SectionⅠ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word（s） for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. （ 10 points ）
Among the devastating consequences of AIDS has 1 its epidemic spread in the developing world. The disease has caused 2 suffering, debilitation, loss of life and disruption of family, social and economic 3. Because of the considerable expense and logistical difficulty in providing antiviral drugs to populations 4 with the human immunodeficiency virus 5 the world, the biomedical community is looking towards vaccines to help solve this compelling problem.
The search for an AIDS vaccine began more than 15 years ago with great 6 and high expectations. With the 7 of the human immunodeficiency virus （HIV） as the cause of AIDS, it seemed that a 8 would follow closely behind. But despite a large concerted effort, the problem has proven more difficult than 9, and progress has not 10 the 11 hopes. Here I review the 12 scientific obstacles confronting the development of an effective HIV vaccine, and I consider 13 strategies to overcome these obstacles.
It is instructive to consider the circumstances that have 14 to past successes in vaccine development. The smallpox vaccine is 15 the most successful inventions in the history of 16. Why, 200 years ago, without the benefit of modern biotechnology, did the smallpox vaccine succeed so readily while an AIDS vaccine 17 elusive？ The answer lies in an experiment of nature that provided, to an astute observer, a clear direction for smallpox vaccine development. In this classic story of 18 discovery, Edward Jennet noticed that milk maids who had previously contracted cowpox were 19 to smallpox infection. This observation was the critical event leading to the finding that the cowpox virus cross-reacted immunologically with the smallpox virus and could 20 be used to protect against smallpox.
1. A. on B. with C. been D. about
2. A. unpredicted B. uncontrollable C. unimaginable D. unprecedented
3. A. stability B. instability C. permanency D. soundness
4. A. harmed B. infected C. infectious D. infectable
5. A. everywhere B. throughout C. devastating D. occupying
6. A. difficulty B. concern C. optimism D. pessimism
7. A. confirmation B. identification C. information D. precaution
8. A. cure B. capsule C. medication D. vaccine
9. A. ever B. anticipated C. possible D. necessary
10. A. surpassed B. out-balanced C. matched D. rivaled
11. A. origin B. initial C. great D. modest
12. A. majority B. primary C. principal D. premier
13. A. potential B. initiative C. practical D. existing
14. A. lead B. caused C. contributed D. cooperated
15. A. by far B. till now C. among D. considered
16. A. vaccine B. medicine C. smallpox D. AIDS
17. A. slowly B. fails C. remains D. counts
18. A. accidental B. importanc C. scientific D. vaccine
19. A. vulnerable B. resistant C. opposing D. defendant
20. A. safely B. therefore C. as well D. possibly
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark you answers on ANSWER SHEETⅠ。（40 points）
On an average of six times a day, a doctor in Holland practices “active” euthanasia： intentionally administering a lethal drug to a terminally ill patient who has asked to be relieved of suffering. Twenty times a day, life-prolonging treatment is withheld or withdrawn when there is no hope that it can effect an ultimate cure. “Active” euthanasia remains a crime on the Dutch statute books punishable by 12 years in prison. But a series of court cases over the past 15 years has made it clear that a competent physician who carries it out will not be prosecuted.
Euthanasia, often called “mercy killing”, is a crime everywhere in Western Europe. But more and more doctors and nurses in Britain, West Germany, Holland and elsewhere readily admit to practicing it, most often in the “passive” form of withholding or withdrawing treatment. The long simmering euthanasia issue has lately boiled over into a sometimes fierce public debate, with both sides claiming the mantle of ultimate righteousness. Those opposed to the practice see themselves up-holding sacred principles of respect for life, while those in favor raise the banner of humane treatment. After years on the defensive, the advocates now seem to be gaining ground. Recent polls in Britain show that 72 percent of British subjects favor euthanasia in some circumstances. An astonishing 76 percent of respondents to a poll taken late last year in France said they would like the law changed to decriminalize mercy killings.
Reasons for the latest surge of interest in euthanasia are not hard to find. Europeans, like Americans, are now living longer. The average European male now lives to the age of 72, women to almost 80. As Derek Humphrey, a leading British advocate of “rational euthanasia” says, “lingering chronic diseases have replaced critical illnesses as the primary cause of death.”
