Directions： Each passage in this section is followed by a group of questions to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer, that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question, and blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
Many argue that recent developments in electronic technology such as computers and videotape have enabled artists to vary their forms of expression. For example, video art can now achieve images whose effect is produced by “digitalization” breaking up the picture using computerized information processing. Such new technologies create new ways of seeing and hearing by adding different dimensions to older forms, rather than replacing those forms. Consider Locale, a film about a modern dance company. The camera operator wore a Steadicam, an uncomplicated device that allows a camera to be mounted on a person so that the camera remains steady no matter how the operator moves. The Steadicam captures the dance in ways impossible with traditional mounts. Such new equipment also allows for the preservation of previously unrecordable aspects of performances, thus enriching archives.
By Contrast, others claim that technology subverts the artistic enterprise： that artistic efforts achieved with machines preempt human creativity, rather than being inspired by it. The originality of musical performance, for example, might suffer, as musicians would be deprived of the opportunity to spontaneously change pieces of music before live audiences. Some even worry what technology will eliminate live performance altogether： performances will be recorded for home viewing. Abolishing the relationship between performer and audience. But these negative views assume both that technology poses an unprecedented challenge to the arts and that we are not committed enough to the artistic enterprise to preserve the live performance assumptions that seem unnecessarily cynical. In fact, technology has traditionally assisted our capacity for creative expression and can refine our notions of any give art form.
For example, the portable camera and the snapshot were developed at the same time as the rise of impressionist painting in the nineteenth century. These photographic technologies encouraged a new appreciation. In addition, impressionist artists like Degas studied the elements of light and movement captured by instantaneous photography and used their new understanding of the way our perceptions distort reality to try to more accurately capture realty in their work. Since photo can capture the “moments” of a movement, such as a hand partially raised in a gesture of greeting. Impressionist artists were inspired to paint such moments in order to more effectively convey the quality of spontaneous human action. Photography freed artists from the preconception that a subject should be painted in a static, artificial entirety, and inspired them to capture the random and fragmentary qualities of our world. Finally, since photography preempted painting as the means of obtaining portraits, painters had more freedom to vary their subject matter, thus giving rise to the abstract creations characteristic of modern art.
1. Which one of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage？
（A） The progress of art relies primarily on technology.
（B） Technological innovation can be beneficial to art.
（C） There are risks associated with using technology to create art.
（D） Technology will transform the way the public responds to art.
（E） The relationship between art and technology has a lengthy history.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author shares which one of the following opinions with the opponents of the use of new technology in art？
（A） The live performance is an important aspect of the artistic enterprise.
（B） The public's commitment to the artistic enterprise is questionable.
（C） Recent technological innovations present an entirely new sort of challenge to art.
（D） Technological innovations of the past have been very useful to artists.
（E） The performing arts are especially vulnerable to technological innovation.
3. Which one of the following, if true, would most undermine the position held by opponents of the use of new technology in art concerning the effect of technology on live performance？
（A） Surveys show that when recordings of performances are made available for home viewing, the public becomes far more knowledgeable about different performing artists.
（B） Surveys show that some people feel comfortable responding spontaneously to artistic performances when they are viewing recordings of those performances at home.
（C） After a live performance, sales of recordings for home viewing of the particular performing artist generally increase.
（D） The distribution of recordings of artists' performances has begun to attract many new audience members to their live performances.
（E） Musicians are less apt to make creative changes in musical pieces during recorded performances than during live performances.
4. The author uses the example of the Steadicam primarily in order to suggest that
（A） the filming of performances should not be limited by inadequate equipment
（B） new technologies do not need to be very complex in order to benefit art
（C） the interaction of a traditional art form with a new technology will change attitudes toward technology in general
（D） the replacement of a traditional technology with a new technology will transform definitions of a traditional art form
（E） new technology does not so much preempt as enhance a traditional art form
5. According to the passage, proponents of the use of new electronic technology in the arts claim that which one of the following is true？
（A） Most people who reject the use of electronic technology in art forget that machines require a person to operate them
（B） Electronic technology allows for the expansion of archives because longer performances can be recorded
（C） Electronic technology assists artists in finding new ways to present their material
（D） Electronic technology makes the practice of any art form more efficient by speeding up the creative process
（E） Modern dance is the art form that will probably benefit most from the use of electronic technology
6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would agree with which one of the following statements regarding changes in painting since the nineteenth century？
（A） The artistic experiments of the nineteenth century led painters to use a variety of methods in creating portraits, which they then applied to other subject matter.
