外语教育网
您的位置:外语教育网 > 行业英语 > 计算机英语 > 专业词汇 正文
  • 站内搜索:

计算机术语

2006-07-15 14:38

  ActiveX ActiveX controls are software modules based on Microsoft`s Component Object Model (COM) architecture. They add functionality to software applications by seamlessly incorporating pre-made modules with the basic software package.Modules can be interchanged but still appear as parts of the original software.On the Internet, ActiveX controls can be linked to Web pages and downloaded by an ActiveX-compliant browser.ActiveX controls turn Web pages into software pages that perform like any other program launched from a server.ActiveX controls can have full system access.In most instances this access is legitimate, but one should be cautious of malicious ActiveX applications.

  Anti-virus Software Anti-virus software scans a computer`s memory and disk drives for viruses. If it finds a virus, the application informs the user and may clean, delete or quarantine any files, directories or disks affected by the malicious code.Also:Anti-virus Scanner

  Armored Virus An armored virus tries to prevent analysts from examining its code. The virus may use various methods to make tracing, disassembling and reverse engineering its code more difficult.

  ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Usually refers to coding system that assigns numerical values to characters such as letter, numbers, punctuation, and other symbols.Basic ASCII allows only 7 bits per character (for a total of 128 characters).The first 32 characters are "unprintable" (line feed, form feed, etc.).Extended ASCII adds an additional 128 characters that vary between computers, programs and fonts.Computers use these extra characters for accented letters, graphical haracters or other special symbols.

  Attack An attempt to subvert or bypass a system`s security.Attacks may be passive or active.Active attacks attempt to alter or destroy data.Passive attacks try to intercept or read data without changing it.See Also:Brute Force Attack, Denial of Service, Hijacking, Password Attacks, Password Sniffing

  Back Door A feature programmers often build into programs to allow special privileges normally denied to users of the program.Often programmers build back doors so they can fix bugs.If hackers or others learn about a back door, the feature may pose a security risk.Also:Trapdoor.

  Background Task A task executed by the system but generally remain invisible to the user. The system usually assigns background tasks a lower priority than foreground tasks.Some malicious software is executed by a system as a background task so the user does not realize unwanted actions are occurring.

  BIOS Basic Input/Output System.The part of the operating system that identifies the set of programs used to boot the computer before locating the system disk.The BIOS is located in the ROM (Read Only Memory) area of system and is usually stored permanently.

  Boot Sector An area located on the first track of floppy disks and logical disks that contain the boot record.Boot sector usually refers to this specific sector of a floppy disk, whereas the term Master Boot Sector usually refers to the same section of a hard disk.

  Bug An unintentional fault in a program that causes actions neither the user nor the program author intended.Cavity Virus.A cavity virus overwrites a part of its host file without increasing the length of the file while also preserving the host`s functionality.

  Cold Boot To start the computer by cycling the power. A cold boot using a rescue disk (a clean floppy disk with boot instructions and virus scanning capabilities) is often necessary to clean or remove boot sector infectors.See Also:Boot, Warm Boot

  COM File A type of executable file limited to 64 kb. These simple files are often used for utility programs and small routines.Because COM files are executable, viruses can infect them.This file type has the extension COM.

  Cookie Cookies are blocks of text placed in a file on your computer`s hard disk.Web sites use cookies to identify users who revisit the site.Cookies might contain login or registration information, "shopping cart" information or user preferences.When a server receives a browser request that includes a cookie, the server can use the information stored in the cookie to customize the Web site for the user.Cookies can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them.

  Direct Action Virus A direct action virus works immediately to load itself into memory, infect other files, and then to unload itself.

  DOC File A Microsoft Word Document File. In the past, these files contained only document data, but with many newer versions of Microsoft Word, DOC files also include small programs called macros.Many virus authors use the macro programming language to associate macros with DOC files.This file type has the extension DOC.

  DOS Disk Operating System. Generally any computer operating system, though often used as shorthand for MS-DOS——the operating system used by Microsoft before Windows was developed. FAT File Allocation Table. The under MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, 9x, and NT (in some cases), the FAT is located in the boot sector of the disk and stores the addresses of all the files contained on a disk.Viruses and other malicious programs, as well and normal use and extended wear and tear, can damage the FAT.If the FAT is damaged or corrupt, the operating system may be unable to locate files on the disk.