And so the euthanasists have begun to press their case with greater force. They argue that every human being should have the right to “die with dignity”, by which they usually mean the right to escape the horrors of a painful or degrading hospitalization. Most advocates of voluntary euthanasia has argued that the right to die should be accorded only to the terminally and incurably ill, but the movement also includes a small minority who believe in euthanasia for anyone who rationally decides to take his own life.
That right is unlikely to get legal recognition any time in the near future. Even in the Netherlands, the proposals now before Parliament would restrict euthanasia to a small number of cases and would surround even those with elaborate safeguards.
21.According to Paragraph 1, which of the following is not true？
A.“Active”euthanasia is regarded as a crime by Dutch law.
B.The doctor who carried out euthanasia will be charged.
C.An unqualified doctor carrying out euthanasia will be accused.
D.“Active”euthanasia executives will be sentenced to 12 years imprisonment.
22.Euthanasia is often called“mercy killing”, which implies that .
A.people should show sympathy for a terminally ill patient
B.some doctors murder patients shielding themselves from mercy
C.humane treatment to dying patients should be required
D.the dying patients are suffering from the pain and they don't want to live on
23.Most advocates of voluntary euthanasia hold the opinion that .
A.only terminally ill patients can have euthanasia
B.if anyone who rationally decides to end his life, he can have euthanasia
C.people should respect for life
D.no matter what punishment they get, they'll carry out euthanasia to patients
24.The author's attitudes towards euthanasia is .
A.positive B.negative C.objective D.uncertain
25.In Paragraph 2, “boiled over” means .
A.burst（into） B.make the water hot enough to boil
C.cause great anger D.fight one another
Bank of America, holding company for the San Francisco-based Bank of America, was once unchallenged as the nation's biggest banking organization. At its peak, it had more branches in California, 1,100 than the U.S. Postal Service. It was also a highly profitable enterprise. But since 1980, Bank of America's earnings have been down or flat. From March 1985 to March 1986, for example, earnings per share dropped 50.8 percent. Samuel H. Armacost, president and CEO, has confessed that he doesn't expect a turnaround soon.
Some of Bank of America's old magic seems to have rubbed off on New York's Citibank, perennial rival for top banking honors. Thanks to aggressive growth policies, Citicorp's assets topped Bank of America's for the first time in 1983 and by a healthy margin. Citibank has also been generating profits at a fast clip, enabling it to spend lavishly on campaigns to enter new markets-notably Bank of America's turf in California.
The bad times Bank of America is currently facing are partly the result of the good times the bank enjoyed earlier. Based in a large and populous state and operating in a regulated environment, Bank of America thrived. Before deregulation, banks could not compete by offering savers a higher return, so they competed with convenience. With a branch at every crossroads, Bank of America was able to attract 40 percent of the California deposit market a source of high earnings when the legal maximum payable to depositors was much lower than the interest on loans.
The progressive deregulation of banking forced Bank of America to fight for its customers by offering them competitive rates. But how could this mammoth bureaucracy, with its expensive overhead, offer rates as attractive as its loaner competitors？ Pruning the establishment was foremost in the minds of Bank of America policymakers. But cutbacks have proceeded slowly. Although the bank is planning to consolidate by offering full services only in key branches, so far only about 40 branches have been closed. Cutbacks through attrition have reduced the work force from 83,000 to fewer than 73,000； wholesale layoffs, it seems, would not fit the tradition of the organization. And they would intensify the morale problems that already threaten the institution.
26According to the passage, New York's Citibank .
A.is a dark horse in the field of banking
B.has been growing in a moderate way
C.has been making efforts to conquer the markets of Bank of America
D.has more branches than Bank of America now
27Which of the following is NOT the reason for which Bank of America thrived？
A.It's turf California was a state with a large number of population.
B.The economic environment that was controlled by the government.
C.Its deposit rate was higher than that of other banks.
D.Its large amount of branches.
28The phrase “mammoth bureaucracy” in Paragraph 4 refers to .
A.its expensive overhead B.its large amount of branches
C.its long history D.corruption of its leaders
29Now the most important factor for a bank to win in competition seems to be .
