Time —— 35 minutes
Directions： Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer, that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
The extent of a nation's power over its coastal ecosystems and the natural resources in its coastal waters has been defined by two international law doctrines： freedom of the seas and adjacent state sovereignty. Until the mid-twentieth century, most nations favored application of broad open-seas freedoms and limited sovereign rights over coastal waters. A nation had the right to include within its territorial dominion only a very narrow band of coastal waters. A nation had the right to include within its territorial dominion only a very narrow band of coastal waters （generally extending three miles from the shoreline）, within which it had the authority but not the responsibility, to regulate all activities, But because this area of territorial dominion was so limited, most nations did not establish rules for management or protection of their territorial waters.
Regardless of whether or not nations enforced regulations in their territorial waters. Large ocean areas remained free of controls or restrictions. The citizens of all nations had the right to use these unrestricted ocean areas for any innocent purpose including navigation and fishing. Except for controls over its own citizens, no nation had the responsibility, let alone the unilateral authority, to control such activities in international waters. And, since there were few standards of conduct that applied on the "open seas", there were few jurisdictional conflicts between nations.
The lack of standards is traceable to popular perceptions held before the middle of this century. By and large, marine pollution was not perceived as a significant problem. in part because the adverse effect of coastal activities on ocean ecosystems was not widely recognized, and pollution caused by human activities was generally believed to be limited to that caused by navigation. Moreover, the freedom to fish. or over fish, was an essential element of the traditional legal doctrine of freedom of the seas that no maritime country wished to see limited. And finally, the technology that later allowed exploitation of other ocean resources, such as oil, did not yet exist.
To date, controlling pollution and regulating ocean resources have still not been comprehensively addressed by law, but international law——established through the customs and practices of nations —— does not preclude such efforts. And two recent developments may actually lead to future, international rules providing for ecosystem management. First, the establishment of extensive fishery zones extending territorial authority as far as 200 miles out from a country's coast, has provided the opportunity for nations individually to manage larger ecosystems. This opportunity, combined with national self-interest in maintaining fish populations could lead nations to reevaluate policies for management of their fisheries and to address the problem of pollution in territorial waters. Second, the international community is beginning to understand the importance of preserving the resources and ecology of international waters and to show signs of accepting responsibility for doing so. As an international waters and to show signs of accepting responsibility for doing so. As an international consensus regarding the need for comprehensive management of ocean resources. develops, it will become more likely that international standards and policies for broader regulation of human activities that affect ocean ecosystems will be adopted and implemented.
1. According to the passage, until the mid-twentieth century there were few jurisdictional disputes over international waters because.
（A） the nearest coastal nation regulated activities
（B） few controls or restrictions applied to ocean areas
（C） the ocean areas were used for only innocent purposes
（D） the freedom of the seas doctrine settled all claims concerning navigation and fishing
（E） broad authority over international waters was shared equally among all nations
2. According to the international law doctrines applicable before the mid-twentieth century, if commercial activity within a particular nations territorial waters threatened all marine life in those waters, the nation would have been
（A） formally censured by an international organization for not properly regulating marine activities
（B） called upon by other nations to establish rules to protect its territorial waters
（C） able but not required to place legal limits on such commercial activities
（D） allowed to resolve the problem at it own discretion providing it could contain the threat to its own territorial waters
（E） permitted to hold the commercial offenders liable only if they were citizens of that particular nation
3. The author suggests that, before the mid-twentieth century, most nations' actions with respect to territorial and international waters indicated that
（A） managing ecosystems in either territorial or international waters was given low priority
（B） unlimited resources in international waters resulted in little interest in territorial waters
（C） nations considered it their responsibility to protect territorial but not international waters
（D） a nation's authority over its citizenry ended at territorial lines
（E） although nations could extend their territorial dominion beyond three miles from their shoreline. most chose not to do so.
