• 站内搜索:

2006年研究生英语命题预测试卷(1)及答案

2006-6-3 19:04  

  SectionⅠ Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points )

  Among the devastating consequences of AIDS has 1 its epidemic spread in the developing world. The disease has caused 2 suffering, debilitation, loss of life and disruption of family, social and economic 3. Because of the considerable expense and logistical difficulty in providing antiviral drugs to populations 4 with the human immunodeficiency virus 5 the world, the biomedical community is looking towards vaccines to help solve this compelling problem.

  The search for an AIDS vaccine began more than 15 years ago with great 6 and high expectations. With the 7 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of AIDS, it seemed that a 8 would follow closely behind. But despite a large concerted effort, the problem has proven more difficult than 9, and progress has not 10 the 11 hopes. Here I review the 12 scientific obstacles confronting the development of an effective HIV vaccine, and I consider 13 strategies to overcome these obstacles.

  It is instructive to consider the circumstances that have 14 to past successes in vaccine development. The smallpox vaccine is 15 the most successful inventions in the history of 16. Why, 200 years ago, without the benefit of modern biotechnology, did the smallpox vaccine succeed so readily while an AIDS vaccine 17 elusive? The answer lies in an experiment of nature that provided, to an astute observer, a clear direction for smallpox vaccine development. In this classic story of 18 discovery, Edward Jennet noticed that milk maids who had previously contracted cowpox were 19 to smallpox infection. This observation was the critical event leading to the finding that the cowpox virus cross-reacted immunologically with the smallpox virus and could 20 be used to protect against smallpox.

  1. A. on   B. with   C. been   D. about

  2. A. unpredicted   B. uncontrollable   C. unimaginable   D. unprecedented

  3. A. stability   B. instability   C. permanency   D. soundness

  4. A. harmed   B. infected   C. infectious   D. infectable

  5. A. everywhere   B. throughout   C. devastating   D. occupying

  6. A. difficulty   B. concern   C. optimism   D. pessimism

  7. A. confirmation   B. identification   C. information   D. precaution

  8. A. cure   B. capsule   C. medication   D. vaccine

  9. A. ever   B. anticipated   C. possible   D. necessary

  10. A. surpassed   B. out-balanced   C. matched   D. rivaled

  11. A. origin   B. initial   C. great   D. modest

  12. A. majority   B. primary   C. principal   D. premier

  13. A. potential   B. initiative   C. practical   D. existing

  14. A. lead   B. caused   C. contributed   D. cooperated

  15. A. by far   B. till now   C. among   D. considered

  16. A. vaccine   B. medicine   C. smallpox   D. AIDS

  17. A. slowly   B. fails   C. remains   D. counts

  18. A. accidental   B. importanc   C. scientific   D. vaccine

  19. A. vulnerable   B. resistant   C. opposing   D. defendant

  20. A. safely   B. therefore   C. as well   D. possibly

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark you answers on ANSWER SHEETⅠ。(40 points)

  Text 1

  On an average of six times a day, a doctor in Holland practices “active” euthanasia: intentionally administering a lethal drug to a terminally ill patient who has asked to be relieved of suffering. Twenty times a day, life-prolonging treatment is withheld or withdrawn when there is no hope that it can effect an ultimate cure. “Active” euthanasia remains a crime on the Dutch statute books punishable by 12 years in prison. But a series of court cases over the past 15 years has made it clear that a competent physician who carries it out will not be prosecuted.

  Euthanasia, often called “mercy killing”, is a crime everywhere in Western Europe. But more and more doctors and nurses in Britain, West Germany, Holland and elsewhere readily admit to practicing it, most often in the “passive” form of withholding or withdrawing treatment. The long simmering euthanasia issue has lately boiled over into a sometimes fierce public debate, with both sides claiming the mantle of ultimate righteousness. Those opposed to the practice see themselves up-holding sacred principles of respect for life, while those in favor raise the banner of humane treatment. After years on the defensive, the advocates now seem to be gaining ground. Recent polls in Britain show that 72 percent of British subjects favor euthanasia in some circumstances. An astonishing 76 percent of respondents to a poll taken late last year in France said they would like the law changed to decriminalize mercy killings.

