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孙子兵法Ⅳ(中英对照)

2006-07-29 11:21

  军形第四IV. Tactical Dispositions

  孙子曰:昔之善战者,先为不可胜,以待敌之可胜。

  Sun Tzu said: The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.

  不可胜在己,可胜在敌。

  To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself.

  故善战者,能为不可胜,不能使敌之必可胜。

  Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat, but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy.

  故曰:胜可知,而不可为。

  Hence the saying: One may know how to conquer without being able to do it.

  不可胜者,守也;可胜者,攻也。

  Security against defeat implies defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive.

  守则不足,攻则有余。

  Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength; attacking, a superabundance of strength.

  善守者藏于九地之下,善攻者动于九天之上,故能自保而全胜也。

  The general who is skilled in defense hides in the most secret recesses of the earth; he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven.

  Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves; on the other, a victory that is complete.

  见胜不过众人之所知,非善之善者也;To see victory only when it is within the ken of the common herd is not the acme of excellence.

  战胜而天下曰善,非善之善者也。

  Neither is it the acme of excellence if you fight and conquer and the whole Empire says, “Well done!”

  故举秋毫不为多力,见日月不为明目,闻雷霆不为聪耳。

  To lift an autumn hair is no sign of great strength; to see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight; to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quick ear.

  古之所谓善战者,胜于易胜者也。

  What the ancients called a clever fighter is one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease.

  故善战者之胜也,无智名,无勇功,Hence his victories bring him neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage.

  故其战胜不忒。不忒者,其所措胜,胜已败者也。

  He wins his battles by making no mistakes. Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty of victory, for it means conquering an enemy that is already defeated.

  故善战者,立于不败之地,而不失敌之败也。

  Hence the skillful fighter puts himself into a position which makes defeat impossible, and does not miss the moment for defeating the enemy.

  是故胜兵先胜而后求战,败兵先战而后求胜。

  Thus it is that in war the victorious strategist only seeks battle after the victory has been won, whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights and afterwards looks for victory.

  善用兵者,修道而保法,故能为胜败之政。

  The consummate leader cultivates the moral law, and strictly adheres to method and discipline; thus it is in his power to control success.

  兵法:一曰度,二曰量,三曰数,四曰称,五曰胜。

  In respect of military method, we have, firstly, Measurement; secondly, Estimation of quantity; thirdly, Calculation; fourthly, Balancing of chances; fifthly, Victory.

  地生度,度生量,量生数,数生称,称生胜。

  Measurement owes its existence to Earth; Estimation of quantity to Measurement; Calculation to Estimation of quantity; Balancing of chances to Calculation; and Victory to Balancing of chances.

  故胜兵若以镒称铢,败兵若以铢称镒。

  A victorious army opposed to a routed one, is as a pound's weight placed in the scale against a single grain.

  称胜者之战民也,若决积水于千仞之溪者,形也。

  The onrush of a conquering force is like the bursting of pent-up waters into a chasm a thousand fathoms deep.

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