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浅谈英语写作基础应试技巧-2

2006-7-8 21:59  

  不管是私人信函、商业信函还是各类便条都是重要的交际形式。所以,要写好各种信函和便条,首先要掌握其写作的语言,同时必须熟悉并运用恰当地表达内容的方式及格式。只有做到这两点,考试时才能真正做到胸有成竹,得心应手。就格式而言,不论写哪一种都有其特定的格式。英语书信,在形式上可分为下面六个部分:

  1.信头(The Heading):包括发信人地址和写信日期。

  2.受信者(Inside Address):包括受信人姓名、地址。

  3.称谓(The Salutation or Greeting)如Dear Sir, Gentlemen,.

  4.正文(The Body):是信的主要部分,包括写信人所要表达叙述的事情。

  5.结束语(The Complimentary Close)——如Yours Truly, Yours respectfully等

  6.签名(The Signature)。

  现举一实例说明英文书信格式:

  1.8765 Sunset Street

  Hollywood 56 Calif.

  U.S.A

  May 17 1998

  2.Mr.Alan Liu

  122 Ninghai Road,

  Nanjing P.R.C.

  3.Dear Sir,

  4.This is to confirm in writing our telephone conversation of yesterday regarding an interview you have been kind enough to grant me.

  Green Book magazine has assigned me a short article on the hibernation of animals. As Curator of Mammals at the Zoological Park, you are one of three prominent zoologists I plan to interview before writing the piece from notes I have already carefully researched. The other two to be interviewed are your colleagues, Dr.Fuller and Dr. Meade, of the University staff.

  I can match my plan to suit your schedule, but some day early next month would be best for me.I don't plan to bring a photographer as this piece is to be illustrated by rather amazing pictures I already have of hibernating animals.

  A self-addressed, stamped envelope is enclosed and I would appreciate a reply as soon as you can arrange a convenient time.

  5.Sincerely yours,

  6.John Warner

  写这封信的人用正式而又简单的语言,开门见山而又不失礼貌地说出了写这封信的目的——只是核实他要确定的事实。

  便条和书信的格式基本相同,只不过要比正式书信要简单一些。如可省略信头、结语等。信函和便条的最大区别在于表达的方式不同:前者要求用正式的书面语言,而后者则常常使用非正式的口头语言。请看下面一个请柬:

  Dear Lucy,

  Can you think of a single good reason why you shouldn't spend next weekend with us? I've just been out looking at the garden, and it's beautiful, you'll like it.

  Also, I'm going to have a young man here a friend of Alva's. His name is Peter Groesbeck. Other information you can find out for yourself. Bring your bathing suit, we will meet your usual Saturday morning train.

  Affectionately,

  Alan Liu

  请看下面一则留言条(Message):

  July 20,1998

  Jack,

  Here are the two tickets I mentioned yesterday for the Beijing Opera" Farewell To My Concubine." You may bring anybody along with you. I hope you'll enjoy it.

  Xiao Zhang

  由于便条主要是写给朋友和熟人的,形式上可简单化,语言上可口语化。但如果便条是写给陌生人、生意上的合作伙伴或年尊者,语言就应该较正式化。还有一点值得强调的是,请柬等便条一定要写得直接、简明、完整;时间、地点、对象都应交代的一清二楚,千万不可使人模棱两可,捉摸不定。

  一般说来,试卷上所有试题做完后,仍应有余留的几分钟。在这几分钟里,应从改错(Proof-reading&Error Correction)的角度出发,重点检查语言错误。着重点应在语法结构和词语等方面。请看下列例子:

  1.Having studied your report carefully, I am convinced that neither of your solutions are correct.(主谓不一致)

  Having studied your report carefully, I am convinced that neither of your solutions is correct.

  2.When he tried to make a reservation, he found that the restaurant that he likes was completely filled because of a wedding function.(时态错误)

  When he tried to make a reservation, he found that the restaurant that he liked was completely filled because of a wedding function.

  3.If he made better use of his time, he will be more likely to finish his research.(语气错误)

  If he made better use of his time, he would be more likely to finish his research.

  4.The climate here is often said to be similar to one of Japan.(代词误用)

  The climate here is often said to be similar to one of Japan.

  5.The firemen were unable to determine exactly what caused the fire when they said they would continue the investigation.(连接词误用)

  The firemen were unable to determine exactly what caused the fire but they said they would continue the investigation.

  6.It is often difficult finding' trained men than to get financial support for scientific research.(非谓语动词误用)

  It is often difficult to find trained men than to get financial support for scientific research.

  7.The guests were shown into a beautiful decorated dining room.(词类误)

  The guests were shown it to a beautifully decorated dining room.

  8.It is encouraging to note that in recent years, cigarette smokers have been in the decline, especially among the older people.(固定搭配错误)

  It is encouraging to note that in recent years, cigarette smokers have been on the decline, especially among the older people.

  9.As far as weather passes, the hotter it gets, the better I like it.(固定搭配错误)

  As far as weather goes, the hotter it gets, the better I like it.

  此外还要大小写是否正确,标点符号使用恰当与否,应用文的格式是否正确。

  以上简要地谈了概要和应用文的应试和写作技巧。但真正要取得优越的成绩,还得依靠平时打下扎实的写作基础。要有扎实的写作基础,就必须“读破万卷书”,才能“下笔如有神”。所以平时一定要勤读书,勤练笔;再加上适当的方法和技巧,不断地训练和培养自身写作技能,一定能写出“主题较突出、内容较为完善、语言较为通顺、格式符合要求的短文”。

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