（B） The nineteenth-century knowledge of light and movement provided by photography inspired the abstract works characteristic of modern art.
（C） Once painters no longer felt that they had to paint conventional portraits, they turned exclusively to abstract portraiture.
（D） Once painters were less limited to the impressionist style, they were able to experiment with a variety of styles of abstract art.
（E） Once painters painted fewer conventional portraits, they had greater opportunity to move beyond the literal depiction of objects.
During the 1940s and 1950s the United States government developed a new policy toward Native Americans, often know as “readjustment.” Because the increased awareness of civil rights in these decades helped reinforce the belief that life on reservations prevented native Americans from exercising the rights guaranteed to citizens under the United States Constitution, the readjustment movement advocated the end of the federal government's involvement in Native American affairs and encouraged the assimilation of Native Americans as individuals into mainstream society. However, the same years also saw the emergence of a na？ve American leadership and efforts to develop tribal instructions and reaffirm tribal identity. The clash of these two trends may be traced in the attempts on the part of the Bureau on Indian Affairs （BIA） to convince the Oneida tribe of Wisconsin to accept readjustment.
The culmination of BIA efforts to sway the Oneida occurred at a meeting that took place in the fall of 1956. The BIA suggested that it would be to the Oneida's benefit to own their own property and, like other homeowners, pay real estate taxes on it. The BIA also emphasized that, after readjustment, the government would not attempt to restrict Native Americans' ability to sell their individually owned lands. The Oneida were then offered a one-time lump-sum payment of $60,000 in lieu of the $0.52 annuity guaranteed in perpetuity to each member of the tribe under the Canandaigua Treaty.
The efforts of the BIA to “sell” readjustment to the tribe failed because the Oneida realized that they had heard similar offers before. The Oneida delegates reacted negatively to the BIA's first suggestion because taxation of Native American lands had been one past vehicle for dispossessing the Oneida： after the distribution of some tribal lands to individual Native Americans in the late nineteenth century, Native American lands became subject to taxation, resulting in new and impossible financial burdens., foreclosures, and subsequent tax sales of property. The Oneida delegates were equally suspicious of the BIA's emphasis on the rights of individual landowners, since in the late nineteenth century many individual Native Americans had been convinced by unscrupulous speculators to sell their lands. Finally, the offer of a lump-sum payment was unanimously opposed by the Oneida delegates, who saw that changing the terms of a treaty might jeopardize the many pending land claims based upon the treaty.
As a result of the 1956 meeting, the Oneida rejected readjustment. Instead, they determined to improve tribal life by lobbying for federal monies for postsecondary education, for the improvement of drainage on tribal lands, and for the building of a convalescent home for tribal members. Thus, by learning the lessons of history, the Oneida were able to survive as a tribe in their homeland.
7. Which one of the following would be most consistent with the policy of readjustment described in the passage？
（A） the establishment among Native Americans of a tribal system of a elected government
（B） the creation of a national project to preserve Native American language and oral history
（C） the establishment of programs to encourage Native Americans to move from reservations to urban areas
（D） the development of a large-scale effort to restore Native American lands to their original tribes
（E） the reaffirmation of federal treaty obligations to Native American tribes
8. According to the passage, after the 1956 meeting the Oneida resolved to
（A） obtain improved social services and living conditions for members of the tribe
（B） pursue litigation designed to reclaim tribal lands
（C） secure recognition of their unique status as a self-governing Native American nation within the United States
（D） establish new kinds of tribal institutions
（E） cultivate a life-style similar to that of other United States citizens
9. Which one of the following best describes the function of the first paragraph in the context of the passage as a whole？
（A） It summarizes the basis of a conflict underlying negotiations described elsewhere in the passage
（B） It presents two positions, one of which is defended by evidence provided in succeeding paragraphs.
（C） It compares competing interpretations of a historical conflict.
（D） It analyzes the causes of a specific historical event and predicts a future development.
（E） It outlines the history of a government agency.