  Reasons for the latest surge of interest in euthanasia are not hard to find. Europeans, like Americans, are now living longer. The average European male now lives to the age of 72, women to almost 80. As Derek Humphrey, a leading British advocate of “rational euthanasia” says, “lingering chronic diseases have replaced critical illnesses as the primary cause of death.”

  And so the euthanasists have begun to press their case with greater force. They argue that every human being should have the right to “die with dignity”, by which they usually mean the right to escape the horrors of a painful or degrading hospitalization. Most advocates of voluntary euthanasia has argued that the right to die should be accorded only to the terminally and incurably ill, but the movement also includes a small minority who believe in euthanasia for anyone who rationally decides to take his own life.

  That right is unlikely to get legal recognition any time in the near future. Even in the Netherlands, the proposals now before Parliament would restrict euthanasia to a small number of cases and would surround even those with elaborate safeguards.

  21.According to Paragraph 1, which of the following is not true?

  A.“Active”euthanasia is regarded as a crime by Dutch law.

  B.The doctor who carried out euthanasia will be charged.

  C.An unqualified doctor carrying out euthanasia will be accused.

  D.“Active”euthanasia executives will be sentenced to 12 years imprisonment.

  22.Euthanasia is often called“mercy killing”, which implies that .

  A.people should show sympathy for a terminally ill patient

  B.some doctors murder patients shielding themselves from mercy

  C.humane treatment to dying patients should be required

  D.the dying patients are suffering from the pain and they don't want to live on

  23.Most advocates of voluntary euthanasia hold the opinion that .

  A.only terminally ill patients can have euthanasia

  B.if anyone who rationally decides to end his life, he can have euthanasia

  C.people should respect for life

  D.no matter what punishment they get, they'll carry out euthanasia to patients

  24.The author's attitudes towards euthanasia is .

  A.positive  B.negative  C.objective  D.uncertain

  25.In Paragraph 2, “boiled over” means .

  A.burst(into)     B.make the water hot enough to boil

  C.cause great anger  D.fight one another

  Text 2

  Bank of America, holding company for the San Francisco-based Bank of America, was once unchallenged as the nation's biggest banking organization. At its peak, it had more branches in California, 1,100 than the U.S. Postal Service. It was also a highly profitable enterprise. But since 1980, Bank of America's earnings have been down or flat. From March 1985 to March 1986, for example, earnings per share dropped 50.8 percent. Samuel H. Armacost, president and CEO, has confessed that he doesn't expect a turnaround soon.

  Some of Bank of America's old magic seems to have rubbed off on New York's Citibank, perennial rival for top banking honors. Thanks to aggressive growth policies, Citicorp's assets topped Bank of America's for the first time in 1983 and by a healthy margin. Citibank has also been generating profits at a fast clip, enabling it to spend lavishly on campaigns to enter new markets-notably Bank of America's turf in California.

  The bad times Bank of America is currently facing are partly the result of the good times the bank enjoyed earlier. Based in a large and populous state and operating in a regulated environment, Bank of America thrived. Before deregulation, banks could not compete by offering savers a higher return, so they competed with convenience. With a branch at every crossroads, Bank of America was able to attract 40 percent of the California deposit market a source of high earnings when the legal maximum payable to depositors was much lower than the interest on loans.

  The progressive deregulation of banking forced Bank of America to fight for its customers by offering them competitive rates. But how could this mammoth bureaucracy, with its expensive overhead, offer rates as attractive as its loaner competitors? Pruning the establishment was foremost in the minds of Bank of America policymakers. But cutbacks have proceeded slowly. Although the bank is planning to consolidate by offering full services only in key branches, so far only about 40 branches have been closed. Cutbacks through attrition have reduced the work force from 83,000 to fewer than 73,000; wholesale layoffs, it seems, would not fit the tradition of the organization. And they would intensify the morale problems that already threaten the institution.

  26According to the passage, New York's Citibank .

  A.is a dark horse in the field of banking

  B.has been growing in a moderate way

  C.has been making efforts to conquer the markets of Bank of America

  D.has more branches than Bank of America now

  27Which of the following is NOT the reason for which Bank of America thrived?