A.higher deposit rate B.flexibility of capital
C.high banking honors D.support of the government
30Which of the following conclusions can't be drawn from the passage？
A.The U.S. Postal Service had less than 1,100 branches in California a few decades before.
B.The profit of the Bank of America has been reducing since the 1980s.
C.The prospect of the Bank of America is not quite promising.
D.Moral problem is also a factor that leads to the decline of the Bank of America.
Volcanic fire and glacial ice are natural enemies. Eruptions at glaciated volcanoes typically destroy ice fields, as they did in 1980 when 70 of Mount Saint Helens ice cover was demolished. During long dormant intervals, glaciers gain the upper hand cutting deeply into volcanic cones and eventually reducing them to rubble. Only rarely do these competing forces of heat and cold operate in perfect balance to create a phenomenon such as the steam caves at Mount Rainier National Park.
Located inside Rainier's two ice-filled summit craters, these caves form a labyrinth of tunnels and vaulted chambers about one and one-half miles in total length. Their creation depends on an unusual combination of factors that nature almost never brings together in one place. The cave-making recipe calls for a steady emission of volcanic gas and heat, a heavy annual snowfall at an elevation high enough to keep it from melting during the summer, and a bowl-shaped crater to hold the snow.
Snow accumulating yearly in Rainier's summit craters is compacted and compressed into a dense form of ice called firm, a substance midway between ordinary ice and the denser crystalline ice that makes up glaciers. Heat rising from numerous openings （called fumaroles） along the inner crater walls melts out chambers between the rocky walls and the overlying ice pack. Circulating currents of warm air then melt additional openings in the firm ice, eventually connecting the individual chambers and, in the larger of Rainier's the crater's, forming a continuous passageway the extends two-thirds of the Way around the crater's interior.
To maintain the cave system, the elements of fire under ice must remain in equilibrium, enough snow must fill the crater each year to replace that melted from below. If too much volcanic heat is discharged, the crater's ice pack will melt away entirely and the caves will vanish along with the snows of yesteryear. If too little heat is produced, the ice, replenished annually by winter snowstorms, will expand, pushing against the enclosing crater walls and smothering the present caverns in solid firm ice.
31.With what topic is the passage mainly concerned？
A.The importance of snowfall for Mount Rainier.
B.The steam caves of Mount Rainier's.
C.How ice covers are destroyed.
D.The eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980.
32.According to the passage, long periods of volcanic inactivity can lead to a volcanic cone's .
A.strong eruption B.sudden growth
33.The second paragraph mentions all of the following as necessary elements in the creation of steam caves EXCEPT .
A.a glacier B.a crater C.heat D.snow
34.According to the passage, heat from Mount Rainier's summit craters rises from .
A.crystalline ice B.firms C.chambers D.fumaroles
35.In the last line, “smothering” means .
A.eliminate B.enlarged C.prevented D.hollowed
Languages will continue to diverge. Even if English were to become the universal language, it would still take many different forms. Indeed the same could happen to English as has happened to Chinese： a language of intellectuals which doesn't vary hugely alongside a large number of variants used by local peoples.
We will continue to teach other languages in some form, and not just for reasons of practicality. Learning a language is good for your mental health； it forces you to understand another cultural and intellectual system. So I hope British education will develop a more rational approach to the foreign languages available to students in line with their political importance. Because so many people believe it's no longer important to know another language, I fear that time devoted to language teaching in schools may well continue to decline. But you can argue that learning another language well is more taxing than, say, learning to play chess well—it involves sensitivity to a set of complicated rules, and also to context.
Technology will certainly make a difference to the use of foreign languages. Computers may, for instance, alleviate the drudgery that a vast translation represents. But no one who has seen a computer translation will think it can substitute for knowledge of the different languages. A machine will always be behind the times. Still more important is the fact that no computer will ever get at the associations beyond the words associations that may not be expressed but which carry much of the meaning. In languages like Arabic that context is very important. Languages come with heavy cultural baggage too—in French or German if you missed the cultural references behind a word you're very likely to be missing the meaning. It will be very hard to teach all that to a computer.
