We can make mistakes at any age. Some mistakes we make are about money. But most mistakes are about people. Did Jerry really care when I broke up with Helen？ When I got that great job, did Jim really feel good about it, as a friend？ Or did he envy my luck？ And Paul-why didn't pick up that he was friendly just because I had a car？ When we look back, doubts like these can make us feel bad. But when we look back, it's too late.
Why do we go wrong about our friends-or our enemies？ Sometimes what people say hides their real meaning. And if we don't really listen we miss the feeling behind the words. Suppose someone tells you, You're a lucky dog. That's being friendly. But lucky dog？ There's a bit of envy in those words. Maybe he doesn't see it himself. But bringing in the dog bit puts you down a little. What he may be saying is that the doesn't think you deserve your luck.
Just think of all the things you have to be thankful foris another noise that says one thing and means another. It could mean that the speaker is trying to get you to see your problem as part of your life as a whole. But is he？ Wrapped up in this phrase is the thought that your problem isn't important. It's telling you to think of all the starving people in the world when you haven't got a date for Saturday night.
How can you tell the real meaning behind someone's words？ One way is to take a good look at the person talking. Do his words fit the way he looks？ Does what he says agree with the tone of voice？ His posture（姿态）？ The look in his eyes？ Stop and think. The minute you spend thinking about the real meaning of what people to you may save another mistake.
26. This passage is mainly about 。
A）how to interpret what people say
B）what to do when you listen to others talking
C）how to avoid mistakes when you communicate with people
D）Why we go wrong with people sometimes
27. According to the author, the reason why we go wrong about our friends is that 。
A）We fail to listen carefully when they talk
B） People tend to be annoyed when we check what they say
C）People usually state one thing but means another
D）We tend to doubt what our friends say
28. In the sentence Maybe he doesn't see it himself. in the second paragraph, the pronoun it refers to.
A） being friendly C） lucky dog B） a bit of envy D） your luck
29. When we listen to a person talking, the most important thing for us to do is 。
A）notice the way the person is talking
B）take a good look at the person talking
C）mind his tone, his posture and the look in his eyes
D）examine the real meaning of what he says based on his manner, his tone and his posture
30. The author most probably is a 。
A） teacher C） philosopher B） psychologist D） doctor
A moment's drilling by the dentist may make us nervous and upset. Many of us cannot stand pain. To avoid the pain of a drilling that may last perhaps a minute or two, we demand theneedle- a shot of novocaine （奴佛卡因）-that deadens the nerves around the tooth.
Now it's true that the human body has developed its millions of nerves to be highly aware of what goes on both inside and outside of it. This helps us adjust to the world. Without our nerves - and our brain, which is a bundle of nerves - we wouldn't know what's happening. But we pay for our sensitivity. We can feel pain when the slightest thing is wrong with any part of our body. The history of torture is based on the human body being open to pain.
But there is a way to handle pain. Look at the Indian fakir（行僧）who sits on a bed of nails. Fakirs can put a needle right through an arm, and feel no pain. This ability that some humans have developed to handle pain should give us ideas about how the mind can deal with pain.
The big thing in withstanding pain is our attitude toward it. If the dentist says, This will hurt a little, it helps us to accept the pain. By staying relaxed, and by treating the pain as an interesting sensation（感觉）, we can handle the pain without falling apart. After all, although pain is an unpleasant sensation, it is still a sensation, and sensations are the stuff of life.
31. The passage is mainly about 。
A） how to suffer pain B） how to avoid pain
C） how to handle pain D） how to stop pain
32. The sentence But we pay for our sensitivity. in the second paragraph implies that 。
A）we should pay a debt for our feeling
B）we have to be hurt when we feel something
C）our pain is worth feeling
D）when we feel pain, we are suffering it
33. When the author mentions the Indian fakir, he suggests that 。
A）Indians are not at all afraid of pain
B）people may be senseless of pain
C）some people are able to handle pain
D）fakirs have magic to put needles right through their arms
34. the most important thing to handle pain is 。
A） how we look at pain B） to feel pain as much as possible
C） to show an interest in pain D） to accept the pain reluctantly
35. The author's attitude towards pain is 。
A） pessimistic B） optimistic C） radical （极端的） D） practical
Thirty-two people watched kitty Genovese being killed right beneath their windows. She was their neighbor. Yet none of the 32 helped her. Not one even called the police. Was this in gunman cruelty？ Was it lack of feeling about one's fellow man？
Not so, say scientists John Barley and Bib Fatane. These men went beyond the headlines to probe the reasons why people didn't act. They found that a person has to go through two steps before he can help. First he has to notice that is an emergency.