  A.It's turf California was a state with a large number of population.

  B.The economic environment that was controlled by the government.

  C.Its deposit rate was higher than that of other banks.

  D.Its large amount of branches.

  28The phrase “mammoth bureaucracy” in Paragraph 4 refers to .

  A.its expensive overhead  B.its large amount of branches

  C.its long history     D.corruption of its leaders

  29Now the most important factor for a bank to win in competition seems to be .

  A.higher deposit rate   B.flexibility of capital

  C.high banking honors  D.support of the government

  30Which of the following conclusions can't be drawn from the passage?

  A.The U.S. Postal Service had less than 1,100 branches in California a few decades before.

  B.The profit of the Bank of America has been reducing since the 1980s.

  C.The prospect of the Bank of America is not quite promising.

  D.Moral problem is also a factor that leads to the decline of the Bank of America.

  Text 3

  Volcanic fire and glacial ice are natural enemies. Eruptions at glaciated volcanoes typically destroy ice fields, as they did in 1980 when 70 of Mount Saint Helens ice cover was demolished. During long dormant intervals, glaciers gain the upper hand cutting deeply into volcanic cones and eventually reducing them to rubble. Only rarely do these competing forces of heat and cold operate in perfect balance to create a phenomenon such as the steam caves at Mount Rainier National Park.

  Located inside Rainier's two ice-filled summit craters, these caves form a labyrinth of tunnels and vaulted chambers about one and one-half miles in total length. Their creation depends on an unusual combination of factors that nature almost never brings together in one place. The cave-making recipe calls for a steady emission of volcanic gas and heat, a heavy annual snowfall at an elevation high enough to keep it from melting during the summer, and a bowl-shaped crater to hold the snow.

  Snow accumulating yearly in Rainier's summit craters is compacted and compressed into a dense form of ice called firm, a substance midway between ordinary ice and the denser crystalline ice that makes up glaciers. Heat rising from numerous openings (called fumaroles) along the inner crater walls melts out chambers between the rocky walls and the overlying ice pack. Circulating currents of warm air then melt additional openings in the firm ice, eventually connecting the individual chambers and, in the larger of Rainier's the crater's, forming a continuous passageway the extends two-thirds of the Way around the crater's interior.

  To maintain the cave system, the elements of fire under ice must remain in equilibrium, enough snow must fill the crater each year to replace that melted from below. If too much volcanic heat is discharged, the crater's ice pack will melt away entirely and the caves will vanish along with the snows of yesteryear. If too little heat is produced, the ice, replenished annually by winter snowstorms, will expand, pushing against the enclosing crater walls and smothering the present caverns in solid firm ice.

  31.With what topic is the passage mainly concerned?

  A.The importance of snowfall for Mount Rainier.

  B.The steam caves of Mount Rainier's.

  C.How ice covers are destroyed.

  D.The eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980.

  32.According to the passage, long periods of volcanic inactivity can lead to a volcanic cone's .

  A.strong eruption  B.sudden growth

  C.destruction    D.unpredictability

  33.The second paragraph mentions all of the following as necessary elements in the creation of steam caves EXCEPT .

  A.a glacier B.a crater  C.heat  D.snow

  34.According to the passage, heat from Mount Rainier's summit craters rises from .

  A.crystalline ice  B.firms  C.chambers  D.fumaroles

  35.In the last line, “smothering” means .

  A.eliminate  B.enlarged  C.prevented  D.hollowed

  Text 4

  Languages will continue to diverge. Even if English were to become the universal language, it would still take many different forms. Indeed the same could happen to English as has happened to Chinese: a language of intellectuals which doesn't vary hugely alongside a large number of variants used by local peoples.

  We will continue to teach other languages in some form, and not just for reasons of practicality. Learning a language is good for your mental health; it forces you to understand another cultural and intellectual system. So I hope British education will develop a more rational approach to the foreign languages available to students in line with their political importance. Because so many people believe it's no longer important to know another language, I fear that time devoted to language teaching in schools may well continue to decline. But you can argue that learning another language well is more taxing than, say, learning to play chess well—it involves sensitivity to a set of complicated rules, and also to context.

