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2007考研英语核心词汇辨析4

2006-7-27 00:54  
concentrate, focus

  这两个动词都有"集中"的意思。

  concentrate v.集中,集中精力(后接on,宾语可以是具体或抽象的东西);浓缩,压缩。

  During exams, students concentrate hard on answering the questions.考试期间,同学们集中精力回答问题。

  focus v.集中(于某事物);将(注意力等)集中于……(后接on,宾语一般不是具体的东西)。

  Please focus your minds on the following problem.请集中考虑以下问题。

  confinement, limitation, restraint

  这一组名词都有"限制,局限"的意思。

  confinement n.限制,囚禁(于某地或某种境地)。

  The prisoner was sentenced to three months' solitary confinement.那犯人被判处单独监禁三个月。

  limitation n.限制,局限;(能力的)缺点,弱点。

  That employee has limitations on what work he can do.那个雇员能做的工作有限。

  restraint n.克制,抑制;约束措施。

  Even though the mother was very angry, she acted with restraint and didn't yell at her child.即使母亲很生气,她仍克制自己没有向孩子大吼。

  considerable, considerate

  这是一对形近易混的形容词。

  considerable a.相当大的,相当多的;值得考虑的。

  That family owns a considerable amount of land.那个家族拥有大量的土地。

  considerate a.考虑周到的,体贴的,后面常跟of结构。

  He is always considerate of others; he is kind and sympathetic.他总是很体谅别人,他很慈善并且富有同情心。

  conserve, preserve, reserve

  这是一组形近易混词,且都有"保存"的意思。

  conserve v.保存,保藏,保护(强调节约)。

  In winter, some people conserve energy by lowing the heat at night.冬天,为节约能源有些人在夜里把暖气调小。

  preserve v.保护;维持;保养;防止(食物)腐败(强调使不受破坏)。

  The government preserves the rights of the individual person.政府保护个人的权利不受侵犯。

  reserve v.保留,储备(强调为某一特殊目的);订(座位),预定。

  We are reserving these seats for my parents.我们把这些座位留给我的父母。

  continual, continuous, constant, incessant

  这一组形容词都有"不断的,不停的"的意思。

  continual a.连续不断的;频繁的。表示时断时续的发生。

  That dog's barking is a continual annoyance.那条狗不停地叫,真是烦死人了。

  continuous a.不停的,连续不断的,强调中间不停顿。

  Our homes and offices need a continuous supply of electricity.我们的家庭以及办公室需要不间断的供电。

  constant a.不断的,经常的,强调始终如一地经常出现。

  Everything in the universe is in constant motion.宇宙中的万物都在不断地运动。

  incessant a.不停的,持续不断的,强调令人厌烦地重复出现,中间有可能有停顿。

  Incessant noise makes me appreciate silence.持续不断的噪声骚扰使我喜欢安静的环境。

  convert, invert, revert, transform

  这一组动词都有"转变"的意思。

  convert v.转变,变换,含有"使某人改变观点"的意思。

  He wants to convert to Catholicism.他要皈依天主教。

  invert v.使颠倒,使倒转,使反向。常常表示位置、顺序、方向等的颠倒。

  The baby inverted the cup and spilled her orange juice.婴儿把杯子打翻,弄洒了里面的橙汁。

  revert v.归还,恢复原状。指回到原来的状态或情形。

  John gave his brother a house, and when his brother died, ownership reverted back to John.约翰送给他的哥哥一所房子,当他的哥哥去世后,房子的所有权重新归于约翰。

  transform v.改变,转变,指形状、颜色、大小、性质等的改变。

  A little paint will soon transform the old house.刷一点油漆很快就会使这所旧房子大为改观。

  credible, credulous, plausible

  这一组形容词都有"可信的"意思。

  credible a.可信的,可靠的。

  That the student told the teacher a credible story that she missed classes because she was sick.那个学生跟老师讲了实情,她没来上课是因为她病了。

  credulous a.轻信的,易于相信的。

  She was credulous when she listened to the salesman and bought the car for too much money.她很容易轻信别人,竟然听信那个销售员的话以高价买了那辆车。

  plausible a.似乎有理的(可信的)。常带有怀疑的意思。

  Even though it is a plausible explanation, I am not completely convinced.虽然这个解释合理,但仍不可能使我完全相信。

