. I'm planning to a tour in ZhangJiajie next year. It is said to be another wonderful place to visit. I hope you could go together with me to share the happiness. Please write back to let me know your idea.

  Yours Truly,

  Jane

  September 24th, 2004

  Part B

  52

  Be Kind to Our Mother Earth

  This depiction is to some extent a heartrending dramatization of our present life. Skyscrapers stand in clusters, and trees lining on both sides of the street are all made of artificial materials. Mankind's dwelling place on earth no longer looks green, but is in the colour of gray.

  Are we still living in a natural world? Definitely not! With the steps of modernization and mechanization, the serene poetic life of former times has vanished. Vast green pastures are replaced by factories belching out columns of thick smoke; rivers once teemed with all kinds of fishes are now polluted by sewage water. In addition to that, environmental pollution has given rise to a number of serious problems, such as the extinction of some species of animals owing to the desertification, the greenhouse effect owing to the depletion of ozone layer, and the dwindling away of fresh water. Mother earth is the only home we live in. Therefore, she exists more for our protection than for our destruction. Supposing our planet is a vessel made of cake, and it is going to carry us across the ocean to the other side, namely, the paradise. Could we gnaw a hole in the cake-vessel and still sail across the ocean safe and sound? On the contrary, my friends, we will get drowned.

  Now it is high time that measures be taken to counter the negative effects of modernization. The strategy of sustainable development has been launched, but this is not enough, because it is each citizen's business to be kind to our mother earth.

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