  Technology will certainly make a difference to the use of foreign languages. Computers may, for instance, alleviate the drudgery that a vast translation represents. But no one who has seen a computer translation will think it can substitute for knowledge of the different languages. A machine will always be behind the times. Still more important is the fact that no computer will ever get at the associations beyond the words associations that may not be expressed but which carry much of the meaning. In languages like Arabic that context is very important. Languages come with heavy cultural baggage too—in French or German if you missed the cultural references behind a word you're very likely to be missing the meaning. It will be very hard to teach all that to a computer.

  All the predictions are that English will be spoken by a declining proportion of the world's population in the 21st century. I don't think foreign languages will really become less important, but they might be perceived to be—and that would in the end be a very bad thing.

  36.From the first paragraph we can infer that .

  AEnglish is the universal language

  BChinese would become the universal language

  CLanguages always take kinds of forms

  DEnglish has no variants, but Chinese does

  37.Which of the following is true?

  AIf a language is not good for practicality, we can drop it.

  BWe can understand another cultural and intellectual system by learning language.

  CTime devoted to language teaching has never declined.

  DWe should spend more time in learning language than playing chess.

  38.Why can't a computer translation substitute for knowledge of different languages? Because .

  Acomputers can alleviate much drudgery

  Bcomputer is always behind the times

  Ccomputer can't get the inner meaning of words

  Dcomputer has no sensation

  39.What does the author mean by “that would in the end be a very bad thing”?

  ALess and less people will use English.

  BForeign languages will become less important.

  CForeign languages will be perceived less important.

  DWe must realize the importance of foreign languages.

  40.Which is the best title of the passage?

  ALearning Foreign Languages.

  BLanguage Continuing to Diverge.

  CThe Limitation of Technology in Learning Foreign Language.

  DThe Inner Meaning of Words.

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

  Even some ardent conservationists acknowledge that the diversity of life on Earth cannot be fully sustained as human populations expand use more resources nudge the climate and move weedlike pests and predators from place to place.

  Given that some losses are inevitable, the debate among many experts has shifted to an uncomfortable subject—what level of loss is acceptable. The discussion is taking place at both the local and global levels.41)______________________________. And as global biodiversity diminishes, is it a valid fallback strategy to bank organisms and genes in zoos, DNA banks or the like, or does this simply justify more habitat destruction? 42)_________________________________________. Some conservation groups have strenuously avoided or even attacked such calculations and strategies. They say there is no safe diminution of habitat as long as human understanding of ecology is as sketchy as it is a fallback strategy is unthinkable. Furthermore banking nature in a deep freeze or database of gene sequences cannot capture context. 43)_____________________. On the other side of the debate those considering what the smallest viable habitats are or how to expand archives as an insurance policy say that recent trends have proved that old conservation strategies are no longer sufficient. 44)_____________________________.

  Twenty four years ago Dr. Thomas E. Lovejoy and other biologists began a remarkable experiment on the fast eroding fringe of rain forest near the Brazilian city of Manaus. They established 11 forest tracts ranging from 2.5 to 250 acres each surrounded by an isolating sea of pasture similar to what is advancing around most other tropical forests. Among the many findings an analysis published last week on birds in the lower layers of greenery found that it would take a fragment measuring at least 2 500 acres—10 times as large as the biggest one in the experiment—to prevent a decline of 50 percent in those bird varieties in just 15 years or so.

  45)____________________________________________________________.

  [A]For instance even if a vanished bird was someday reconstituted from its genes would it warble with the same fluency as its ancestors?

  [B]“we're better off trying to preserve the diversity of what we have rather than trying to regenerate it in the future.”

  [C]The San Diego Zoo has its parallel Frozen Zoo an archive of thousands of DNA samples and cell lines from a host of species.

  [D]Is nature on ice a sufficient substitute for the real thing?

  [E]How small can a fragment of an ecosystem be and still function in all its richness,and thus be considered preserved?

  [F]In the understated language of science the new study in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concludes “This is unfortunate when one considers that for some species rich areas of the planet a large proportion of remaining forest is in fragments smaller than 2500 acres.”

