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阅读判断

2006-06-21 12:59   来源:       我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  导读:

  1.       内容:阅读判断

  TEXT

  Conditioning and Learning

  A central area of study in psychology is how living-creatures change as a result of experience, that is, how they learn. Much research in learning has been undertaken using such animals as rats, pigeons, and dogs. Two major kinds of learning are usually distinguished: classical conditioning and instrumental learning.

  Classical conditioning is also called Pavlovian conditioning after its discoverer, the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. He showed that if ringing a bell regularly precedes presenting food to an animal, the bell will become a signal for the food, and the animal will "get ready to eat" when the bell rings. The animal's behavior, then, is a conditioned response to the bell. In Pavlov's terms, the pairing of a conditioned stimulus (the bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the food) results in learning. Finally, some parts of the unconditioned response (getting ready to eat the food) come from the conditioned stimulus alone. The number and consistency of pairings of the stimuli (the bell and the food) are responsible for the learning. If, however, one discontinues the food but keeps presenting the bell, the animal will stop responding to it. In other words, the response is over.

  In instrumental learning, emphasis is placed on what the animal does and what kinds of outcomes follow its actions. In general, if some action is followed by a reward, the action will be repeated the next time the animal is in the same situation. For example, if a hungry animal is rewarded with food for turning right in a simple maze (迷宫), the animal will tend to turn right the next time it is in the maze. If the rewards cease, then other behaviors will appear.

  New Words

  psychology n. 心理学

  creature n. 生物,动物

  undertake vt. 接受,进行

  distinguish vt. 区别,辩认出

  precede vt. 先于,在…前加上

  present vt. 赠送,呈递

  response n. 反应,回答

  pair vi. 配对,vi, 使成对

  stimulus n. 刺激物

  consistency n. 一致性

  emphasis n. 重点,重视

  outcome n. 结果

  reward n. vt. 奖赏,报答

  cease vi. 停止

  应试指导

  I.                   题型要求

  1.       要求:根据文章信息对相关选项作出判断。文章信息包括明示信息和隐含信息。

  2.       判断:正确、错误、未提及。

  正确:符合文章内容

  错误:选项内容与文章内容相背、完全不符或部分不符

  未提及:选项内容未在文章中出现;选项本身可以是正确也可以是错误

  II.                解题步骤与规律

  1.       步骤

  1)      先阅读题目,理解题意

  例:题目:Westerners are familiar with the journalistic interview, but most of them may not have been interviewed in person……

  A. Right B. Wrong        C. Not Mentioned

  原文:However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media, particularly by television.

  2)      阅读短文,确定题目在文章中的相应位置

  题目的顺序通常跟原文的顺序基本一致

  3)      根据题意及文章信息作出判断,必要时可重点阅读相关章节或词句

  2.       规律

  1)      正确(Right)

  A.      题目与原文意思相同,或为同义词,或为同义结构。如:

  原文:Few are more than five years old.

  题目:Most are less than five years old.

  答案:Right

  原文:Women could not take part and were forbidden, on pain of death, even to attend the Games.

  题目:The spectators, as well as the participants, of the ancient Olympics were male.

  答案:Right

  B.      题目是对原文的推断或概括。如:

  原文:For example, it has been demonstrated that rapid response leads to a greater likelihood of arrest only if responses are in the order of 1 – 2 minutes after a call is received by the police. When response times increase to 3 – 4 minutes —— still quite a rapid response —— the likelihood of an arrest is substantially reduced.

  题目:A response delay of 1 – 2 minutes may have substantial influence on whether or not a suspected criminal is caught.

  答案:Right

  2)      错误(Wrong)

  A.      题目与原文意思直接相反。如:

  原文:A species is said to be extinct when the last individual dies.

  题目:A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.

  答案:Wrong

  B.      题目与原文在内容、语气上不对称。如:

  原文:Booking in advance is strongly recommended as all Daybreak tours are subject to demand. Subject to availability, stand-by tickets can be purchased from the driver.

  题目:Tickets must be bought in advance from an authorized Daybreak agent.

  答案:Wrong

  原文:The Internet has often been criticized by the media as a hazardous tool in the hands of young computer users.

  题目:The media has often criticized the Internet because it is dangerous.

  答案:Wrong

  C.      题目与原文在程度、范围、可能性等上不对称。如:

  原文:Frogs are sometimes poisonous.