Suppose you see a middle-aged man fall to the side-walk. Is he having a heart attack？ Is he in a coma （昏迷） from diabetes（糖尿病）？ Or is he about to sleep off a drunk？
Is the smoke coming into the room from a leak in the air conditioning？ Is itsteam pipes？ Or is it really smoke from a fire？ It's not always easy to tell if you are faced with a real emergency.
Second, and more important, the person faced with an emergency must feel personally responsible. He must feel that he must help, or the person won't get the help he needs.
The researchers found that a lot depends on how many people are around. They had college students in to betested. Some came alone. Some came with one or two others. And some came in large groups. The receptionist started them off on thetests. Then she went into the next room. A curtain divided thetesting roomand the room into which she went. Soon the students heard a scream, the noise of file cabinets falling and a cry for help. All of this had been pre-recorded on a tape-recorder.
Eight out of ten of the students taking the test alone acted to help. Of the students in pairs, only two out of ten helped. Of the students in groups, none helped.
In other words, in a group, Americans often fail to act. They feel that others will act. They, themselves, needn't. They do not feel any direct responsibility.
Are people bothered by situations where people are in trouble？ Yes. Scientists found that the people were emotional, they sweated, they had trembling hands. They felt the other person's trouble. But they did not act. They were in a group. Their actions were shaped by the actions of those they were with.
36. The purpose of this passage is 。
A） to explain why people fail to act in emergencies
B） to explain when people wil act in emergencies
C） to explain what people will do in emergencies
D） to explain how people feel in emergencies
37. Which of the following is NOT true？
A） When a person tries to help others, he must be clear that there is a real emergency.
B） When a person tries to help others, he should know whether hey are worth his help.
C） A person must take the full responsibility for the safety of those in emergencies if he wants to help.
D） A person with a heart attack needs the most.
38. The researchers have conducted an experiment to prove that people will act in emergencies when 。
A） they are in pairs B） they are in groups
C） they are alone D） they are with their friends
39. The main reason why people fail to act when they stay together is that 。
A） they are afraid of emergencies
B） they are reluctant to get themselves involved
C） others will act if they themselves hesitate
D） they do not have any direct responsibility for those who need help
40. The author suggests that 。
A） we shouldn't blame a person if he fails to act in emergencies
B） a person must feel guilty if he fails to help
C） people should be responsible for themselves in emergencies
D） when you are in trouble, people will help you anyway
People do not analyze every problem they meet. Sometimes they try to remember a solution from the last time they had a similar problem. They often accept the opinions or ideas of other people. Other times they begin to act without thinking； they try to find a solution by trial and error. However, when all these methods fail, the person with a problem has to start analyzing. There are six stages in analyzing a problem.
First the person must recognize that there is a problem. For example, Sam's bicycle is broken, and he cannot read it to class as he usually does. Sam must see that there is a problem with his bicycle.
Next the thinker must define the problem. Before Sam can repair his bicycle. he must find the reason why it does not work. For instance, he must determine if the problem is with the gears, the brakes, or the frame. He must make his problem more specific.
Now the person must look for information that will make the problem clearer and lead to possible solutions. For instance, suppose Sam decided that his bike does not work because there is something wrong with the gear wheels. At this time. he can look in his bicycle repair book and read about gears. He can talk to his friends at the bike shop. He can look at his gears carefully. after studying the problem, the person should have several suggestions for a possible solution. Take Sam as an illustration. His suggestions might be： put oil on the gear wheels； buy new gear wheels and replace the old ones； tighten or loosen the gear wheels.