All the predictions are that English will be spoken by a declining proportion of the world's population in the 21st century. I don't think foreign languages will really become less important, but they might be perceived to be—and that would in the end be a very bad thing.
36.From the first paragraph we can infer that .
AEnglish is the universal language
BChinese would become the universal language
CLanguages always take kinds of forms
DEnglish has no variants, but Chinese does
37.Which of the following is true？
AIf a language is not good for practicality, we can drop it.
BWe can understand another cultural and intellectual system by learning language.
CTime devoted to language teaching has never declined.
DWe should spend more time in learning language than playing chess.
38.Why can't a computer translation substitute for knowledge of different languages？ Because .
Acomputers can alleviate much drudgery
Bcomputer is always behind the times
Ccomputer can't get the inner meaning of words
Dcomputer has no sensation
39.What does the author mean by “that would in the end be a very bad thing”？
ALess and less people will use English.
BForeign languages will become less important.
CForeign languages will be perceived less important.
DWe must realize the importance of foreign languages.
40.Which is the best title of the passage？
ALearning Foreign Languages.
BLanguage Continuing to Diverge.
CThe Limitation of Technology in Learning Foreign Language.
DThe Inner Meaning of Words.
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.
Even some ardent conservationists acknowledge that the diversity of life on Earth cannot be fully sustained as human populations expand use more resources nudge the climate and move weedlike pests and predators from place to place.
Given that some losses are inevitable, the debate among many experts has shifted to an uncomfortable subject—what level of loss is acceptable. The discussion is taking place at both the local and global levels.41）______________________________. And as global biodiversity diminishes, is it a valid fallback strategy to bank organisms and genes in zoos, DNA banks or the like, or does this simply justify more habitat destruction？ 42）_________________________________________. Some conservation groups have strenuously avoided or even attacked such calculations and strategies. They say there is no safe diminution of habitat as long as human understanding of ecology is as sketchy as it is a fallback strategy is unthinkable. Furthermore banking nature in a deep freeze or database of gene sequences cannot capture context. 43）_____________________. On the other side of the debate those considering what the smallest viable habitats are or how to expand archives as an insurance policy say that recent trends have proved that old conservation strategies are no longer sufficient. 44）_____________________________.
Twenty four years ago Dr. Thomas E. Lovejoy and other biologists began a remarkable experiment on the fast eroding fringe of rain forest near the Brazilian city of Manaus. They established 11 forest tracts ranging from 2.5 to 250 acres each surrounded by an isolating sea of pasture similar to what is advancing around most other tropical forests. Among the many findings an analysis published last week on birds in the lower layers of greenery found that it would take a fragment measuring at least 2 500 acres—10 times as large as the biggest one in the experiment—to prevent a decline of 50 percent in those bird varieties in just 15 years or so.
[A]For instance even if a vanished bird was someday reconstituted from its genes would it warble with the same fluency as its ancestors？
[B]“we're better off trying to preserve the diversity of what we have rather than trying to regenerate it in the future.”
[C]The San Diego Zoo has its parallel Frozen Zoo an archive of thousands of DNA samples and cell lines from a host of species.
[D]Is nature on ice a sufficient substitute for the real thing？
[E]How small can a fragment of an ecosystem be and still function in all its richness,and thus be considered preserved？
[F]In the understated language of science the new study in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concludes “This is unfortunate when one considers that for some species rich areas of the planet a large proportion of remaining forest is in fragments smaller than 2500 acres.”
[G]A few decades ago the issue seemed fairly uncomplicated identify biological “hot spots” or species of concern and establish as many reserves as possible. But the picture has grown murky.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. （10 points）
46）To avoid the various foolish opinions to which mankind is prong, no superhuman genius is required. A few simple rules will keep you, not from all error, but from silly error.
If the matter is one that can be settled by observation, make the observation yourself. 47）Aristotle could have avoided the mistake of thinking that women have fewer teeth than men, by the simple device of asking Mrs Aristotle to keep her mouth open while he counted. He did not do so because he thought he knew. Thinking that you know when in fact you don't is a fatal mistake, to which we are all prone. I believe myself that hedgehogs eat black beetles, because I have been told that they do； but if I were writing a book on the habits of hedgehogs, I should not commit myself until I had seen one enjoying this unappetizing diet. Aristotle, however, was less cautious. Ancient and medieval authors knew all about unicorns and salamanders； not one of them thought it necessary to avoid dogmatic statements about them because he had never seen one of them.