  decline, refuse, reject, deny

  这组动词都有"拒绝"的意思。

  decline v.婉言拒绝,谢绝,相当于refuse politely,主要用于拒绝有关社交活动的邀请或要求帮助的请求,后接名词或动词不定式,主语只能是人。

  I invited her to join us, but she declined.我邀请她和我们在一起,可是她婉言谢绝了。

  refuse v.是比较普通的用词,表示"拒绝",含有非常坚决地、不客气地拒绝的意思。

  reject v.抛弃,不采纳,主语可以是人或物,后接名词,不能接动词不定式。

  He asked her to go to the movies three times, and each time she rejected him.他三次约她去看电影,但每一次都被拒绝。

  deny v.否认,否定,其后可接名词,代词或that从句。

  The defendant denied the accusations made against him in court.被告在法庭上否认了对他的指控。

  deduce, induce, reduce

  这是一组形近易混词。

  deduce v.推断,推理,演绎。

  My friend becomes quiet when his girlfriend is angry with him; today he is quiet and so I deduce she is angry.我的朋友在他的女朋友生他的气的时候就会变得沉默,今天他很沉默,所以我推断她生气了。

  induce v.引诱,劝;引起,导致。

  We couldn't induce the old lady to travel by air.我们无法劝说那位老太太坐飞机去。

  reduce v.减轻,减小;降低。

  He reduced his weight by 20 pounds by eating less and exercising.他通过节食和运动,体重减轻了20磅。

  delay, postpone

  这两个词都有"延迟"之意。

  delay v.延期,延缓,耽搁,常指由于不可避免的障碍等原因而延期。

  Her late arrival delayed the start of the meeting.她的迟到使会议延迟开始。

  postpone v.耽搁,暂缓,常指将某事放置一边,等到另一事发生或一定时间后再做。

  Our meeting for today was postponed until next week.我们今天的会议推迟到下周举行。

  demonstrate, illustrate

  这两个词都有"说明"的意思。

  demonstrate v.多指通过具体动作或物体进行演示、示范、表演、展示等以达到说明或解释的目的。

  This salesman demonstrated how to cook with a pressure cooker.这个推销员当众演示如何用压力锅煮东西。

  illustrate v.强调通过举例、列图表或比较等方式来说明道理。

  The teacher illustrated the history lesson by telling a story about George Washington.那个老师通过乔治·华盛顿的故事来讲述他的历史课。

  disappear, vanish, fade

  这一组词都有"消失"的意思。

  disappear v.消失,不见;灭绝,不复存在。是个一般用语。

  The little dog was just there, then he disappeared.那条小狗刚才就在那里,然后就不见了。

  vanish v.消失,不见,指突然间化为乌有,强调非常彻底地、神秘莫测地消失、失踪。

  The man ransintosthe shop and vanished from sight.那个男子跑到了商店里,然后就消失了。

  fade v.指衣服的颜色褪色,声音的逐渐消失。

  The wallpaper has faded from red to pale pink.墙纸从红色褪成了淡粉色。

  decline, decrease, diminish, reduce

  这一组动词都有"减少"的意思。

  decline v. (数量、数字、价格、比率)下降,下落。

  Last year, the crime rate in Chicago has sharply declined.去年芝加哥的犯罪率明显下降。

  decrease v.减少,减小,强调逐渐地下降或减少的过程。

  diminish v. (力量、势力)减弱,减少,强调由于某种原因而减少,这种减少可以造成能够为人们所察觉的后果或损失。

  The need to take action has diminished.已经没有多少需要采取行动的必要性了。

  reduce v.是及物动词,指通过人为的方法在数量、规模、范围等方面减少,也可以指在地位、重要性方面降低等级。

  He reduced his weight by 20 pounds by eating less and exercising.他通过节食和运动,体重减轻了20磅。