Eventually one suggestion seems to be the solution to the problem. Sometimes the final idea comes very suddenly because the thinker suddenly sees something new or sees something in a new way. Sam, for example, suddenly sees that there is a piece of chewing gum（口香糖）between the gear wheels. He immediately realizes the solution to his problem： he must clean the gear wheels.
Finally the solution is tested. Sam cleans the gear wheels and finds that afterwards his bicycle works perfectly. In short, he has solved the problem.
41. What is the best title for this passage？
A） Six Stages for Repairing Sam's Bicycle
B） Possible Ways to Problem-solving
C） Necessities of Problem Analysis
D） Suggestions for Analyzing a Problem
42. In analyzing a problem we should do all the following except 。
A） recognize and define the problem
B） look for information to make the problem clearer
C） have suggestions for a possible solution
D） find a solution by trial or mistake
43. By referring to Sam's broken bicycle, the author intends to 。
A） illustrate the ways to repair his bicycle
B） discuss the problems of his bicycle
C） tell us how to solve a problem
D） show us how to analyses a problem
44. Which of the following is NOT true？
A） People do not analyze the problem they meet.
B） People often accept the opinions or ideas of other people.
C） People may learn from their past experience
D） People can not solve some problems they meet.
45. As used in the last sentence, the phrase in short means 。
A） in the long run B） in detail C） in a word D） in the end
The poverty line is the minimum income that people need for an acceptable standard of living. People with incomes below the poverty line are considered poor. Economists study the causes of poverty in order to find solutions to the problem.
As the general standard of living in the country rises, the poverty line does, too. Therefore, even with today's relatively high standard of living, about 10 percent of the people in the United States are below the poverty line. However, if these people had stable jobs, they could have an acceptable standard of living. Economists suggest several reasons why poor people do not have jobs.
For one thing, more than half of the poor people in the United States are not qualified to work. Over 40 percent of the poor people are children. By law, children less than 16 years old cannot work in many industries. A large number of poor people are old. Many companies do not hire people over 65 years old, the normal retirement age.
Some poor adults do not look for jobs for a variety of personal reasons： they are sick, they do not have any motivation（动力）。 they have family problems, or they do notbelieve that they can find a job.
Other poor people look for a job but cannot find one. Many poor adults never went to high school. Therefore, when they look for jobs, they have few skills that they can offer.
At the present time, the government thinks it can reduce poverty in the country in the following ways.
First, if the national economy grows, businesses and industries hire more workers. Some of the poor who are qualified to look for jobs may find employment. Then they will no longer be below the poverty line.
Second, if society invests in the poor, the poor will become more productive. If the government spends money on social programs, education, and training for poor people, the poor will have the skills to offer. Then it is more likely that they can find jobs.
Finally, if the government distributes society's income differently, it raises some poor people above the poverty line. The government collects taxes from the non-poor and gives money to the poor. These payments to the poor are called welfare. In 1975 over 18 million people in the United States received welfare.
Some economists are looking for better solutions to the poverty problem. However, at the present time, many people depend on welfare for a minimally acceptable standard of living.
46. The author's main purpose to write this article is 。
A） to define what the poverty line is
B） to explain why some people live the poverty line
C） to find solutions to the problem of poverty
D） to show sympathy for those poor people
47. Which of the following is NOT true？
A） Ten percent of the Americans live a poor life.
B） Poor people are those who love below the poverty line.
C） The poverty line rises as the general standard of living rises.
D） The poverty line tends to be at the same level.
48. More than 40 percent of the poor people are children. This is mainly because 。
A） they do not have enough motivation
B） they are so young that they are deprived of chances to work
C） they fail to get enough education
D） they are very poor in health
49. Most of the American poor people are not qualified for employment because 。
A） they to not have any motivation to work
B） they are not very self-confident
C） they are too young or too old to work
D） they have physical and family problems
50. We may conclude from the passage that 。
A） better solutions to the poverty problem are not yet found
B） welfare will enable people to be rich
C） poor people are bound to go out of the poverty line if they have chances to do business
D） employment is the best solution to the poverty problem
参 考 答 案
1.C 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.B
1.C 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.B
1.B 2.C 3.C 4.D 5.A
1.B 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.C
1.C 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.A