Many matters, however, are less easily brought to the test of experience. If, like most of mankind, you have occasional convictions on many such matters, there are ways in which you can make yourself aware of your own bias.48）If an opinion contrary to your own makes you angry, that is a sign that you are subconsciously aware of having no good reason for thinking as you do. If someone maintains that two and two are five, or that Iceland is on the equator, you feel pity rather than anger, unless you know so little of arithmetic or geography that his opinion shakes your own contrary conviction. The most savage controversies are those about matters as to which there is no good evidence either way. Persecution is used in theology, not in arithmetic, because in arithmetic there is knowledge, but in theology there is only opinion.49）So whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference of opinion, be on your guard； you will probably find, on examination, that your belief is going beyond what the evidence warrants.
A good way of riding yourself of certain kinds of dogmatism is to become aware of opinions held in social circles different from your own. When I was young, I lived much outside my own country in France, Germany, Italy, and the United States. I found this very profitable in diminishing the intensity of insular prejudice.
For those who have enough psychological imagination, it is a good plan to imagine an argument with a person having a different bias. This has one advantage, and only one, as compared with actual conversation with opponents； this one advantage is that the method is not subject to the same limitations of time and space. Mahatma Gandhi deplored railways and steamboats and machinery； he would have liked to undo the whole of the industrial revolution. You may never have an opportunity of actually meeting any one who holds this opinion, because in Western countries most people take the advantages of modern technique for granted. But if you want to make sure that you are right in agreeing with the prevailing opinion, you will find it a good plan to test the arguments that occur to you by considering what Gandhi might have said in refutation of them.50）I have sometimes been led actually to change my mind as a result of this kind of imaginary dialogue, and, short of this, I have frequently found myself growing less dogmatic and cocksure through realizing the possible reasonableness of a hypothetical opponent.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Suppose you are a teacher who is going to give a lecture to freshmen on how to enjoy university life. You need to write a note before giving the lecture. The note should include：
1）arrange your time properly
2）keep harmony with roommates and classmates
3）take an active part in societies
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
study the following picture carefully and write an essay to
1）describe the picture
2）give your comments on the phenomenon
参 考 答 案
SectionⅠUse of English
throughout the world修饰populations；C、D项只能修饰virus，填入后会导致句子成分不完整。
lethal adj.致死的，致命的prosecute v.起诉，控诉
mantle n.盖，罩，保护simmering adj.沸腾的，热烈的
25A此为一道词汇猜测词。根据原句“The long simmering euthanasia issue has lately boiled over into a sometimes fierce public debate，…”判断出boiled over为“爆发了”之意。B项则使理解停留在词汇表面，未能深挖内涵。C、D项则偏离主题。
26C据文中表述纽约花旗银行是“perennial （长期的）rival for top banking honors”可见A中“a dark horse”不对。从第二段中“Thanks to aggressive growth policies”可知B中“moderate”一词不正确。D选项文中未提及，而且根据全文意思来推断，也是不太可能的。而选项C可由第二段最后一句推出。
27C选项A、B、D都可在第三段中直接看出或推出，而根据第三段“Before deregulation， banks could not compete by offering savers a higher return”可见C有较高的存款利率是不可能的。
29A从最后一段第一句“The progressive deregulation of banking forced Bank of America to fight for its customers by offering them competitive rates”可见利率在当前竞争中最为重要，至于B资金流动性、C良好声誉、D政府支持可能也是因素之一，但在作者看来，不是主要因素。
30B选项A可由第一段中“At its peak，it had more branches in California1，100than the U.S. Postal Service”推出；选项C可由第一段中“…president and CEO，has confessed that he doesn't expect a turnaround soon”及最后一段对银行目前状况的描述看出，D可由文章最后一句表明。而第一段中“But since 1980 Bank of America's earnings have been down or flat”可见收益虽无上升，但也不总是降的，因此B不对。
volcanic adj.火山的glacial adj.冰川的
rubble n.碎石crater n.火山口
labyrinth n.迷宫；曲径vaulted adj.拱状的，穹表的
recipe n.调制法；诀窍crystalline adj.结晶的；晶状的
fumarole n. （火山区的）喷气孔equilibrium n.平衡
replenish vt.装满；补充smother vt.厚厚地覆盖着；使窒息
31B文章说明了the steam caves of Mount Rainier形成的特殊情况与天气、地理条件，这是文章的主旨所在。
32C这个问题讨论的是一般情况下长期的火山休眠可能带来的结果，应选C.出处见文章第一段“During long dormant intervals， glaciers gain the upper hand cutting deeply into volcanic cones and eventually reducing them to rubbles.”
