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专业四级考前恶补--写作

2006-07-16 13:45

  [写作佳句及惯用表达]

  Daily life needs advertisements because the main function of advertising is to disseminate information on commodities, services, culture, employment, student enrolment and even marriage.

  日常生活需要广告,因为广告的主要功能是传播有关商品、服务、文化、就业、招生、甚至婚姻方面的信息。

  Advertisements provide the most direct, comprehensive and detailed information. We get to know about household goods from advertisements. Advertising can be beneficial to the customers if it is true to its claims.

  广告提供最直接、全面和详细的信息。我们从广告上了解家用商品。广告如果名副其实,对消费者是有益的。

  Advertising creates mass markets. Without advertisements, manufacturers may find it difficult to sell their products.

  广告可开拓市场。如果没有广告,生产者就可能难以销售他们的产品。

  Without advertisements, newspapers, commercial radios and television companies could not survive.

  (如果)没有广告,报社、商业广播电台、电视公司就不能生存。

  Advertisements are misleading and cheating. They are filled with flowery phrases and empty promises.

  广告起误导作用,并具有欺骗性。广告中充满着华丽的词语和空洞的诺言。

  Fake advertising cheats consumers and, in some serious cases, t

  hreatens gullible people‘s lives.

  虚假广告欺骗消费者,而且严重地对轻信广告的人们的生命构成威胁。

  Advertisers are inconsiderate of the public. What they care about is making money.

  广告商不顾大众利益。他们所关心的就是赚钱。

  Advertisements are not based on the quality of the goods, but on the principle that if one keeps talking about the same thing long enough, eventually people will pay attention to it.

  广告的制作并不是根据产品的质量,而是根据这样的原则:一个人只要长时间一直谈论同一东西,最终人们就会去注意它。

  Advertising encourages consumers to “keep up with the Joneses”, namely, it creates an acquisitive society and a demand for material things.

  广告鼓励消费者攀比,换句话说,广告创造出一个贪婪的社会及对物质的需求。

  Consumers are encouraged by advertisements to buy insurance (fear); buy cosmetics (vanity); and eat more than necessary (greed)。

  广告鼓励消费者买保险(恐惧);买化妆品(虚荣);多吃(贪婪)。

  Admonish your friends in private, praise them in public.

  对朋友私下劝戒,公开表扬。

  [写作范文]

  Advertising is common throughout the world as a way of letting the public know about a product. Some people feel that advertising is generally helpful, while others feel it is often harmful. Discuss your idea of good and bad effects of advertising, and decide whether you think it is generally helpful or harmful. Use specific examples to support your discussion.

  Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:

  The Good and Bad Effects of Advertising

  You are to write in four paragraphs.

  In the first paragraph, state your point of view.\;

  In the second paragraph, describe the harmful effects and give specific examples.

  In the third paragraph, describe the helpful effects and give specific examples.

  In the last paragraph, restate your point of view.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy.

  Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  

  In most countries in the world, advertising is common. You can see posters

  on doors, signs on buses, pictures in magazines, and commercials on TV. Though

  these signs of advertising are often disliked, I feel that, overall, advertising

  has very positive results.

  The harmful effects of advertising are obvious. When you are listening to

  beautiful music on the radio, a commercial is disturbing when it interrupts your program and changes your mood. Television commercials are the worst of all. Your program is stopped, and you are forced to watch an advertisement unless you actively change the channel or leave the room. I think that there should be laws to limit the advertisers‘ right to interrupt TV and radio programs.

  In general, however, I think that the positive results of advertisements are beneficial to society and individuals. When I do shopping, I can use advertisements in newspapers to compare prices, features, and quality of the product I want to buy. By being more informed, I can buy something that will benefit me in the long run. With advertisements, people save a lot of time in shopping, looking for jobs, etc.

  Adversity leads to prosperity.

  逆境通向成功。

  All in all, for a wise and educated shopper, the helpful effects of advertising outweigh the harmful effects.

  [学习要点]

  ① commercial商业广告

  ② benefit me in the long run从长远来说对我有益。比较in the short run: 从短期来说

  ③ all in all 总的说来;总之

  [要点提示]

  is seldom welcome; and those who want it the most always like it the least.

  忠言逆耳,就是最需要忠告的人也总是最不喜欢它。

  结构分析:

  Ⅰ。 Introduction

  DS: ① ② …… (过渡句)

  TS: Though these signs of advertising are often disliked, I feel that, overall, advertising has very positive results. (作者的观点。Though clause 使得表达上更严密。)

  Ⅱ。Body

  TS1: The harmful effects of advertising are obvious. (提出广告有害的一面)

  DS: ① …… ② …… ③ …… ④ ……(论据—supporting facts)

  TS2: In general, however, I think that the positive results of advertisem

  ents are beneficial to society and individuals.(广告有益的方面)

  DS: ①… ②  …  ③  … (论据—supporting facts)

  Ⅲ。 Conclusion

  All in all, for a wise and educated shopper, the helpful effects of advertising

  outweigh the harmful effects. (作者的结论。all in all起总结作用)

  [模拟训练1]  [35 MIN.]

