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近义词判断

2006-06-21 12:57   来源:       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  导读:

  1.       内容:词汇(二)

  2.       词汇:近义词判断

  TEXT

  They Need Your DNA

  Should scientists who take blood and tissue samples for research be allowed to use them for other studies without permission? Will the original donors care if they do?

  Getting the answer right is a big deal for geneticists who are beginning to link diseases to genes in the newly sequenced human genome. Respecting the wishes of blood and tissue donors is critical. Make a mess of it and we jeopardize the hunt for the next generation of treatments.

  One group of indigenous people in British Columbia is feeling particularly let down. Members of the Nuu-chah-nulth claim research was done on their blood without their consent. They are angry, and want their samples back.

  In the 1980s Nuu-chah-nulth gave permission for a researcher from the University of British Columbia to take blood samples for a study into the genetics of an unusual form of arthritis. But they claim the same samples were used again without their consent for a different study. The researcher, Ryk Ward, now at the University of Oxford, says samples are often retained for potential further research. But he promises to destroy blood serum for anyone who withdraws their consent.

  Researchers who routinely use genetic samples in their work, take note: the Nuu-chah-nulth's reaction could be a taste of things to come.

  Why? Volunteers all over the world are being asked to donate DNA for research. In some cases, the nature of the research is specified on consent forms that volunteers sign. But in others it isn't. And on the whole, researchers would prefer to avoid the hassle (持久的争论) of tracing people every time they want to use a blood sample

  In the US, guidelines drawn up by the government and the National Bioethics (生物伦理学) Advisory Commission, declare that people donating DNA for research have to be told what their sample will be used for. However, "secondary use" of genetic material is treated mostly as a privacy issue. If individuals aren't identified by the new research, they don't need to be consulted, or even informed.

  It's slightly different in Britain. The Medical Research Council and the Welcome Trust are drawing up plans to collect DNA from 500,000 people for a study linking genes and lifestyle with disease. The researchers planning the study say they will specify broad uses the DNA will be put to. But that with consent the samples may be used for other disease associations which cannot be anticipated now.

  Some volunteers will be perfectly happy with either of these approaches. They've given their DNA for research and as far as they're concerned, that's all they want to know. But others may be more troubled, particularly indigenous people, with their long history of exploitation at the hands of Europeans.

  Clearly people have the right to decide how their own genetic material will be used and it doesn't have to be a bureaucratic nightmare (恶梦). Volunteers could simply tick a box on the consent form if they want to know what their DNA is intended for. Or they could be asked to specify areas of research they don't want to be part of, such as studies on alcoholism, race, or intelligence.

  If they object, they must have the right to withdraw.

  New Words

  permission [pE5miFEn] n. 允许

  donate [dEu5neIt] vt. 捐赠,捐献

  geneticist [dVi5netIsIst] n. 遗传学家

  sequence [5si:kwEns] vt. 把按顺序排好,确定…的化学结构序列

  jeopardize [dVi5RpEdaIz] vt. 危害

  indigenous [in5dIdVInEs] adj. 生来的,土生土长的,本地的

  arthritis [B:5WraItIs] n. 关节炎

  claim [5kleIm] vt. n. 声称,需要

  retain [ri5teIn] vt. 保留,保存

  potential [pE5tenFEl] adj. 可能的,潜在的

  serum [sIErEm] n. 血清

  withdraw [wiT5drR:] vt. 收回,撤消

  specify [5spesIfaI] vt. 详细说明

  prefer [prI5fE:] vt. 更喜欢,宁愿

  trace [treIs] vt. 跟踪

  guideline [5gaIdlaIn] n. 纲要,指南

  draw [drR:] vt. 制订,开立

  consult [5kEn5sQlt] vt. 向咨询,请教

  exploit [ik5splRit] vt. 开发,利用

  bureaucratic [7bjUErE5krAtIk] adj.官僚主义的

  intend [in5tend] vt. 想要,意思是

  object [Eb5dVekt] vi. 反对,不赞成

  Notes: the Nuu-chah-nulth  原名为Coast District of Indian Chiefs

  应试指导

  I. 近/同义词(见补充材料)

  II. 词义辨析实例

  1.       形异义近

  要点:形不同,义相近,应区分搭配,洞悉其用法及差别

  例:Salvery fade in America in the 19th century.

  A. vanished      B. disappeared C. accomplished        D. abolished

  2.       形似义异

  要点:源自同一词源,前缀、后缀、或词根相同,词义不同。避免被外形蒙蔽。

  例:An increasing proportion of our population, unable to live without advanced medical interference, will become progressively more reliant on expensive technology.

  A. interference  B. interruption   C. intervention interaction

  3.       形异义异

  要点:形、义皆不同。可采用排除法或上下文语境猜测题意。

  例:Corporations and labor unions have given great benefits upon their employees and members as well as upon the general public.

  A. conferred     B. granted        C. flung D. submitted

  4.       短语成语

  要点:加强记忆,善于归纳。

  例:

  1)  As a way of dealing with the mails while they were away, the Johnsons asked the cleaning lady to send little printed slips asking the senders to write again later.

  A. picking up     B. coping with  C. passing out    D. getting across

  2)  First editions of certain popular book cannot be obtained for love or money.

  A. at any place B. at any price C. in any language       D. in any country

  Exercises

  I. 根据课文内容在下例选项中选择一个正确答案,并给相应字母打√。

  1. The two questions raised at the beginning of the passage

  A. reflect the blood and tissue donors' concerns over genetic diseases.

  B. refer to the donors' right to know what their samples are used for.

  C. suggest the significance of genetic research for human beings.

  D. imply a wrong track genetic research is in.

  2.       What happened to the members of Nuu-chah-nulth'?

  A.      They were coxed into offering their blood samples.

  B.      They were deprived of their informed consent.

  C.      They were forced to withdraw their consent.

  D.     D. All of the above.

  3.       What happened in British Columbia, according to geneticists who routinely need genetic material,

  A. happens all over the world.        B. was beyond expectation.

  C. can be expected.                     D. was ridiculous.

  4.       In which of the following is the US different from Britain concerning the use of genetic material'?

  A. Bioethical guidelines.                    B. The scale of genetic research.

  C. Permission for secondary use.        D. Collecting samples with consent.

  5.       Some volunteers will be perfectly happy with either of these approaches, which

  A.      means not everybody can be an eligible volunteer for genetic research.

  B.      means not all volunteers have the right to withdraw their consent.

  C.      does not mean we can deprive donors' right to informed consent.

  D.     means we can simply omit the consent form.

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