10. The author refers to the increased awareness of civil rights during the 1940s and 1950s most probably in order to
（A） contrast the readjustment movement with other social phenomena
（B） account for the stance of the Native American leadership
（C） help explain the impetus for the readjustment movement
（D） explain the motives of BIA bureaucrats
（E） foster support for the policy of readjustment
11. The passage suggest that advocates of readjustment would most likely agree with which one of the following statements regarding the relationship between the federal government and Native Americans？
（A） The federal government should work with individual Native Americans to improve life on reservations.
（B） The federal government should be no more involved in the affaires of Native Americans than in the affairs of other citizens.
（C） The federal government should assume more responsibility for providing social services to Native Americans.
（D） The federal government should share its responsibility for maintaining Native American territories with tribal leaders.
（E） The federal government should observe all provisions of treaties made in the past with Native Americans.
12. The passage suggests that the Oneida delegates viewed the Canandaigua Treaty as
（A） a valuable safeguard of certain Oneida rights and privileges
（B） the source of many past problems for the Oneida tribe
（C） a model for the type of agreement they hoped to reach with the federal government
（D） an important step toward recognition of their status as an independent Native American nation
（E） an obsolete agreement without relevance for their current condition
13. Which one of the following situations most closely parallels that of the Oneida delegates in refusing to accept a lump-sum payment of $60,000？
（A） A university offers s a student a four-year scholarship with the stipulation that the student not accept any outside employment； the student refuses the offer and attends a different school because the amount of the scholarship would not have covered living expenses.
（B） A company seeking to reduce its payroll obligations offers an employee a large bonus if he will accept early retirement； the employee refuses because he does not want to compromise an outstanding worker's compensation suit.
（C） Parents of a teenager offer to pay her at the end of the month for performing weekly chores rather than paying her on a weekly basis； the teenager refuses because she has a number of financial obligations that she must meet early in the month.
（D） A car dealer offers a customer a $500 cash payment for buying a new car； the customer refuses because she does not want to pay taxes on the amount, and requests instead that her monthly payments be reduced by a proportionate amount.
（E） A landlord offers a tenant several months rent-free in exchange for the tenant's agreeing not to demand that her apartment be painted every two years, as is required by the lease； the tenant refuses because she would have to spend her own time painting the apartment.
Direct observation of contemporary societies at the threshold of widespread literacy has not assisted our understanding of how such literacy altered ancient Greek society, in particular its political culture. The discovery of what Goody has called the “enabling effects” of literacy in contemporary societies tends to seduce the observer into confusing often rudimentary knowledge of how to read with popular access to important books and documents： this confusion is then projected onto ancient societies. “In ancient Greece, ” Goody writes, “alphabetic reading and writing was important for the development of political democracy.”
An examination of the ancient Greek city Athens exemplifies how this sort of confusion is detrimental to understanding ancient politics. In Athens, the early development of a written law code was retrospectively mythologized as the critical factor in breaking the power monopoly of the old aristocracy, hence the Greek tradition of the “law-giver, ” which has captured the imaginations of scholars like Goody. But the application and efficacy of all law codes depend on their interpretation by magistrates and courts, and unless the right of interpretation is “democratized,” the mere existence of written laws changes little.
In fact, never in antiquity did any but the elite consult documents and books. Even in Greek courts the juries heard only the relevant statures read out during the proceedings, as they heard verbal testimony, and they then rendered their verdict on the spot, without the benefit of any discussion among themselves. True, in Athens the juries were representative of a broad spectrum of the population, and these juries, drawn from diverse social classes, both interpreted what they had heard and determined matters of fact. However, they guided solely by the speeches prepared for the parties by professional pleaders and by the quotations of laws or decrees with the speeches, rather than by their own access to any kind of document of book.
Granted, people today also rely heavily on a truly knowledgeable minority for information and its interpretation, often transmitted orally. Yet this is still fundamentally different from an ancient society in which there was no “popular literature, ” i.e., no newspapers, magazines, or other media that dealt with sociopolitical issues. An ancient law code would have been analogous to the Latin Bible, a venerated document but a closed book. The resistance of the medieval Church to vernacular translations of the Bible, in the West at least, is therefore a pointer to the realities of ancient literacy. When fundamental documents are accessible for study only to an elite, the rest of the society is subject to the elite's interpretation of the rules of behavior, including right political behavior. Athens, insofar as it functioned as a democracy, did so not because of widespread literacy, but because the elite had chosen to accept democratic institutions.