  Some people enjoy advertisements on TV. Others say that advertisements on TV are annoying. What do you think are the reasons for the growing number of ads on TV? And what is your attitude toward ads on TV? Use specific reasons for your answer.

  Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:

  A new broom sweeps clean.

  新官上任三把火。

  My View on Advertisements on TV

  You are to write in three paragraphs.

  In the first paragraph, state your point of view.

  In the second paragraph, give specific examples for your view.

  In the last paragraph, restate your point of view.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy.

  Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  Your essay may be based on the outline below:

  Ⅰ。Introduction

  TS: Nowadays advertisements are very common. 

  DS: ①  …  ②  …  ③  …  (supporting fac

  ts)

  Ⅱ。 Body

  TS: There are two reasons, I think, for the growing number of ads on TV.

  

  DS: ① First,  …  Thus,  …  ,They  …  By advertising, each producer tries … ② Second,  …  They  …  ③ Consequently …

  (specific reasons) 

  Ⅲ。 Conclusion

  As far as I am concerned, I am in favor of / against TV ads because …  But …

  模拟训练参考范文

  My View on Advertisements on TV

  

  Nowadays advertisements are very common. Whenever you turn on TV, you are likely to see ads. The advertisers are trying to inform you of the many different sorts of uptodate products on the market. Besides, it often occurs while you are absorbed in watching a wonderful film on TV, endless commercials interrupt you from time to time, and make you quite annoyed.

  There are two reasons, I think, for the growing number of ads on TV. First, in a competitive economy, the consumer usually has the choice of several different brands of the same product. Thus, manufacturers are confronted with a problem—how to keep their sales high enough to stay competent in the business. They solve this problem by advertising. By advertising, each producer tries to convince the consumers that its product is preferable. Second, most consumers are interested in ads. They want to get from TV ads the firsthand information about new products, which enables them to choose the one they like best. Consequently, ads increase a lot on the TV screen.

  As far as I am concerned, I am in favor of TV ads because most of them are interesting and informative. But there is no denying that some TV ads are tedious and boring. So I feel TV stations are faced with an arduous task to strengthen the control of ads, to improve their quality and to make them attractive.

  Test 2  Bicycle·自行车

  After the work is done, repose is sweet.

  工作到完毕,休息感甜蜜。

  

  [写作佳句及惯用表达]

  1.A bicycle is really an important means of transportation in China.

  在中国,自行车是一种重要的运输工具。

  2. China is called the kingdom of bicycles.

  中国被称为自行车王国。

  3. Bicycles do not cause air or sound pollution.

  自行车不造成空气或声音污染。

  4. Compared with cars, bicycles cause no environmental problems.

  与汽车相比,自行车不造成环境问题。

  5. Bicycles save energy and parking places.

  自行车节省能源和停车场所。

  6. Riding bikes to travel and appreciate the natural scenery is really a wonderful experience.

  骑自行车旅行、欣赏自然风景的确是很美妙的活动。

  7. The bicycle allows us to go anywhere nearby easily.

  骑自行车可使我们很容易地到达附近的任何地方。

  8. Bikes are not very expensive on average, and almost every family can afford them.

  自行车一般不贵,几乎家家都能买得起。

  9. During the rush hours, you can often see a boiling sea of bicycles running in all directions.

  在高峰期间,你可经常看见沸腾的自行车海洋涌向四面八方。

  10. Riding bikes regularly does good to your health.

  经常骑自行车有益于健康。 

  [写作范文]

  Inventions such as the electric lamp and the television have had an important effect on our lives. Choose another invention that you think is important. Give specific reasons for your choice.

  Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:

  Bicycle

  Bicycles have become more and more popular in China. People ride bikes to their work places, to shopping areas, to schools, and so on. During the rush hours, you can often see a boiling sea of bicycles running in all directions. With the largest number of bike riders in the world, China is often referred to as the kingdom of bicycles.

  All are not friends that speak us fair.

  说我们好话的未必全是朋友。

  Compared with cars, bikes have many advantages. First, they are not very expensive, and almost every family can afford them. Second, they are very handy and convenient though they are not so fast as cars. With a bike, you can go anywhere you like, and you don‘t have to look for a large parking place. By riding bikes, you can avoid traffic jams and thus save the time and the money for taking taxis. Third, they do not cause air or sound pollution. 