  deviate, distract, divert

  这三个词都有"转移"的意思。

  deviate v.背离,偏离。多指脱离正轨或正题等。

  He deviated from society by becoming a drug addict.他成为一名吸毒者,从而违背了社会道德准则。

  distract v.使分心,分散(注意力、心理等)。常带有不能专心的意思。

  Noise distracts him, so he can't study for exams.喧闹声分散了他的注意力,所以他无法进行考试的复习。

  divert v.转移,使转向,着重改变后的结果,后常接介词from。

  A loud noise diverted everyone's attention from their work.一声巨响转移了每个人的工作注意力。

  dip, immerse, submerge

  这几个词都有"浸,浸入"的意思。

  dip v.浸,浸染,蘸。多指短时地将某物部分地浸到液体中,有小心翼翼的意思。

  The artist dipped his brush in the paint.艺术家拿画笔蘸了蘸颜料。

  immerse v.沉浸,使沉浸于。指全部浸泡在液体中达一段时间,也可指一种氛围。

  Students immerse themselves in their studies.同学们在专心致志地学习。

  submerge v.浸没,淹没。多指全部浸没在水下达一定深度。

  The girl was submerged in the shallow end of the pool.女孩泡在水池的浅水区一端。

  divide, separate

  这两个动词都有"分开"的意思。

  divide v.分开,划分,指把整体分成若干部分,也表示"疏远"的意思,常用结构为"divide…from"。

  The huge corporation dividedsintossmaller companies.这家大公司分成了一些较小的公司。

  separate v.作及物动词时,意思是"分隔",指把原来连接在一起或靠近的东西分隔开来,常用结构为"separate…from";作不及物动词时,表示"分散,分别"。

  duty, obligation, responsibility

  duty n.指道义上的责任,强调自觉性,作可数名词时指本职工作的任务。

  His duty is to see that the business runs well.他的职责是保证生意良好运转。

  obligation n.指合同或法律上规定的"责任,义务",强调其约束力。

  Parents have a legal obligation to ensure that their children are provided with efficient education suitable to their age.父母有法律上的义务确保其子女受到适合其年龄的有效教育。

  responsibility n.职责,强调对后果要负责任的意思。

  His father is ill, and he has the responsibility of caring for him.他的父亲病了,他有责任照顾他。

   eject, inject, project

  这是一组形近易混词。

  eject v.跳出,喷出,弹射出。

  The pilot ejected from the falling airplane.飞行员从坠落的飞机中弹射出去。

  inject v.注射。

  The nurse injected some medicinesintosthe patient with a needle.护士用注射器给患者打针。

  project v.伸出,突出;预计,预报;投射,放映。

  The balcony projects out beyond the wall of the house.阳台从房子的墙壁上突出来。

  The government projects that the defence budget will increase by 20% .政府预计国防预算将增长百分之二十。

  eligible, illegible

  eligible a.享有权利的,具备资格的。

  He graduated from high school with good grades, so he is eligible to enroll in the state college.他以优异的成绩从中学毕业,所以他有资格就读于州立大学。

  illegible a.很难看懂的,难以辨认的。

  The writing is illegible; I cannot read what it says.字迹不清楚,我看不清上面写的是什么。

  eminent, imminent

  这是一组形近易混词。

  eminent a.著名的,卓越的,接触的。

  He is eminent in the field of linguistics.他在语言学领域很有名。

  imminent a.即将发生的,迫在眉睫的,临近的。

  The wedding date is imminent, so we must send invitations.婚礼迫近,所以我们必须发放请柬了。

  emotion, feeling, passion, sensation, sentiment

  这一组名词都有"感情"的意思。

  emotion n.情感,感情,指喜怒哀乐等较激动的情绪,表示某物引起的激动。

  He felt mixed emotions when he thought of her.当他想起她时便产生一种复杂的感情。

  feeling n.指一般的情绪、感觉,它一般不反映感情的本质和强度。

  passion n.激情,热情,欲望,极度的仇恨,指强烈的爱好、愤怒或情欲。

  He spoke with passion about the love of freedom.他满腔热情地谈论着对自由的热爱。

  sensation n.指人体感官受到外部刺激时产生的感觉,知觉。

  When she watched the film, she had the sensation that she was in a moving car.她看电影时,感觉自己正坐在一辆开动的汽车上。

  sentiment n.思想感情,情绪,感情色彩,指由于某种思想唤起的感情,强调主观作用,有时候也带有理智成分。

  When our grandmother died, we remembered her life with strong sentiment.当祖母逝世时,我们深深地怀念她的一生。

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