4. The author cities which one of the following as an effect of the extension of territorial waters beyond the three-mile limit？
（A） increased political pressure on individual nations to establish comprehensive laws regulating ocean resources
（B） a greater number of jurisdictional disputes among nations over the regulation of fishing on the open seas
（C） the opportunity for some nations to manage large ocean ecosystems
（D） a new awareness of the need to minimize pollution caused by navigation
（E） a political incentive for smaller nations to solve the problems of pollution in their coastal waters
5. According to the passage, before the middle of the twentieth century, nations failed to establish rules protecting their territorial waters because
（A） the waters appeared to be unpolluted and to contain unlimited resources
（B） the fishing industry would be adversely affected by such rules
（C） the size of the area that would be subject to such rules was insignificant
（D） the technology needed for pollution control and resource management did not exist
（E） there were few jurisdictional conflicts over nations' territorial waters
6. The passage as a whole can best be described as
（A） a chronology of the events that have led up to present-day crisis
（B） a legal inquiry into the abuse of existing laws and the likelihood of reform.
（C） a political analysis of the problems inherent in directing national attention to an international issue
（D） a historical analysis of a problem that requires international attention
（E） a proposal for adopting and implementing international standards to solve an ecological problem
The human species came into being at the time of the greatest biological diversity in the history of the Earth. Today, as human populations expand and alter the natural environment, they are reducing biological diversity to its lowest level since the end of the Mesozoic era, 65 million years ago. The ultimate consequences of this biological collision are beyond calculation, but they are certain to be harmful, That, in essence, is the biodiversity crisis.
The history of global diversity can be summarized as follows： after the initial flowering of multi cellular animals, there was a swift rise in the number of species in early Paleozoic times （between 600 and 430 million years ago）, then plateaulike stagnation for the remaining 200 million years of the Paleozoic era, and finally a slow but steady climb through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras to diversity's all-time high. This history suggests that biological diversity was hard won and a long time in coming.
Furthermore, this pattern of increase was set back by five massive extinction episodes, The most recent of these, during the Cretaceous period, is by far the most famous, because it ended the age of the dinosaurs, conferred hegemony on the mammals, and ultimately made possible the ascendancy of the human species, But the cretaceous crisis was minor compared with the Permian extinctions 240 million years ago, during which between 77 and 96 percent of marine animal species perished. It took 5 million years. well into Mesozoic times. for species diversity to begin a significant recovery.
Within the past 10,000 years biological diversity has entered a wholly new era. Human activity has had a devastating effect on species diversity, and the rate of human-induced extinctions is accelerating. Half of the bird species of Polynesia have been eliminated through hunting and the destruction of native forests. Hundreds of fish species endemic to Lake Victoria are now threatened with extinction following the careless introduction of one species of fish. the Nile perch. The list of such bio geographic disasters is extensive.
Because every species is unique and irreplaceable, the loss of biodiversity is the most profound process of environmental change. Its consequences are also the least predictable because the value of Earth's biota （the fauna and flora collectively） remains largely unstudied and unappreciated； unlike material and cultural wealth, which we understand because they ar the substance of our everyday lives. Biological wealth is usually taken for granted. This is a serious strategic error, one that will be increasingly regretted as time passes. The biota is not only part of a country's heritage. the product of millions of years of evolution centered on that place； it is also a potential source for immense untapped material wealth in the form of food, medicine, and other commercially important substance.
7. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage？
（A） The reduction in biodiversity is an irreversible process that represents a setback both for science and for society as a whole.
（B） The material and cultural wealth of a nation are insignificant when compared with the country's biological wealth.
（C） The enormous diversity of life on Earth could not have come about without periodic extinctions that have conferred preeminence on one species at the expense of another.
（D） The human species is in the process of initiating a massive extinction episodes look minor by comparison.
（E） The current decline in species diversity is human-induced tragedy of incalculable proportions that has potentially grave consequences for the human species.
8. Which one of the following situations is most analogous to the history of global diversity summarized in lines 10-18 of the passage？
（A） The number of fish in a lake declines abruptly as a result of water pollution. Then makes a slow comeback after cleanup efforts and the passage of ordinances against dumping.
（B） The concentration of chlorine in the water supply of large city fluctuates widely before stabilizing at a constant and safe level.
（C） An old-fashioned article of clothing goes in and out of style periodically as a result of features in fashion magazines and the popularity of certain period films.
（D） After valuable mineral deposits are discovered, the population of a geographic region booms then levels off an d begins to decrease at a slow and steady race.
（E） The variety of styles stocked by a shoe store increases rapidly after the store opens, holds constant for many months, and then gradually creeps upward.
9. The author suggests which one of the following about the Cretaceous crisis？
（A） It was the second most devastating extinction episode in history.
