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07考研英语新题型之7选5快速突破

2006-7-27 00:54  

  第二章选考题型之一——7选5题

  第一节 7选5题制胜方略

  一、7选5题概述

  该节分为两个部分: 主干部分和选项部分。

  主干部分的原文为500~600词, 其中有5段空白——空白处的位置可能在段首、段中、段末, 但不会是文章的第一句, 一般情况下也不会是最后一句。选项部分为6~7段文字, 每段可能是一个句子, 可能是两三个短句, 也有可能是完整的段落。其中有5段文字分属于主干部分的空白处。要求考生依据自己对文章的理解,从7个选项中选择出这5段文字放回文中相应的空白处。

  考生需要搞清楚主干内容和结构上的关系和布局, 从而分辨出选项部分从结构和内容上看是属于文章的哪个部分, 并可以与空白处的上下文有机地衔接起来。一般情况下不会有特别明显的词汇、句子等语言方面的提示, 也并不要求考生过分关注某一具体的细节; 而是要着眼于全文, 在理解全文内容、文章结构、逻辑关系(如并列关系、因果关系、从属关系等)的基础之上,做出正确选择。

  二、 7选5题常考题型

  (一) 主旨题

  主旨题是7选5题最常考题型之一, 突出体现在段首和段尾题上。考查文章主旨在一定程度上也是在考查考生的快速阅读力, 考查考生对文章的整体理解和把握。

  1. 主旨题题型举例

  During this period the Eastern and mid Western areas of the United States were in the process of rapid industrialization. The population was rapidly increasing and many Americans found themselves living in large cities. The West, however, was still largely untouched and a frontier lifestyle persisted. There were few social institutions and the role of government was limited.(41)。

  [D] Westerns are often thought to be crude and simple as they paint a romanticized and unrealistic portrait of the American West of the time.

  [E] Because of the changes occurring in the more densely settled regions of the United States, the lifestyle of the West was of considerable fascination to both Americans and foreigners.

  题解:

  根据段落意思, 41题应为该段内容的总结性语句, 因此应当选择选项E.

  2. 主旨题应试技巧

  笔者建议考生在做主旨题题型时遵循这样的原则: 因为此类题干扰性最大, 难度也最大, 考生需读完全文才能准确把握文章主题, 所以考生拿到这种题时, 不要急于去找答案, 不论其出现在什么位置都把它作为最后一道题来做, 因为在做另外四道题时, 无疑有助于加深对整个文章的理解。而且, 事实上, 首先做主旨题, 考生往往还会回过头来核查答案, 这样耗时间, 做题效率低。

  3. 主旨题干扰项的特征

  (1) 以偏概全

  以偏概全是主旨题干扰选项最常见的特点, 它是指主旨题的选项只涉及文章中的细节:

  ① 某个自然段中的细节, 如一句未展开论述的话;

  ② 某自然段的大意。包含局部信息的选项不能成为主旨题的答案。包含自然段大意的选项干扰性很强, 做题时尤其应该留神。

  (2) 范围过宽

  这是指选项包含的内容超出或多于文章阐述的内容,过于笼统。

  (3) 陌生概念

  陌生概念是指从文章本身无法推断出来的信息, 即文章中未提到、找不到语言依据的信息。

  (二) 逻辑关系题

  1. 逻辑关系题题型举例

  (43)There were also crablike creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forma are more complex, and among these are the sealilies, relations of the starfishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud.If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud.More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.

  题解:

  该题的解题关键是注意also所表达的并列关系, 所以该题选E.

  2. 逻辑关系题之因果条件题

  (1) 因果条件题题型举例

  Vegetables and chicken cost more when they have been cut into pieces by someone other than the one who buys it. A family should expect to pay more when several “TV dinners” are taken home from the store. These are fully cooked meals, consisting of meat, vegetables, and sometimes desert, all arranged on a metal dish. The dish is put into the oven and heated while the housewife is doing something else. Such a convenience costs money. (44)

  [A] Thus, as economists point out: “Some of the basic reasons for widening food price spreads are easily traceable to the increasing use of convenience foods, which transfer much of the time and work of meal preparation from the kitchen to the food processor's plant.”

  [B] They are among the “middlemen” who stand between the farmer and the people who buy and eat the food. Are middlemen the ones to blame for rising food prices?

  题解:

  因果条件题是逻辑关系题中最常出现的一种类型。例如本题,根据段落意思, 可以判断44题是一道因果结论题, 所以选A.

  (2) 表达因果关系的词汇衔接手段

  表示因果关系的名词: basis (根据), result, consequence, reason;

  表示因果关系的动词: result in (结果), result from (由于, 由……), follow from (……结果), base……on…… (以……为基础), be due to (由于);

  表示因果关系的连词或介词: because, since, for, as, therefore, so, thus, why, with;

  表示因果关系的副词: as a result, consequently 等。

  (3) 表达条件关系的词汇衔接手段

  ① 以when、if、as 等连词引导的条件从句;

  ② 文章中细节性的条件关系——通常由一些表示条件关系的词汇手段表达: 如 depend upon (取决于), determine (决定)等。

  (三) 例证题

  1. 例证题题型举例

  As well, there are 2,000 transmitter towers around Australia, many in high density residential areas. (43)

  [E] For example, Telstra, Optus and Vodaphone build their towers where it is geographically suitable to them and disregard the need of the community. The electromagnetic radiation emitted from these towers may have already produced some harmful effects on the health of the residents nearby.

  [F] The conclusion is that mobile phones brings more harm than benefit.

  题解:

  根据towers的复现关系, 选择E为正确答案。这是一道典型的例证题。

  2. 例证题应试技巧

  例证题为7选5题型的常考点之一, 所以阅读时对于for example, for instance, such as, as 等引出的例子可以注意, 划下这几个提示词, 以便做题时查找。由于阅读文章大都是说明文和议论文, 所以文章中举出一些例子无非是为了说明一定的道理。无论例子在原文的何处出现, 这个例子之前或之后不远处通常都有一句总结说明性的话, 这句话是例子所说明的观点,因此是解题的关键, 要特别关注。

  3. 表达例证题的注意事项

  (1) 词汇衔接手段 illustrate (例证), give an example (举例), verify (证实), for instance(例如), for example (例如)。

  (2) 注意例证所在段落的主题句。

  例证选项与例证所在段的概括段落思想的主题句具有一致性。因为举例的目的是为了说明观点, 而段落中的例子大多是说明段落主题思想的。

  (四) 定义题

  1. 定义题题型举例

  (44)Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important.They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal.As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one.Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.

  [A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.

  [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  题解:

  给陌生概念下定义, 往往出现在文中或段落靠前的地方, 因此定义选项往往成为段首题的宠儿, 所以该题选A.

  2. 定义题应试技巧

  定义题的出现往往与文章结构有关系, 根据英文的写作习惯, 定义出现在段首的情况居多。因此, 如果出题点在段首, 则可以先考虑是否为定义题。

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