14. Which one of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage？
（A） Democratic political institutions grow organically from the traditions and conventions of a society.
（B） Democratic political institutions are not necessarily the outcome of literacy in a society.
（C） Religious authority, like political authority, can determine who in a given society will have access to important books and documents.
（D） Those who are best educated are most often those who control the institutions of authority in a society.
（E） Those in authority have a vested interest in ensuring that those under their control remain illiterate.
15. It can be inferred from the passage that the author assumes which one of the following about societies in which the people possess a rudimentary reading ability？
（A） They are more politically advanced than societies without rudimentary reading ability.
（B） They are unlikely to exhibit the positive effects of literacy.
（C） They are rapidly evolving toward widespread literacy.
（D） Many of their people might not have access to important documents and books.
（E） Most of their people would not participate in political decision-making.
16. The author refers to the truly knowledgeable minority in contemporary societies in the context of the fourth paragraph in order to imply which one of the following？
（A） Because they have a popular literature that closes the gap between the elite and the majority, contemporary societies rely far less on the knowledge of experts than did ancient societies.
（B） Contemporary societies rely on the knowledge of experts, as did ancient societies, because contemporary popular literature so frequently conveys specious information.
（C） Although contemporary societies rely heavily on the knowledge of experts, access to popular literature makes contemporary societies less dependent on experts for information about rules of behavior than were ancient societies.
（D） While only some members of the elite can become experts, popular literature gives the majority in contemporary society an opportunity to become members of such an elite.
（E） Access to popular literature distinguishes ancient from contemporary societies because it relies on a level of educational achievement attainable only be a contemporary elite.
17. According to the passage, each of the following statements concerning ancient Greek juries is true EXCEPT：
（A） They were somewhat democratic insofar as they were composed largely of people form the lowest social classes.
（B） They were exposed to the law only insofar as they heard relevant statutes read out during legal proceedings.
（C） They ascertained the facts of a case and interpreted the laws.
（D） They did not have direct access to important books and documents that were available to the elite.
（E） They rendered verdicts without benefit of private discussion among themselves.
18. The author characterizes the Greek tradition of the “law-giver” （line 21） as an effect mythologizing most probably in order to
（A） illustrate the ancient Greek tendency to memorialize historical events by transforming them into myths.
（B） convey the historical importance of the development of the early Athenian written law code
（C） convey the high regard in which the Athenians held their legal tradition
（D） suggest that the development of a written law code was not primarily responsible for diminishing the power of the Athenian aristocracy
（E） suggest that the Greek tradition of the “law-giver” should be understood in the larger context of Greek mythology
19. The author draws an analogy between the Latin Bible and an early law code （lines 49-51） in order to make which one of the following points？
（A） Documents were considered authoritative in premodern society in proportion to their inaccessibility to the majority.
（B） Documents that were perceived as highly influential in premodern societies were not necessarily accessible to the society's majority.
（C） What is most revered in a nondemocratic society is what is most frequently misunderstood.
（D） Political documents in premodern societies exerted a social influence similar to that exerted by religious documents.
（E） Political documents in premodern societies were inaccessible to the majority of the population because of the language in which they were written.
20. The primary purpose of the passage is to
（A） argue that a particular method of observing contemporary societies is inconsistent
（B） point out the weaknesses in a particular approach to understanding ancient societies
（C） present the disadvantages of a particular approach to understanding the relationship between ancient and contemporary societies
（D） examine the importance of developing an appropriate method for understanding ancient societies
（E） convey the difficulty of accurately understanding attitudes in ancient societies.
The English who in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries inhabited those colonies that would later become the United States shared a common political vocabulary with the English in England. Steeped as they were in the English political language, these colonials failed to observe that their experience in America had given the words a significance quite different from that accepted by the English with whom they debated； in fact, they claimed that they were more loyal to the English political tradition than were the English in England.