  题目:Frogs are usually poisonous.

  答案:Wrong

  D.     主观感想和客观事实、现实和理想相混淆。如:

  原文:But generally winter sports were felt to be too specialized

  题目:The Antwerp Games proved that winter sports were too specialized.

  答案:Wrong

  3)      未提及(Not Mentioned)

  A.      题目中的某些内容在原文中找不到依据。如:

  原文:

  题目:

  答案:

  B.      题目中涉及的范围小于原文涉及的范围,也就是更具体。如:

  原文:Our computer club provides printer.

  题目:Our computer club provides color printer.

  答案:Not Mentioned

  C.      原文是某人的目标、目的、想法、愿望、保证、发誓等,而题目是事实。如:

  原文:He vowed he would never come back.

  题目:He never came back

  答案:Not Mentioned

  D.     题目中有比较,而原文中没有比较。如:

  原文:In Sydney, a vast array of ethnic and local restaurants can be found to suit all palates and pockets.

  题目:There is now a greater variety of restaurants to choose from in Sydney than in the past.

  答案:Not Mentioned

  III.             注意事项

  1.       应依据原文作出判断,不能根据自己常识、经验或主观臆想作出判断

  2.       通常过于绝对的题目一般不会是Right。

  IV.              解题实例

  Hercules

  Once upon a time there was a great Greek hero, Hercules. He was taller and stronger than anyone you have ever seen. On his shoulder he carried a club and in his hand he held a bow (弓). He was known as the hero of a hundred adventures.

  Hercules served a king. The king was afraid of him. So again and again he sent him on difficult tasks. One morning the king sent for him and told him to fetch three golden apples for him from the garden of the Singing Maidens (歌女). But no one knew where the garden was.

  So Hercules went away. He walked the whole day and the next day and the next. He walked for months before he saw mountains far in the distance one fine morning. One of the mountains was in the shape of a man, with long, long legs and arms and huge shoulders and a huge head. He was holding up the sky. Hercules knew it was Atlas, the Mountain God. So he asked him for help.

  Atlas answered, "My head and arms and shoulders all ache. Could you hold up the sky while I fetch the golden apples for you?"

  Hercules climbed the mountain and shouldered the sky. Soon the sky grew very heavy. When finally Atlas came back with three golden apples, he said, "Well, you are going to carry the mountain for ever, I'm going to see the king with the apples." Hercules know that he couldn't fight him because of the sky on his back. So he shouted:

  "Just one minute's help. My shoulders are hurting. Hold the sky for a minute while I make a cushion (垫子) for my shoulders."

  Atlas believed him. He threw down the apples and held up the sky.

  Hercules picked up the apples and ran back to see the king.

  1.       Hercules was the tallest man in the world.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C.  Not mentioned

  2.       Hercules worked in the king's garden

  .A. Right         B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  3.       Hercules was given many difficult tasks because the king wanted to get rid of him.

  A. Right   B. Wrong C. Not Mentioned

  4.       Atlas was the giant who help up the sky.

  A. Right         B. Wrong            C. Not Mentioned

  5.       Atlas ran faster than Hercules.

  A. Right   B. Wrong C. Not Mentioned

  6.       Atlas got the golden apples for Hercules because he wanted to be the king himself.

  A. Right   B. Wrong C. Not Mentioned

  7.       Hercules finally managed to get the apples by defeating Atlas.

  A. Right   B. Wrong C. Not Mentioned

  Exercises

  I.                   根据课文内容在下例选项中选择一个正确答案,并给相应字母打√。

  1.       For human being, learning is usually divided into two kinds: the classical conditioning and the instrumental learning.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  2.       According to Pavlov, learning results from the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  3.       If an animal is given food whenever a bell rings, after some time it will get ready to eat even when there isn't the ringing of a bell.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  4.       In instrumental learning, the researchers stressed what the animal does and what kind of outcomes follow its action.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  5.       If an animal is rewarded after its action in a certain situation, it tends to repeat the action whenever it is the same situation.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  6.       Classical conditioning is called Palovian conditioning in memory of the discoverer Ivan Pavlov.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

  7.       If a hungry animal in a maze can get food by turning right, it will turn left when the food is not offered.

  A. Right          B. Wrong        C. Not mentioned

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