（B） It was the most devastating extinction episode up un until that time.
（C） It was less devastating to species diversity than is the current biodiversity crisis.
（D） The rate of extinction among marine animal species as a result of the crisis did not approach 77 percent.
（E） The dinosaurs comprised the great majority of species that perished during the crisis.
10. The author mentions the Nile perch in order to provide an example of
（A） a species that has become extinct through human activity
（B） the typical lack of foresight that has led to biogeographic disaster
（C） a marine animal species that survived the Permian extinctions
（D） a species that is a potential source of material wealth
（E） the kind of action that is necessary to reverse the decline in species diversity
11. All of the following are explicitly mentioned in the passage as contributing to the extinction of species EXCEPT
（D） the growth of human populations
（E） human-engineered changes in the environment
12. The passage suggests which one of the following about material and cultural wealth？
（A） Because we can readily assess the value of material and cultural wealth, we tend not to take them for granted.
（B） Just as the biota is a source of potential material wealth, it is an untapped source of cultural wealth as well.
（C） some degree of material and cultural wealth may have to be sacrificed if we are to protect our biological heritage.
（D） Material and cultural wealth are of less value than biological wealth because they have evolve over a shorter period of time.
（E） Material wealth and biological wealth are interdependent in a way that material wealth and cultural wealth are not.
13. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the consequences of the biodiversity crisis？
（A） The loss of species diversity will have as immediate an impact on the material of nations as on their biological wealth.
（B） The crisis will likely end the hegemony of the human race and bring about the ascendancy of another species.
（C） The effects of the loss of species diversity will be dire, but we cannot yet tell how dire.
（D） it is more fruitful to discuss the consequences of the crisis in terms of the potential loss to humanity than in strictly biological loss to humanity than in strictly biological terms.
（E） The consequences of the crisis can be minimized, but the pace of extinctions can not be reversed.
Women's participation in the revolutionary events in France between 1789 and 1795 has only recently been given nuanced treatment. Early twentieth century historians of the French Revolution are typified by Jaures, who, though sympathetic to the women's movement of his own time never even mentions its antecedents in revolutionary France. Even today most general histories treat only cursorily a few individual women, like Marie Antoinette. The recent studies by Landes, Badinter, Godineau, and Roudinesco, however, should signal a much-needed reassessment of women's participation.
Godineau and Roudinesco point to three significant phases in that participation. The first, up to mid- 1792,Involved those women who wrote political tracts. Typical of their orientation to theoretical issues —— in Godlneaus's view, without practical effect —— is Marie Gouze's Declaration of the Right of Women. The emergence of vocal middle-class women's political clubs marks the second phase. Formed in 1791 as adjuncts of middle-class male political clubs, and originally philanthropic in function, by late 1792 independent clubs of women. In the final phase, the famine of 1795 occasioned a mass women's movement； women seized food supplies, hold officials hostage, and argued for the implementation of democratic politics. This phase ended in May of 1795 with the military suppression of this multi class movement. In all three phases women's participation in politics contrasted markedly with their participation before 1789. Before that date some noble-women participated indirectly in elections, but such participation by more than narrow range of the population —— women or men —— came only with the Revolution.
What makes the recent studies particularly compelling, however, is not so much their organization of chronology as their unflinching willingness to confront the reasons for the collapse of the women's having to speak in the established vocabularies of certain intellectual and political tradition diminished the ability of the women's movement to resist suppression. Many women, and many men, they argue, located their vision within the confining tradition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who linked male and female roles with public and private spheres respectively, But when women went on to make political alliances with radical Jacobin men, Badinter asserts, they adopted a vocabulary and violently extremist viewpoint that unfortunately was even more damaging to their vision within the confining tradition of jean-Jacques Rousseau, who linked make and female roles with public and private spheres respectively .But, when women went on to make political alliances with radical Jacobin men, Badinter asserts, they adopted a vocabulary and violently extremist viewpoint that unfortunately was even more damaging to their political interests.
Each of these scholars has different political agenda and takes a different approach - Godineau, for example, works with police archives while Roudinesco uses explanatory schema from modern psychology. Yet admirably, each gives center stage to group that previously has been marginalized, or at best undifferentiated, by historians. And in the case of Landes and Badinter, the reader is left with a sobering awareness of the cost to the women of the Revolution of speaking in borrowed voices.