In many respects the political institutions of England were reproduced in these American colonies. By the middle of eighteenth century, all of these colonies except four were headed by Royal Governors appointed by the King and perceived as bearing a relation to the people of the colony similar to that of the King to the English people. Moreover, each of these colonies enjoyed a representative assembly, which was consciously modeled, in powers and practices, after the English Parliament. In both England and these colonies, only property holders could vote.
Nevertheless, though English and colonial institutions were structurally similar, attitudes toward those institutions differed. For example, English legal development from the early seventeenth century had been moving steadily toward the absolute power of Parliament. The most unmistakable sign of this tendency was the legal assertion that the King was subject to the law. Together with this resolute denial of the absolute right of kings went the assertion that Parliament was unlimited in its power： it could change even the Constitution by its ordinary acts of legislation. By the eighteenth century the English had accepted the idea that the parliamentary representatives of the people were omnipotent.
The citizens of these colonies did not look upon the English Parliament with such fond eyes, nor did they concede that their own assemblies possessed such wide powers. There were good historical reasons for this. To the English the word “constitution” meant the whole body of law and legal custom formulated since the beginning of the kingdom, whereas to these colonials a constitution was a specific written document, enumerating specific powers. This distinction in meaning can be traced to the fact that the foundations of government in the various colonies were written charters granted by the Crown. These express authorizations to govern were tangible, definite things. Over the years these colonial had often repaired to the charters to justify themselves in the struggle against tyrannical governors or officials of the Crown. More than a century of government under written constitutions convinced these colonists of the necessity for and efficacy of protecting their liberties against governmental encroachment by explicitly defining all governmental powers in a document.
21. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage？
（A） The colonials and the English mistakenly thought that they shared a common political vocabulary.
（B） The colonials and the English shared a variety of institutions.
（C） The colonials and the English had conflicting interpretations of the language and institutional structures that they shared.
（D） Colonial attitudes toward English institutions grew increasingly hostile in the eighteenth century.
（E） Seventeenth-century English legal development accounted for colonial attitudes toward constitutions.
22. The passage supports all of the following statements about the political conditions present by the middle of the eighteenth century in the American colonies discussed in the passage EXCEPT：
（A） Colonials who did not own property could not vote.
（B） All of these colonies had representative assemblies modeled after the British Parliament.
（C） Some of these colonies had Royal Governors.
（D） Royal Governors could be removed from office by colonial assemblies.
（E） In these colonies, Royal Governors were regarded as serving a function like that of a king.
23. The passage implies which one of the following about English kings prior to the early seventeenth century？
（A） They were the source of all law.
（B） They frequently flouted laws made by Parliament.
（C） Their power relative to that of Parliament was considerably greater than it was in the eighteenth century.
（D） They were more often the sources of legal reform than they were in the eighteenth century.
（E） The had to combat those who believed that the power of Parliament was absolute.
24. The author mentions which one of the following as evidence for the eighteenth-century English attitude toward Parliament？
（A） The English had become uncomfortable with institutions hat could claim absolute authority.
（B） The English realized that their interests were better guarded by Parliament than by the King.
（C） The English allowed Parliament to make constitutional changes by legislative enactment.
（D） The English felt that the King did not possess the knowledge that could enable him to rule responsibly.
（E） The English had decided that it was time to reform their representative government.
25. The passage implies that the colonials discussed in the passage would have considered which one of the following to be a source of their debates with England？
（A） their changed use of the English political vocabulary
（B） English commitment to parliamentary representation
（C） their uniquely English experience
（D） their refusal to adopt any English political institutions
（E） their greater loyalty to the English political traditions.
26. According to the passage, the English attitude toward the English Constitution differed from the colonial attitude toward constitutions in that the English regarded their Constitution as
（A） the legal foundation of the kingdom
（B） a document containing a collection of customs
（C） a cumulative corpus of legislation and legal traditions
（D） a record alterable by royal authority
（E） an unchangeable body of governmental powers
27. The primary purpose of the passage is to
（A） expose the misunderstanding that has characterized descriptions of the relationship between seventeenth and eighteenth-century England and certain of its American colonies
（B） suggest a reason for England's treatment of certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
（C） settle an ongoing debate about the relationship between England and certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
（D） interpret the events leading up to the independence of certain of England's American colonies in the eighteenth century
（E） explain an aspect of the relationship between England and certain of its American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries