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英语写作基础试卷考核知识点分析及解题思路(二)

2006-7-8 21:59  

  近几年的英语写作基础试卷在考查内容和试题类型上改动不大,保持了命题的连贯性。考查内容包括三大部分:句子的组成、段落的写作、应用文写作。题型有重写句子、改写病句、识别主题句、重新组合段落、识别与段落内容无关的句子、写信六种。本文将按题型顺序对二OOO年试题的考核知识点与解题思路进行分析和探讨,同时,也将对考生答题中的典型错误作一剖析,希望能有益于准备参加今年考试的同学。

  上一讲,我们对第一种题型"重写句子"的考核知识点与解题思路进行了分析和探讨,并对考生答题中的典型错误作了剖析。本讲我们将研究第二种题型"改写病句",病句中的一些语病在中国学生的英文写作中十分常见,值得认真推敲。

  第二大题 改写病句(本大题共5小题,每小题3分,共15分)

  Correct the errors in the following sentences

  一, 考核知识点:考查对连接词(joining word)使用错误的识别与修正。

  试题:

  11. Your sales are up, therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

  答案:

  11. Your sales are up; therefore, your bonus is forthcoming.

  解题关键:

  (1) 连接词(joining word)可分为连词(如:and, but, for, so, because, although, since等)和连接性副词(如:therefore, consequently, accordingly, moreover, furthermore, otherwise, likewise, however, nevertheless等)。连词和连接性副词在用法上有很多相似之处,但也有不同点。

  (2) 连词和连接性副词在连接两个分句时,前后使用的标点符号不同:连词之前常用逗号(,),之后通常不用标点;而连接性副词之前要求用分号(;)或句号(.),之后常用逗号(,)。

  (3) 该句最简便的修正方法是将连接性副词therefore前的逗号(,)改为分号(;)。另外也可改为:Your sales are up. Therefore, your bonus is forthcoming. "评分标准"中规定:"与标准答案不一致,但句子结构正确,表意准确,也得满分。否则,酌情给分或不得分。"

  考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)If your sales are up, your bonus will be forthcoming

  (分析)原句中的两个分句之间是因果关系,而不是假设关系。

  (错误)Your bonus is forthcoming, therefore, your sales are up.

  (分析)有些考生识别不出病句结构上的错误,就以为句义有误,对两个分句的因果关系作了调整。值得注意的是,写作基础试卷改写病句一题中的病句通常错在结构上,而不是语义上。

  二, 考核知识点:考查对破句(fragmentary sentence)的识别和修正。

  试题:

  12. People worked together on the assembly line. Moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make as much money as possible.

  答案:

  12. People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

  解题关键:

  (1) 了解破句(fragmentary sentence)的特点:把句子的一部分当成了一个句子。英语中一个完整的句子必须包含"主语+谓语"结构,否则就是破句(fragmentary sentence)。

  (2) 找出病句中结构不完整的句子(即不包含主谓结构的句子):Moving quickly and efficiently.

  (3) 由于用分词结构而引起的破句的修改方法为:将分词结构还原为谓语形式使其独立成句,或者将分词结构与其前面或后面的句子融合在一起。本句最简便的修正方法是将moving前的句号(.)变成逗号(,),使moving quickly and efficiently融入前面的句子,成为表示伴随状况的分词短语。

  考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently., they wanted to make s much money as possible.

  (分析)这是一个串句(run-on sentence),误将两个独立分句合写在一个句子里面而没有适当地分离标识。

  (错误)People worked together on the assembly line moving quickly and efficiently. They wanted to make s much money as possible.

  (分析)moving的逻辑主语是people,不是assembly line,因此moving前必须有逗号(,),否则分词短语moving quickly and efficiently就变成了修饰名词assembly line的定语,而不再是谓语动词worked的伴随状况。

  三, 考核知识点:考查对垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的识别和修正。

  试题:

  13. Watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  答案:

  13. While watching the parade, I had my wallet stolen. / While I was watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  解题关键:

  (1) 了解垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的特点:修饰语在句中找不到逻辑上被修饰的对象。分词结构、不定式结构和介词短语做修饰语修饰句子时,易发生垂悬修饰现象。

  (2) 修正时,可调整句子的主语,使之与上述结构或短语的逻辑主语一致;也可将分词结构、不定式结构或介词短语带上自己的逻辑主语,将其扩展成从句。

  (3) 原句中做修饰语的分词结构watching the parade的逻辑主语与句子主语my wallet不一致,所以可将句子主语调整为I,或将句子主语保持不变,使watching the parade带上自己的逻辑主语I.

  考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)While watching the parade, my wallet was stolen.

  (分析)分词结构watching the parade前加上连词while或when,不能改变其垂悬修饰语(dangling modifier)的性质,因为其逻辑主语I未变,而与从句的主语my wallet仍然不一致。

  (错误)Watching the parade, I lost my wallet.

  (分析)修正病句不应该改变原句的意思。钱包丢失的原因可能是被盗,但也可能是别的原因,例如由于粗心遗忘在某地等。另外,从这一修改中,可看出相当一部分考生对have sth. done结构不太熟悉。

  四, 考核知识点:考查对错误平行结构(faulty parallelism)的识别和修正。

  试题:

  14. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

  15. Our new car not only is more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  答案:

  14. If a publisher rejects a novel, it is either because the story is unsaleable or because the author is unknown.

  15. Our new car is not only more user-friendly but also more comfortable than our old one.

  解题关键:

  (1) 了解错误平行结构(faulty parallelism)产生的原因:平行结构(parallelism)是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等语法形式表达,如果意思上并列的成分用不同等的语法形式来表达,就破坏了其平行结构。

  (2) either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, both…and等关联并列连接词(correlative conjunction)用于连接意思并列的成分,所以每个连词后所跟的成分必须有相同的语法形式。

  (3) 14题原句中连词either后是because引导的原因状语从句,or后也应补上because.

  15题病句最简便的修正方法,是将两个形容词比较级作为平行成分,用not only…but also连接。

  考生典型答题错误分析:

  (错误)If a publisher rejects a novel, either the story is unsaleable or the author is unknown.

  (分析)从全句来看,这是一个逻辑关系模糊,句法不当的病句。不过应当肯定的是,平行的结构可以是单词、词组,也可以是从句甚至句子。

  (错误)Not only our new car is more user-friendly but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  (分析)not only…but also可以连接两个平行结构的句子,但not only后的句子必须倒装,如:Not only is our new car more user-friendly, but also it is more comfortable than our old one.

  另外,not only…but also连接两个主语、谓语相同的句子时显得啰嗦和没有必要,故常用来连接两个主语、谓语不同的句子,如:Not only is he himself interested in the subject, but also all his students have begun to show an interest in it.

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