  [G]A few decades ago the issue seemed fairly uncomplicated identify biological “hot spots” or species of concern and establish as many reserves as possible. But the picture has grown murky.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  46)To avoid the various foolish opinions to which mankind is prong, no superhuman genius is required. A few simple rules will keep you, not from all error, but from silly error.

  If the matter is one that can be settled by observation, make the observation yourself. 47)Aristotle could have avoided the mistake of thinking that women have fewer teeth than men, by the simple device of asking Mrs Aristotle to keep her mouth open while he counted. He did not do so because he thought he knew. Thinking that you know when in fact you don't is a fatal mistake, to which we are all prone. I believe myself that hedgehogs eat black beetles, because I have been told that they do; but if I were writing a book on the habits of hedgehogs, I should not commit myself until I had seen one enjoying this unappetizing diet. Aristotle, however, was less cautious. Ancient and medieval authors knew all about unicorns and salamanders; not one of them thought it necessary to avoid dogmatic statements about them because he had never seen one of them.

  Many matters, however, are less easily brought to the test of experience. If, like most of mankind, you have occasional convictions on many such matters, there are ways in which you can make yourself aware of your own bias.48)If an opinion contrary to your own makes you angry, that is a sign that you are subconsciously aware of having no good reason for thinking as you do. If someone maintains that two and two are five, or that Iceland is on the equator, you feel pity rather than anger, unless you know so little of arithmetic or geography that his opinion shakes your own contrary conviction. The most savage controversies are those about matters as to which there is no good evidence either way. Persecution is used in theology, not in arithmetic, because in arithmetic there is knowledge, but in theology there is only opinion.49)So whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference of opinion, be on your guard; you will probably find, on examination, that your belief is going beyond what the evidence warrants.

  A good way of riding yourself of certain kinds of dogmatism is to become aware of opinions held in social circles different from your own. When I was young, I lived much outside my own country in France, Germany, Italy, and the United States. I found this very profitable in diminishing the intensity of insular prejudice.

  For those who have enough psychological imagination, it is a good plan to imagine an argument with a person having a different bias. This has one advantage, and only one, as compared with actual conversation with opponents; this one advantage is that the method is not subject to the same limitations of time and space. Mahatma Gandhi deplored railways and steamboats and machinery; he would have liked to undo the whole of the industrial revolution. You may never have an opportunity of actually meeting any one who holds this opinion, because in Western countries most people take the advantages of modern technique for granted. But if you want to make sure that you are right in agreeing with the prevailing opinion, you will find it a good plan to test the arguments that occur to you by considering what Gandhi might have said in refutation of them.50)I have sometimes been led actually to change my mind as a result of this kind of imaginary dialogue, and, short of this, I have frequently found myself growing less dogmatic and cocksure through realizing the possible reasonableness of a hypothetical opponent.

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51.Directions:

  Suppose you are a teacher who is going to give a lecture to freshmen on how to enjoy university life. You need to write a note before giving the lecture. The note should include:

  1)arrange your time properly

  2)keep harmony with roommates and classmates

  3)take an active part in societies

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  Part B

  52.Directions:

  study the following picture carefully and write an essay to

  1)describe the picture

  2)give your comments on the phenomenon

  3)suggest counter-measures

  参 考 答 案

  SectionⅠUse of English

  1. C.been

  has been表现在完成。其他选项构成的搭配会使整句结构不通。

  2. D.unprecedented

  史无前例的。艾滋病造成的损失并非无法控制或无法预测,也不是无法想像,只不过从前未曾有过这么大规模的损失。

  3. B.instability

  疾病导致社会、经济不稳定,与前面的生命损失、巨大灾害是并列关系。

  4. B.infected

  被感染的;infectious不能与with搭配。

  5. B.throughout

  throughout the world修饰populations;C、D项只能修饰virus,填入后会导致句子成分不完整。

  6. C.optimism

  乐观精神。由后文可知,开始研究时人们普遍比较乐观。

  7. B.identification

  确认了HIV是导致艾滋病的原体。寻找疫苗关键在于“确认”。

  8. D.vaccine

  看起来疫苗应该很容易发现。

  9. B.anticipated

  困难没有必要性、可能性的比较,只是比预料的要多。

  10. C.matched

  match sth.与某物相符合。寻找疫苗的结果令人失望,并不是因为没有超额完成,而是没有达到最初预想。

  11. B.initial

  最初的,事前的。结果令人失望,因为没有满足最初希望。

  12. C.principal

  主要技术上的障碍,principal表示“主要的,首要的。”

  13. A.potential

  潜在的解决问题的方法。因为解决方案还没有找到,所以只是潜在的,而不是最初的、实际的、或现有的。

  14. C.contributed

  有过促进作用的。环境对科学技术上的成功只能是一种促进而没有决定性作用。

  15. C.among

  此题所选的词应与后文复数inventions一致,既然是多个发现,只能是其中之一。

  16. B.medicine

  vaccine不会有什么系统的历史;AIDS与天花无关;用medicine:医学上的重要发现是这个题目的最佳选项。

  17. C.remains

  重要在于理解elusive“捉摸不定的,无法把握的”,所以应选remains.依然是不可捉摸(无法把握)。

  18. C.scientific

  classic story一般只对应于较为严肃的领域。

  19. B.resistant

  具有抵抗性的。

  20. B.therefore

  此空格前是充分理由因果关系,故填“therefore”所以。

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  词语注释

  lethal adj.致死的,致命的prosecute v.起诉,控诉

  mantle n.盖,罩,保护simmering adj.沸腾的,热烈的

  文章概要

  本文主要讲述了世界范围内安乐死的立法状况及社会对安乐死的看法。

  Para.1:安乐死在荷兰的状况。

  Para.2:世界上针对安乐死的不同观点的碰撞。

  Para.3:多数人支持安乐死的原因。

  Para.4:安乐死倡导者的主张。

  Para.5:目前安乐死尚未取得法律的支持。

  答案点评

  21B这是一道细节题。根据第一段表达的意思,实行安乐死在荷兰法律上是有罪的,但实际情况是,称职的执行“积极”安乐死术的医生是不会受到起诉的。故A、C、D表达的内容正确,选择B.

  22C这是一道推断题。根据第二段所表达的意思,“怜悯致死术”的主张者认为应高举人道对待病人的大旗,使病人无痛苦,体面地离开世界。A、B项则从“mercy killing”的表面含义来理解,故错误。D在文中没有提及,不能确定为正确答案。

  23A这是一道细节题。文中第四段说明了多数安乐死术倡导者主张,死亡权应只给那些晚期不治之症患者,故A符合其含义。B项只表达了主张安乐死的人中少数派的观点,不能代表全体。C项表达了反对安乐死的人的观点。D项则未在patients前加以限定,属明显错误。

  24C这是一道综合推断题。在全文中,作者只是非常客观地介绍了安乐死术的情况及其支持者和反对者的观点。没有渗入个人感情,故C正确。

  25A此为一道词汇猜测词。根据原句“The long simmering euthanasia issue has lately boiled over into a sometimes fierce public debate,…”判断出boiled over为“爆发了”之意。B项则使理解停留在词汇表面,未能深挖内涵。C、D项则偏离主题。

  Text 2

  词语注释

  turnaround转变

  perennial长期的

  lavish浪费的,滥用的

  turf地盘

  populous人口稠密的

  deregulation取消对……的管制

  mammoth巨大的

  bureaucracy官僚制度,官僚主义(架构)

  overhead日常开支

  attrition (人员)减少

  layoff临时解雇

  文章概要

  本文主要介绍了美国银行以前成功和现在面临困境的原因。

  Para.1:分别介绍美国银行1980年前和1980年后的情况。

  Para.2:花旗银行的兴起。

  Para.3:美国银行成功的原因是它有着庞大的分支机构来提供便利。

  Para.4:美国银行目前面临困难的原因。

  答案点评

  26C据文中表述纽约花旗银行是“perennial (长期的)rival for top banking honors”可见A中“a dark horse”不对。从第二段中“Thanks to aggressive growth policies”可知B中“moderate”一词不正确。D选项文中未提及,而且根据全文意思来推断,也是不太可能的。而选项C可由第二段最后一句推出。

  27C选项A、B、D都可在第三段中直接看出或推出,而根据第三段“Before deregulation, banks could not compete by offering savers a higher return”可见C有较高的存款利率是不可能的。

  28B在前文中指出,美国银行目前面临困境的原因也就是它过去成功的原因,而上一段表明它成功是由于有庞大的分支机构来提供便利,因此讲面临困难的原因时也是指过多的分支机构,这一点在下文中也可看出。

  29A从最后一段第一句“The progressive deregulation of banking forced Bank of America to fight for its customers by offering them competitive rates”可见利率在当前竞争中最为重要,至于B资金流动性、C良好声誉、D政府支持可能也是因素之一,但在作者看来,不是主要因素。

  30B选项A可由第一段中“At its peak,it had more branches in California1,100than the U.S. Postal Service”推出;选项C可由第一段中“…president and CEO,has confessed that he doesn't expect a turnaround soon”及最后一段对银行目前状况的描述看出,D可由文章最后一句表明。而第一段中“But since 1980 Bank of America's earnings have been down or flat”可见收益虽无上升,但也不总是降的,因此B不对。

  Text 3

  词语注释

  volcanic adj.火山的glacial adj.冰川的

  rubble n.碎石crater n.火山口

  labyrinth n.迷宫;曲径vaulted adj.拱状的,穹表的

  recipe n.调制法;诀窍crystalline adj.结晶的;晶状的

  fumarole n. (火山区的)喷气孔equilibrium n.平衡

  replenish vt.装满;补充smother vt.厚厚地覆盖着;使窒息

  文章概要

  本文主要讲述了蒸汽洞的形成原理及过程。

  Para.1:概述蒸汽洞的形成情况。

  Para.2:Mount Rainier上蒸汽洞形成的条件。

  Para.3:冰川与火山口相互作用形成蒸汽洞的具体过程。

  Para.4:蒸汽洞的维持需要热与雪在火山口的独特平衡。

  答案点评

  31B文章说明了the steam caves of Mount Rainier形成的特殊情况与天气、地理条件,这是文章的主旨所在。

  32C这个问题讨论的是一般情况下长期的火山休眠可能带来的结果,应选C.出处见文章第一段“During long dormant intervals, glaciers gain the upper hand cutting deeply into volcanic cones and eventually reducing them to rubbles.”

  33AThe steam caves的形成需要热和雪在火山坑处形成的独特平衡,三者缺一不可,且量还不能多,不能少。

  34D见第三段中“Heat rising from numerous openings (called fumaroles)”。

  35A这是一个单词理解题,同时也可结合文章意思作答。

  Text 4

  词语注释

  alleviate减轻、缓和drudgery繁重、乏味的工作

  文章概要

  本文主要讲述了外语学习的意义及其发展趋势。

  Para.1:语言会产生许多变体。

  Para.2:我们将继续以某种形式教授外语,而且不仅是因为实用。

  Para.3:科技会影响外语的应用,但计算机不能表示出语言的文化内涵。

  Para.4:学外语是很重要的。

  答案点评

  36C选项A原文“Even if English were to……”是假设情况,故A错。选项B“the same”指的是“take many forms”而不是假设的“become the universal language”。选项C由原文it could still take many different forms可知,注意选项中用kinds of替换了many different.由第一段最后一句可知D项错。

  37B由第二段中第一句“not just for reasons of practicality”可知A错。由“it forces you to……intellectual system”可知B对。由“I fear that……continue to decline”可知“Time……has been declined.”故C错。最后一句主要说Learning another language well is more taxing than learning to play chess well.并非要在learning language上花费比playing chess更多的时间,故D错。

  38C选项A是说计算机的作用,因而不对。B并非主要原因,由文中“still more important is the fact that……”可知C项最合适,D太大,原文也没有提及。

  39D选项A本身正确,但不是作者的意图。选项B由原文中“I don‘t think foreign……”可知B错。选项C由原文中“they might be……”可知C错。选项D是作者的真实意图。

  40AB、C、D均较片面,不能概括全文,A项则是作者写作本文的目的,最合适。

  Part B

  答案解析

  41.E上文提到discussion,可知41,42均是其内容,应在D、E两项中选择,关键则在于安排其顺序。下文提到,人类对生态系统的认识还是一知半解的,那就不存在对栖息地的安全缩小,而后又说更何况把自然生态深冻起来是不可行的。由此可知,对应下文的顺序E应在D之前,41、42均可得出答案。