14. Which one of the following best states the main point of the passage？
（A） According to recent historical studies, the participation of women in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795 can most profitably be viewed in three successive stages.
（B） The findings of certain recent historical studies have resulted from an earlier general. reassessment, by historians, of women's participation in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795.
（C） Adopting the vocabulary and viewpoint of certain intellectual and political traditions resulted in no political advantage for women in France in the years 1789-1795.
（D） Certain recent historical studies have provided a much-needed description and evaluation of the evolving roles of women in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795.
（E） Historical studies that seek to explain the limitations of the women's movement in more convincing than are those that seek only to describe the general features of that movement.
15. The passage suggests that Godineau would be likely to agree with which one of the
following statements about Marie Gouze's Declaration of the Rights of Women？
（A） This work was not understood by many of Gouze's contemporaries.
（B） This work indirectly inspired the formation of independent women's political clubs.
（C） This work had little impact on the world of political action.
（D） This work was the most compelling produced by a French woman between 1789 and 1792.
（E） This work is typical of the kind of writing French women produced between 1793 and 1795.
16. According to the passage, which one of the following is a true statement about the purpose of the women's political cubs mentioned in line 20？
（A） These clubs fostered a mass women's movement.
（B） These clubs eventually developed a purpose different from their original purpose.
（C） These clubs were founder to advocate military participation for women.
（D） These clubs counteracted the original purpose of male political clubs.
（E） These clubs lost their direction by the time of the famine of 1795.
17. The primary function of the first paragraph of the passage is to：
（A） outline the author's argument about women's roles in Frances between 1789 and 1795
（B） anticipate possible challenges to the findings of the recent studies of women in France between 1789 and 1795.
（C） summarize some long-standing explanations of the role of individual women in France between 1789 and 1795.
（D） present a context for the discussion of recent studies of women in France between 1789 and 1795.
（E） characterize various eighteenth-century studies of women in France.
18. The passage suggests that Landes and Badinter would be likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the women's movement in France in the 1790s？
（A） the movement might have been more successful if women had developed their own political vocabularies.
（B） The downfall of the movement was probably unrelated to it alliance with Jacobin men.
（C） The movement had a great deal of choice about whether to adopt a Rousseauist political vocabulary.
（D） The movement would have triumphed if it had not been suppressed by military means.
（E） The movement viewed a Rousseauist political tradition, rather than a Jacobin political.
19. In the context of the passage, the word "cost" in line 63 refers to the
（A） dichotomy of private roles for women and public roles for men
（B） almost nonexistent political participation of women before 1789.
（C） historians' lack of differentiation among various groups of women.
（D） political alliances women made with radical Jacobin men.
（E） collapse of the women's movement in the 1790s.
20. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with：
（A） criticizing certain political and intellectual traditions
（B） summarizing the main points of several recent historical studies and assessing their value.
（C） establishing a chronological sequence and arguing for its importance
（D） comparing and contrasting women's political activities before and after the French Revolution
（E） reexamining a long-held point of view and isolating its strengths and weaknesses.
Art historians' approach to French Impressionism has changed significantly in recent years.
While a decade ago Rewald's History of Impressionism, which emphasizes Impressionist painters stylistic innovations, was unchallenged, the literature on impressionism has now become a kind of ideological battlefield, in which more attention is paid to the subject matter of the paintings, and to the social and moral issues raised by it, than to their style. Recently, politically charged discussions that address the impressionists' unequal treatment of men and women and the exclusion of modern industry and labor from their pictures have tended to crowd out the stylistic analysis favored by Rewald and his followers. In a new work illustrating this trend, Robert L. Herbert dissociates himself from formalists whose preoccupation with the stylistic features of impressionist painting has, in Herbert's view, left the history out of art history； his aim is to restore impressionist paintings "to their sociocultural context. However, his arguments are not finally persuasive.