33AThe steam caves的形成需要热和雪在火山坑处形成的独特平衡，三者缺一不可，且量还不能多，不能少。
34D见第三段中“Heat rising from numerous openings （called fumaroles）”。
36C选项A原文“Even if English were to……”是假设情况，故A错。选项B“the same”指的是“take many forms”而不是假设的“become the universal language”。选项C由原文it could still take many different forms可知，注意选项中用kinds of替换了many different.由第一段最后一句可知D项错。
37B由第二段中第一句“not just for reasons of practicality”可知A错。由“it forces you to……intellectual system”可知B对。由“I fear that……continue to decline”可知“Time……has been declined.”故C错。最后一句主要说Learning another language well is more taxing than learning to play chess well.并非要在learning language上花费比playing chess更多的时间，故D错。
38C选项A是说计算机的作用，因而不对。B并非主要原因，由文中“still more important is the fact that……”可知C项最合适，D太大，原文也没有提及。
39D选项A本身正确，但不是作者的意图。选项B由原文中“I don‘t think foreign……”可知B错。选项C由原文中“they might be……”可知C错。选项D是作者的真实意图。
Section Ⅲ Writing
Enjoy your University Days
Time： 3 p.m. Tuesday
Place： Room 4305
I. Be the master of your time.
1. making a timetables
a.timetable for the day
b.timetable for the week
c.timetable for the semester
2. Make sure you're carrying out the timetable
a. If something disturbed your plan, try to make it up later.（e.g. friends visiting, suddenly can't concentrate on books.etc.）
b. check everyday, every week and every month
Ⅱ。 Getting on well with friends.
1. Always be open-minded and warm-hearted.
2.Don't talk about other's at his back.
3.In case of conflicts or misunderstandings：
a.put your foot in the other's shoes
b.keep calm and express your idea to the other
Ⅲ。 Societies at school are your second teachers.
1.A good chance to challenge yourself.
2.An effective way for you to make more friends.
3. You are encouraged to take part in.
As is shown in the drawing we may see that the whole city has been filled with varied boring advertisements. With the rapid flourishing of advertising nowadays, people find themselves exposed to various advertisements that nearly blanket everywhere.
To some extent, advertisement has become an indispensable part of our everyday life. It may effectively guide our consumption in the product market of every hue. Just for this reason the enterprises will try their utmost to compete in the field of advertising. However, as the competition drives the manufacturers crazy, advertising campaign starts to lose its bearings, advertisements of poor quality and even false advertisements emerge.
So large sum of poor advertisements has terribly devastated our national culture. As we all know, a excellent nation without splendid culture can never go far, splendid national culture requires high-quality advertisements.
While we walk on the street and see that nearly all the writings on board are “Haveyou eaten today” “Have you drunken today”, nobody can hardly believe that our culture is becoming impoverished. Besides this aspect, in my opinion, low-quality advertisements won't be able to accomplish their function of promotion yet. What's much worse will be the deterioration of living condition that various advertisements have brought us. Thousands of billboards occupy the road for pedestrains and cars, innumerable leaflets are pasted at any corner available. It acts like that our cities have been wrapped in advertisements of every description. The living space is gradually diminishing, and graceful environment has been cruelly polluted.
The situation is demanding for us to take effective actions. First of all, advertising law should be strictly applied to keep the advertising under proper control. Besides, we have to enrich our culture in design, and broaden the vision of adverting to create outstanding works.