  42.D见41解析。

  43.A上文说把自然生态深冻起来或将其存入基因序列数据库并不能保存与其相关的背景。A项所举的例子正是与上文一致的,本题重点在于理解举例所要说明的意思。

  44.G上文说旧的保护策略不再够用了,下面自然而然要引出从前的情况和现在状况的对比。G说的正是几十年前实施保护政策的可行性和目前情况的复杂。

  45.F上文提到的是一项关于热带雨林的实验,F项是对它的总结。本题有许多关键词,起到提示作用:forest,2500,acres.

  文章大意:本文讲的是人们在环境保护上面临的困境。地球上的生物多样性应该怎样持续?新的条例下应如何实施保护政策?作者介绍了人们在这些问题上的研究情况。

  Part C

  参考译文

  46.避免人类容易出现的形形色色的愚蠢的主张,不需超人的才能。规定几条简便的准则,纵使不能帮你避免一切错误,也能使你避免荒唐的错误。

  47.亚里斯多德其实只要请他的夫人张开嘴让他数一数,就会避免犯这种错误:女人的牙齿比男人少。

  48.要是和你的意见相反的意见使你恼怒,这就是一种征兆,表明你潜意识里已认识到自己没有像平日那样理智地考虑问题了。

  49.因此每当你发现自己对某种不同的意见恼怒的时候,你就得警惕了。检查后你可能会发现,你所确信的和证据所能证明的相差甚远。

  50.通过这类设想的对话,我有时确实改变了我的见解,另外,由于认识到假想的对手可能不无道理,我也就往往不那么固执己见和过于自信了。

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  参考作文

  51.

  Enjoy your University Days

  Audiences: Freshmen

  Time: 3 p.m. Tuesday

  Place: Room 4305

  Contents:

  I. Be the master of your time.

  1. making a timetables

  a.timetable for the day

  b.timetable for the week

  c.timetable for the semester

  2. Make sure you're carrying out the timetable

  a. If something disturbed your plan, try to make it up later.(e.g. friends visiting, suddenly can't concentrate on books.etc.)

  b. check everyday, every week and every month

  Ⅱ。 Getting on well with friends.

  1. Always be open-minded and warm-hearted.

  2.Don't talk about other's at his back.

  3.In case of conflicts or misunderstandings:

  a.put your foot in the other's shoes

  b.keep calm and express your idea to the other

  Ⅲ。 Societies at school are your second teachers.

  1.A good chance to challenge yourself.

  2.An effective way for you to make more friends.

  3. You are encouraged to take part in.

  52.

  As is shown in the drawing we may see that the whole city has been filled with varied boring advertisements. With the rapid flourishing of advertising nowadays, people find themselves exposed to various advertisements that nearly blanket everywhere.

  To some extent, advertisement has become an indispensable part of our everyday life. It may effectively guide our consumption in the product market of every hue. Just for this reason the enterprises will try their utmost to compete in the field of advertising. However, as the competition drives the manufacturers crazy, advertising campaign starts to lose its bearings, advertisements of poor quality and even false advertisements emerge.

  So large sum of poor advertisements has terribly devastated our national culture. As we all know, a excellent nation without splendid culture can never go far, splendid national culture requires high-quality advertisements.

  While we walk on the street and see that nearly all the writings on board are “Haveyou eaten today” “Have you drunken today”, nobody can hardly believe that our culture is becoming impoverished. Besides this aspect, in my opinion, low-quality advertisements won't be able to accomplish their function of promotion yet. What's much worse will be the deterioration of living condition that various advertisements have brought us. Thousands of billboards occupy the road for pedestrains and cars, innumerable leaflets are pasted at any corner available. It acts like that our cities have been wrapped in advertisements of every description. The living space is gradually diminishing, and graceful environment has been cruelly polluted.

  The situation is demanding for us to take effective actions. First of all, advertising law should be strictly applied to keep the advertising under proper control. Besides, we have to enrich our culture in design, and broaden the vision of adverting to create outstanding works.

栏目相关课程表