  Riding bikes does good to your health if you ride it regularly. In modern times, people are usually too busy to spare any time for physical exercise. Riding a bike to your work place regularly serves as a good way to keep yourself strong and healthy. 

  Therefore, a bicycle is really an important means of transportation in China. It has been very useful, convenient and necessary ever since it was invented. And I do believe it will still be so in the future.

  [学习要点]

  ① rush hour 交通拥挤的时间,高峰时刻

  ② handy 便利的;容易取得的(useful and simple to use; near and easy to reach)

  ③ refer to sth. /sb. 把…称作。相当于regard sth. / sb. as

  ④ serve as 起…的作用

  [要点提示]

  本文为说明文。本文首先说明自行车在中国普及的现象,然后从几方面说明自行车的

  advantages,最后总结:A bicycle is really an important means of transportation in China. 文章正文部分用列举法(一一列举自行车的好处)和比较对比法(与汽车相比)。关联词语:First,  …  Second, … Third, …

  [模拟训练2] [35 MIN.]

  All that glitters is not gold.

  发光的未必都是金子。

  China is called the kingdom of bicycles because it has the largest number of bicycles in the world. What do you think of the advantages and disadvantages of bikes in China?

  Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:

  My View on Bicycles in China

  You are to write in three paragraphs.

  In the first paragraph, state the fact of popularity of bikes in China.

  In the second paragraph, tell the advantages of bikes.

  In the final paragraph, state the disadvantages and your view on it.

  Your composition may be based on the outline below:

  Ⅰ。 Introduction

  TS: China is called the kingdom of bicycles because … 

  DS: ①  …  ②  …  ③  …  ④  … (popularity of bikes in China) 

  Ⅱ。Body

  TS: Compared with cars, bikes have many advantages. 

  DS: First,  …    Second,  …  Third,  …

  Besides,  …  (advantages) 

  Ⅲ。 Conclusion

  However,  … 

  DS:①  …  ②  …  ③  …  ④  … (disadvantages and your comment)

  [模拟训练参考作文2]

  My View on Bicycles in China

  China is called the kingdom of bicycles because it has the largest number of bicycles in the world. The bicycle is the most popular transportation tool in China. Wherever you go, you can see many people riding on bikes to go to work, school, do shopping, or visit friends. During the rush hour, you may see a boiling sea of bikes in all directions.

  Compared with cars, bikes have many advantages. First, they are very handy and convenient. With a bike, you can go anywhere you like, and you needn‘t look for a large parking place in a crowded town. By riding bikes, you can avoid traffic jams and thus save the time. Second, they are not very expensive, and almost every family can afford them. Third, they do not cause air or sound pollution. Besides, riding bikes regularly does good to your health. In modern times, people are usually too busy to have any time for physical exercise. Riding bikes serves as a good way to keep yourself strong and healthy.

  However, bicycles also have some disadvantages. For example, they make streets crowded and are likely to cause traffic accidents. In rainy or snowy weather, riding bikes may be difficult, and fall from them may result in injury. But despite the disadvantages, the bicycle is still very useful, convenient and necessary means of transportation in China. And I do believe it will still be so in future.

  Test  3  Books·书

  

  

  [写作佳句及惯用表达]

  1.A book that remains shut is but a block. (prov.) 藏书

  不读如藏木。

  2.We may spend our lives in reading fiction, but truth beats fiction all the time, and there has never  been yet a novel so wonderful as life itself.

  尽管我们一辈子看小说,但现实总是胜过小说,从来没有哪本小说有真正的生活色彩。

  3.Books, like friends, should be few and well chosen. (prov.)

  读书如择友,宜少而精。

  All is well that ends well.

  结果好一切都好。

  4.A good book is a best friend who never turns his back upon us. (prov.)

  好书如挚友,永远不相负。

  5.Books are the everburning lamps of accumulated wisdom.

  —G.W. Curtis

  书籍乃储积智慧之不灭明灯。 ——葛迪斯

  6.A good book is the best of friends, the same today and forever. (prov.)

  好书如挚友,情谊永不渝。

  7.Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.  —F. Bacon

  书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。——培根

  8.Books are good enough in their own way, but they are a mighty bloodless substitute for life. —R.L. Stevenson

  从它们自己所发生的效用上,书籍真是够好的东西,但它们是很强悍的、不见血的生命替代者。——史蒂文森

  9.There is a great deal of difference between the eager man who wants to read a book, and the tired man who wants a book to read.  —G.K. Chesterton一个热心求知者要去读一本书,一个疲倦的人需要一本书来读,这两种人之间有很大的区别。 ——吉士特顿

  10.Life being very short, and the quiet hours of it few; we ought to waste none of them in reading valueless books.—John Ruskin

  生命是短暂的,而其中寂静的时光更少,我们不应花其中的宝贵时间去读无价值的书。  ——罗斯金

  11.That is a good book which is opened with expectation and closed with profit. —L. M. Alcott

  好书开卷引人入胜,终卷使人获益。 ——亚尔葛脱

  12.Only two classes of books are of universal appeal. The very best and the very worst. —F. M. Ford

  只有两类书有广泛的吸引力:真正最好的和最坏的。——福特

  Calamity is man‘s true touchstone.

  患难之中见人心。

  

  [写作范文]

  Some people like to buy books to read. Others like to borrow books from libraries or from other people. Compare the advantages of these two ways of reading. Which do you prefer? Why?

  Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:Borrowing Books or Buying Books

  Some people like to borrow books to read, while others prefer to buy books. Both ways have their advantages. 

  Borrowing books to read has two major advantages. First, you just urge yourself to finish as soon as possible the books you borrowed from a library or from other people. You will be fined if you fail to return them to the library in due t

  ime, or you will lose trust if you keep books of others too long, and they will probably refuse to lend you any more books. So you have to read it desirously, forgetting your meals and sleep. On the other hand, if you buy a book, you may put it away, thinking it is yours and you don‘t have to finish it quickly. Another

  advantage of borrowing books enables you to read books without spending any money. In recent years, more and more books come out each year, and the prices of books keep on rising. Ordinary people cannot afford to buy so many books they want to read either for information or entertainment. In addition, often I need to read only a part of some books. It is unnecessary for me to buy them.

  However, there are some kinds of books that I have to buy. The first kind is reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias I need to use frequently. The second kind is textbooks I need to read more carefully in order to understand well. And it is also necessary for me to buy some famous literature books like The Complete Short Stories of Mark Twain, The Old Man and the Sea, Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

  So I think books are of two kinds: books for borrowing and books for buying. I like to borrow books that I read mainly for entertainment or read a part of. And for those books like reference books, I prefer to buy. Whether to borrow or to buy books, I think, mostly depends on the kinds.

  All roads lead to Rome.

  条条大路通罗马。

  [学习要点]

  ① You will be fined if you fail to return them to the library

  in due time. 你如果到期不还书就会被罚款。

  ② reference books 参考书,工具书

  ③ encyclopedia百科全书

  Call a spade a spade.

  直言不讳。

  

  [要点提示]

  All that speak us fair are not friends.

  说我们好话的人并非都是朋友。

  本文为议论文。作者首先提出自己的观点:Both ways have their advantages. 在正文中作者对比买书,举出充分的论据来说明借书的好处,然后作者又说明有些书需要买。这样,避免了使观点绝对化,又很客观地说明了问题。最后作者得出结论:So I think books are of two kinds: books for borrowing and books for buying. 接着又用两句话解释了该结论。文章观点明确,论据充分,论证严密。

  本文关联词语使用恰当:

  表示对比:On the other hand 

  表示列举:First,Another……, In addition(此外,引出补充论据)

  表示对比或转折:However

   

  [模拟训练3][35 MIN.]

  Fiction (such as novels and short stories) can teach us more about life than textbooks can. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons to support your answer.

  Write a composition of about 150 words on the following topic:

  Fiction Can Teach Us More

  You are to write in three parts.

  In the first part, state your opinion.

  In the second part, give specific reasons for your opinion.

  In the last paragraph, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion

  with a summary.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy.

  Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  [模拟训练参考作文3]

  Fiction Can Teach Us More

  Fiction, such as novels and short stories, is always considered as a way of entertainment, but as far as I am concerned, I think it is far more than a pure relaxation. It can be instructive, and it can even teach us more about life than textbooks.

  Authors of famous works are usually wellexperienced. They put all their knowledge and social experience into their literary works. They create a colorful world in which we can find great quantity of treasure.

  Since fiction is primarily based on everyday life, the knowledge it includes is always close to life. It is easy to master and ready to practice. On the contrary, textbooks focus on specialized subjects and they intend to be obtuse, theoretical or abstract and therefore dull. To most ordinary people, fiction is more acceptable.

  There is no royal road to learning.

  学无坦途。

  Another reason why fiction is superior to textbooks lies in their imagination. Authors always create attractive characters so as to give his opinion about nature and the society as well as life. It not only provides knowledge, but also teaches us what is the right attitude toward life. For instance, we can learn from Gone With the Wind how to be a strongwilled person; from Jack London, how to love life. We can be stimulated to overcome all obstacles to realize our ambitions. 

  So, fiction enables people to form their positive view of life, optimism of spirit and invincible courage. In this aspect, fiction provides us with an opportunity to learn and to practice, while textbooks barely can.

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