  Firewall A firewall prevents computers on a network from communicating directly with external computer systems. A firewall typically consists of a computer that acts as a barrier through which all information passing between the networks and the external systems must travel.The firewall software analyzes information passing between the two and rejects it if it does not conform to pre-configured rules.Good Times.See:Virus Hoaxes

  Macro A macro is a series of instructions designed to simplify repetitive tasks within a program such as Microsoft Word, Excel or Access.Macros execute when a user opens the associated file.Microsoft`s latest macro programming language is simple to use, powerful, and not limited to Word documents.Macros are in mini-programs and can be infected by viruses.See Also:Macro Virus

  Macro Virus A macro virus is a malicious macro. Macro viruses are written a macro programming language and attach to a document file (such as Word or Excel). When a document or template containing the macro virus is opened in the target application, the virus runs, does its damage and copies itself into other documents.Continual use of the program results in the spread of the virus.

  Memory-resident Virus A memory-resident virus stays in memory after it executes and infects other files when certain conditions are met.In contrast, non-memory-resident viruses are active only while an infected application runs.

  MP3 File Moving Picture Experts Group Audio Layer 3 File. MP3 files are highly compressed audio tracks, and are very popular on the Internet.MP3 files are not programs, and viruses cannot infect them.This file type has the extension MP3.

  MS-DOS The Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system Microsoft developed for the IBM platform before Windows.Windows 3.x, 95 and 98 rely heavily on MS-DOS and can execute most MS-DOS commands.

  On-demand Scanner A virus scanner the user starts manually. Most on-demand scanners allow the user to set various configurations and to scan specific files, folders or disks.

  Operating System The operating system is usually the underlying software that enables you to interact with the computer.The operating system controls the computer storage, communications and task management functions.Examples of common operating stems include:MS-DOS, MacOS, Linux, Windows 98.Also:OS, DOS

  Overwriting Virus An overwriting virus copies its code over its host file`s data, thus destroying the original program.Disinfection is possible, although files cannot be recovered.It is usually necessary to delete the original file and replace it with a clean copy.

  Password Sniffing The use of a sniffer to capture passwords as they cross a network. The network could be a local area network, or the Internet itself.The sniffer can be hardware or software.Most sniffers are passive and only log passwords.The attacker must then analyze the logs later.See Also:Sniffer

  Shared Drive A disk drive available to other computers on the network. Shared drives use the Universal Naming Convention to differentiate themselves from other drives.See Also:Mapped Drives, UNC

  SMTP Simple Mail Transport Protocol. The Internet e-mail delivery format for transmitting e-mail messages between servers.

  Sniffer A software program that monitors network traffic.Hackers use sniffers to capture data transmitted via a network.

  VBS Visual Basic Script.Visual Basic Script is a programming language that can invoke any system function——including starting, using and shutting down other applications without——user knowledge.VBS programs can be embedded in HTML files and provide active content via the Internet.Since not all content is benign, users should be careful about changing security settings without understanding the implications.This file type has the extension VBS.

  Virus A computer program file capable of attaching to disks or other files and replicating itself repeatedly, typically without user knowledge or permission.Some viruses attach to files so when the infected file executes, the virus also executes.Other viruses sit in a computer`s memory and infect files as the computer opens, modifies or creates the files.Some viruses display symptoms, and some viruses damage files and computer systems, but neither symptoms nor damage is essential in the definition of a virus;a non-damaging virus is still a virus.There are computer viruses written for several operating systems including DOS, Windows, Amiga, Macintosh, Atari, and UNIX, and others.McAfee.com presently detects more than 57,000 viruses, Trojans, and other malicious software.(Note:The preferred plural is the English form:viruses)See Also:Boot Sector Infector, File Viruses, Macro virus, Companion Virus, Worm,

  Warm Boot Restarting a computer without first turning off the power. Using CTL+ALT+DEL or the reset button on many computers can warm boot a machine.See Also:Cold Boot, Reset

  Worm Worms are parasitic computer programs that replicate, but unlike viruses, do not infect other computer program files.Worms can create copies on the same computer, or can send the copies to other computers via a network.Worms often spread via IRC (Internet Relay Chat).

  翻译:

  ActiveX ActiveX控制是根据微软公司(com)组成部分目的的典型的建筑学的软件模数他们接着说:对软件无缝的使预制的模数用基本软件package.Modules拉入内部的应用的功能性能被交换,但是象最初的software.On的部分那样还出现因特网ActiveX控制能和网页被连上,ActiveX做依据的browser.ActiveX控制转动网页卸载了成为象任何别的从server.ActiveX控制被开始的程序都能有完整的系统access.In的大部分的例子似地实行的软件页这接近合法,但是一个应该是恶意的ActiveX应用小心。

  抗反病毒软件抗反病毒软件对计算机记忆和磁盘驱动要求调查病毒如果它发现病毒,应用把任何文件,文件夹或受恶意的修改。就像抗病毒扫描仪的影响的磁盘通知用户,可以干净,删除,或者隔离

  武装病毒武装的病毒努力去妨碍分析者核查其代码病毒可以用各种的方法来做追踪,分解,逆向工程师其更难的代码。

  ASCII用于信息交换的美国标准代码通常成把把数值给特性分配象信,数字押宝,标点符号和其他的symbols.Basic ASCII 7位/特性(128特性的合计)仅仅认为.The的第一个32特性是这样的系统电码化提到“不适合印刷”(换行,换页,等等).扩展ASCII加在计算机之间变化的补充性的128特性编,并且,为强调的信,用图表示的haracters或其他的特殊的象征使用这些额外的特性。

  攻击破坏,或者绕过系统安全设置的尝试也许是改变,或者破坏攻击为了不改变它。正如:禽兽力量攻击——有用的否认——而拦截,或者读数据试着劫持,口令攻击。被动的攻击。主动攻击尝试在嗅气味口令

  后门木马程序编制员编写软件的特点成为了他们能固定漏洞。如果电脑黑客所以认为不被给程序。通常程序编制员的用户的通常的特权把门考虑进行编写或别的后门监听,特点可以把安全设定。正如 :地板门摆正位置。

  后台作业作业系统实行了,但是一般地保持给用户看不见系统把背景作业通常分配给与前景作业。有时的恶意的软件系统象背景作业那样实行相比,用户不理解发生不必要的行动所以更低的优先的程度。

  BIOS那个识别一套的操作系统的部分编的系统。那些用来在确定系统位置。BIOS的地点之前踢计算机的基本的输入/输出坐落于只读存储器(只读存储器)系统的地区,并且通常永久地储备。

  引导区被置于通常包括清空操作记录。启动部分的软盘和逻辑性的磁盘的第一个轨道的地区提到这软盘的特定的部门,但是,引导区通常提到硬盘的相同的一部分。

  漏洞当另外, 保存主功能性的时候,是在不引起用户和程序故障的同时,作者故意留下的。Cavity Virus.A病毒的程序里的非故意的缺点不增加文件的长度而写在其主文件的部分上面。

  冷起动开始使力循环的计算机在使用营救磁盘(清洁在搜寻能力的用引导命令和病毒软盘)的冷起动经常为了使引导区清洁.正如:引导——热启动——干净,或者除掉必要

  com文件某种类型可执行文件把限定了在64 kb范围内这些简单的文件为实用程序和小的程序。因为com文件经常被可执行病毒能感染。这类病毒感染疾病扩展com。

  Cookie Cookies是为了识别用户置到你的计算机硬盘。网络站点使用cookies上于文件的正文的场所.Cookies可以包括的注册,或者登记信息,或者用户服务器收到参数选择。当包括果子面包在内,服务器能用被保管在果子面包的信息来定制的浏览器要求给用户.Cookies的网点能被用来把与将相比,更多的信息聚集在用户不用他们而可能。

  直接执行病毒直接的行动病毒工作为了装本身成为记忆使其他的文件立即感染疾病,于是,放下本身。

  DOC文件Microsoft Word文档,这些文件仅仅包括了仅仅用Microsoft Word的很多的更新版本文件文件也包括的文件数据小编宏观的为了把宏指令联系起来和文件。这些文件类型的程序设计语言有的叫的macros。许多病毒作者使用扩展文件。

  DOS磁盘操作系统一般地一点也虽然象缩写微软磁盘操作系统——在视窗被开发之前操作系统用尽了微软公司——的那样经常被使用的计算机操作系统。

  FAT文件分配表下面微软磁盘操作系统,视窗3.x,9x,并且NT(一些情况在中)FAT象那样好好地坐落于全部文件的地址都在disk.Viruses上包括,并且恶意的另一个编的磁盘和商店的引导区,并且通常的使用和扩展的磨损能损害FAT.If FAT被破坏,或者自己损坏,操作系统也许不会把文件置于磁盘。

  Internet 防火墙Internet 防火墙在网络上妨碍计算机和外的计算机系统直接交流Internet 防火墙由扮演如果它不依从预先成形的规则。例如:病毒骗局全部在网络和外的系统不可缺少的东西运行.那么 Internet 防火墙软件之间通过的信息都分析在二之间通过的信息,拒绝接受它的栅栏的角色的计算机典型地构成

  宏指令宏指令是被计划在使用象Microsoft Word,Excel或Access.Macros实行用户开联合file.Microsoft程序设计语言给简单的最新的宏指令的时候这样非常的程序的范围内简化反复的作业,不被制限在文档.Macros在里的词范围内的命令的小的系列编程序,并且能是病毒.比如:宏观的病毒感染疾病

  宏病毒宏观的病毒是恶意的宏指令宏观的病毒被写宏观的程序设计语言,附着于文件文件(词或Excel类似)当包括宏观的病毒的文件或样板在目标应用中被开的时候,病毒跑,带来其损害,在病毒的扩展中复印本身成为程序结果的其他的文档。

  储内存病毒在它使其他的文件实行,感染疾病之后,当某条件计划运行.在形成对照的时候,存储常驻区的病毒待在记忆里,仅仅当感染疾病的应用跑的时候,非存储常驻区的病毒积极。

  MP3文件MPEG的声音的层3把归档MP3文件是非常压缩的声音的轨道,Internet.MP3文件上非常流行编,并且病毒一般不能使文件类型感染.这些文件感染疾病扩展MP3。

  微软磁盘操作系统微软磁盘操作系统在Windows.Windows 3.x,95和98重重地依靠微软磁盘操作系统,能实行大部分的微软磁盘操作系统指令之前操作系统微软公司为IBM(美国国际商用机器公司)平台发展了。

  扫描仪用户用手工开始的病毒扫描仪最随叫随到地扫描仪允许用户放各种的构造,搜寻特定的文件,文件夹或磁盘。

  操作系统操作系统通常是能使你与计算机记忆,通信和共同的操作的茎的计件工作管理functions.Examples包括的computer.The操作系统控制:微软磁盘操作系统相互作用,MacOS——Linux(PC机用的免费UNIX操作系统)——安装窗户的根本性的软件98.Also : OS——DOS——

  病毒写写的病毒在其主人文件数据上面复印其代码这样破坏最初的文件.杀毒可能,但是文件不能是杀毒.他通常为了删除最初的文件,只能用清洁的覆盖.

  嗅探口令为了截获口令的sniffer的使用他们把网络交差起来网络能是局部信息网或因特网.sniffer能是硬件或软件.许多sniffers是被动的,并且仅仅然后攻击者必须分析的密码.记录下来.正如: Sniffer

  共享给网络上的其他的计算机可以利用的磁盘驱动共同地享有的驾竹用普遍性的指定规则来把他们自己和其他的硬盘.正如:共享的——UNC——加以区别

  简单邮件传输协议简单的邮件运输拟定因特网向发送格式用电子信件方式发送传送服务器之间的电子信件信息。

  Sniffer截获网络传输的数据报文的工具。

  VBS基本的脚本.Visual写的Visual Basic是能祈求系统功能任何——开始,使用,关上下边的其他的应用不用而包括——保护的程序设计语言.VBS编的用户能在HTML文件中被埋入,规定经过全都满意的Internet.Since的积极的内容不慈祥,用户应该就不明白而改变安全设定注意链接.这些文件类型有扩展VBS。

  病毒

  热启动再开不第一个关上力的计算机使用很多的计算机上的钮能加热的CTL+ALT+DEL或复位启动机器.正如:冷起动——复位——

  蠕虫蠕虫是寄生的那样反复的计算机程序,但是不同的病毒,不使文件感染.蠕虫能制作的程序在相同的计算机上复印的其他的计算机感染疾病,或者能给其他的计算机经网络活动.蠕虫经IRC经常告诉拷贝扩展(因特网中继对话)。

相关热词:专业术语 计算机
行业英语辅导课程
李 健协和医科大学医学博士,美国国立卫生研究院博士后……详情>>
李健:医学英语网上辅导名师
高 云澳大利亚注册会计师协会会员,会计专业硕士……详情>>
高云:财会英语网上辅导名师
李文沛中国政法大学博士,师从著名法学家周忠海教授……详情>>
李文沛:法律英语网上辅导名师

  1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、联系方式
  编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
  电话:010-82319999-2371