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两周增强记忆法

2006-07-01 10:20

  It sounds like an infomercial(1) from late-night TV: Follow this four-step plan and improve your memory in just 14 days!

  But researchers have indeed found a way to improve memory function in older people. After a two-week study that involved brainteasers(2), exercise and diet changes, study participants' memories worked more efficiently.

  Here's the program:

  Memory Training: Brainteasers, crossword puzzles(3) and memory exercises that emphasized verbal(4) skills throughout the day.

  Healthy Diet: Five meals daily included a balanced diet rich in omega-3(5) fats, whole grains and antioxidants(6). Eating frequent meals prevents dips in blood glucose(7), the primary energy source for the brain.

  Physical Fitness: Brisk(8) daily walks and stretching. Physical fitness has been found in other research to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease(9).

  Stress Reduction: Stretching and relaxation exercises. Stress causes the body to release cortisol(10), which can impair memory and has been found to shrink the memory centers in the brain.

  Before-and-after brain scans showed the participants experienced on average a five percent decrease in brain metabolism(11) in the dorsal(12) lateral(13) prefrontal(14) region of the brain, which is directly linked to working memory and other cognitive(15) functions. This suggests they were using their brains more efficiently. The subjects also performed better on a cognitive test.

  A control group that didn't follow the plan showed no significant changes.

  "We've known for years that diet and exercise can help people maintain their physical health, which is a key component(16) of healthy aging," said Gary Small, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences UCLA.

  "But maintaining mental health is just as important. Now we have evidence which suggests that people can preserve their memory by adding memory exercises and stress reduction to this routine."

  听上去好象是深夜电视购物节目:按照以下四步去做,两周后你的记忆力就会得到提高。

  但是,研究人员真的找到了一种提高老年人记忆功能的方法。通过两周的脑筋急转弯、体育锻炼和饮食调整,参与者的记忆力确有增强。

  步骤如下:

  记忆力训练:全天进行脑筋急转弯、纵横字谜和语言技巧的记忆力练习。

  健康的饮食:每天五顿饭,要富含omega-3脂肪酸、全谷和防老化的元素。多餐可以防止血糖降低,而血糖正是大脑能量的主要来源。

  体育锻炼:每日散步和伸展运动。研究表明体育锻炼可以降低老年痴呆症患病几率。

  减压:伸展和放松锻炼。紧张会导致人体释放皮质醇,降低记忆力,缩小记忆中枢在大脑中的比重。

  脑部扫描的结果显示:两周后,受试者脑部前额叶背外侧的新陈代谢降低了五个百分点。这一部位直接影响记忆和其他认知功能。就是说他们的大脑运行更加有效了。这个结果在认知方面的体现更为明显。

  没有参加训练的受试者的扫描图就基本上没有变化。

  洛杉矶加利福尼亚大学精神病学和行为学教授加里斯默说:“很多年前,我们就知道合理的饮食和锻炼能够保持健康的身体,是老年人健康的重要因素,”

  “但是精神健康也同样重要。现在我们可以确定地告诉人们,通过经常性的记忆训练和减压可以保持记忆力。”

  1.infomercial:商业信息片,提供给消费者的相当长的商业信息的电视节目

  2. brainteaser:脑筋急转弯,考验智力的问题或难题

  3. crossword puzzle:纵横拼字谜

  4. verbal:口头的

  5. omega-3: 一种不饱和脂肪酸,是人体必需的脂肪酸,可降低人体血脂,防止血液凝聚,从而减少血栓塞、血管硬化、脑中风、脑溢血、脑血管障碍、高胆固醇、高血脂、高血压、手脚麻痹及心悸等心脑血管疾病的发生;同时对人体因免疫力降低而引发的糖尿病、皮肤病等也有很好的预防和治疗作用。

  6. antioxidant:防老化剂

  7. blood glucose:血糖

  8. brisk:轻快的

  9. alzheimer's disease:老年痴呆症

  10. cortisol:皮质醇

  11. metabolism:新陈代谢

  12. dorsal:背部的,背脊的

  13. lateral:侧部

  14. prefrontal:前额的

  15. cognitive:认知的

  16. component:成分

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