In attempting to place impressionist painting in its proper historical context, Herbert has redrawn the traditional boundaries of impressionism. Limiting himself to the two decades between 1860 and 1880. he assembles under the impressionist banner what can only be described as a somewhat eccentric grouping of painters. Cezanne, Pisarro, and Sisley are almost entirely ignored, largely because their paintings do not suit Herbert's emphasis on themes of urban life and suburban leisure, while Manet, Degas, and Caillebotte —— who paint scenes of urban life but whom many would hardly characterize as impressionists —— dominate the first half of the book. Although this new description of Impressionist painting provides a more unified conception of nineteenth-century French painting by grouping quite disparate modernist painters together and emphasizing their common concerns rather than their stylistic difference. it also forces Herbert to overlook some of the most important genres impressionist painting—— portraiture, pure landscape, and still-life painting.
Moreover, the rationale for Herbert's emphasis on the social and political realities that impressionist painting can be said to communicate rather than on their style is finally undermined by what even Herbert concedes was the failure of impressionist painters to serve as particularly conscientious illustrators of their social milieu, They left much ordinary experience —— work and poverty. for example —— out of their paintings and what they did put in was transformed by style that had only an indirect relationship to the social realities of the world they depicted, Not only were their pictures inventions rather than photographs, they were inventions in which style to some degree disrupted description. Their painting in effect have two levels of subject； what is represented and how it is represented, and no art historian can afford to emphasize one at the expense of the other.
21. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage？
（A） The style of impressionist paintings has only an indirect relation to their subject matter.
（B） The approach to impressionism that is illustrated by Herbert's recent book is inadequate.
（C） The historical context of impressionist paintings is not relevant to their interpretation.
（D） impressionism emerged from a historical context of ideological conflict and change.
（E） Any adequate future interpretation of impressionism will have to come to terms with Herbert's view of this art movement.
22. According to the passage, Rewald's book on impressionism was characterized by
which one of the following？
（A） evenhanded objectivity about the achievements of impressionism
（B） bias in favor of certain impressionist painters
（C） an emphasis on the stylistic features of impressionist painting
（D） an idiosyncratic view of which painters were to be classified as impressionists.
（E） a refusal to enter into the ideological debates that had characterized earlier discussions of impressionism
23. The author implies that Herbert's redefinition of the boundaries of impressionism resulted from which one of the following？
（A） an exclusive emphasis on form and style
（B） a bias in favor of the representation of modern industry
（C） an attempt to place impressionism within a specific sociocultural context
（D） a broadening of the term impressionism to include all nineteenth-century French painting
（E） an insufficient familiarity with earlier interpretations of impressionism.
24. The author states which one of the following about modern industry and labor as subjects for painting？
（A） The impressionists neglected these subjects in their paintings.
（B） Herbert's book on impressionism fails to give adequate treatment of these subjects.
（C） The impressionists' treatment of these subjects was idealized.
（D） Rewald's treatment of impressionist painters focused inordinately on their representations of these subjects.
（E） Modernist painters presented a distorted picture of these subjects.
25. Which one of the following most accurately describes the structure of the author's argument in the passage？
（A） The first two paragraphs each present independent arguments for a conclusion that is drawn in the third paragraph.
（B） A thesis is stated in the first paragraph and revised in the second paragraph and revised in the second paragraph, and the revised thesis is supported with argument in the third paragraph.
（C） The first two paragraphs discuss and criticize a thesis, and the third paragraph presents an alternative thesis.
（D） a claim is made in the first paragraph, and the next two paragraph, and the next two paragraphs each present reasons for accepting that claim.
（E） An argument is presented in the first paragraph, a counterargument is presented in the second paragraph, and the third paragraph suggests a way to resolve the dispute.
26. The author's statement that impressionist paintings "were inventions in which style to some degree disrupted description" （lines 57-59） serves to
（A） strengthen the claim that impressionist sought to emphasize the differences between painting and photography
（B） weaken the argument that style is the only important feature of impressionist paintings
（C） indicate that impressionists recognized that they had been strongly influence by photography
（D） support the argument that an exclusive emphasis on the impressionists subject matter is mistaken
（E） undermine the claim that impressionists neglected certain kinds of subject matter.
27. The author would most likely regard a book on the impressionists that focused entirely on their style as
（A） a product of the recent confusion caused by Herbert's book on impressionism
（B） emphasizing what impressionists themselves took to be their primary artistic concern
（C） an overreaction against the traditional interpretation of impressionism
（D） neglecting the most innovative aspects of impressionism
（E） addressing only part of what an adequate treatment should cover.