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孙子兵法Ⅸ(中英对照)

2006-07-29 11:33

  行军第九IX. The Army on the March

  孙子曰:凡处军相敌,绝山依谷,Sun Tzu said: We come now to the question of encamping the army, and observing signs of the enemy. Pass quickly over mountains, and keep in the neighborhood of valleys.

  视生处高,战隆无登,此处山之军也。

  Camp in high places, facing the sun. Do not climb heights in order to fight. So much for mountain warfare.

  绝水必远水,After crossing a river, you should get far away from it.

  客绝水而来,勿迎之于水内,令半渡而击之利,When an invading force crosses a river in its onward march, do not advance to meet it in mid-stream. It will be best to let half the army get across, and then deliver your attack.

  欲战者,无附于水而迎客,If you are anxious to fight, you should not go to meet the invader near a river which he has to cross.

  视生处高,无迎水流,此处水上之军也。

  Moor your craft higher up than the enemy, and facing the sun. Do not move up-stream to meet the enemy. So much for river warfare.

  绝斥泽,唯亟去无留,In crossing salt-marshes, your sole concern should be to get over them quickly, without any delay.

  若交军于斥泽之中,必依水草而背众树,此处斥泽之军也。

  If forced to fight in a salt-marsh, you should have water and grass near you, and get your back to a clump of trees. So much for operations in salt-marches.

  平陆处易,右背高,前死后生,此处平陆之军也。

  In dry, level country, take up an easily accessible position with rising ground to your right and on your rear, so that the danger may be in front, and safety lie behind. So much for campaigning in flat country.

  凡此四军之利,黄帝之所以胜四帝也。

  These are the four useful branches of military knowledge which enabled the Yellow Emperor to vanquish four several sovereigns.

  凡军好高而恶下,贵阳而贱阴,All armies prefer high ground to low and sunny places to dark.

  养生而处实,军无百疾,是谓必胜。

  If you are careful of your men, and camp on hard ground, the army will be free from disease of every kind, and this will spell victory.

  丘陵堤防,必处其阳而右背之,此兵之利,地之助也。

  When you come to a hill or a bank, occupy the sunny side, with the slope on your right rear. Thus you will at once act for the benefit of your soldiers and utilize the natural advantages of the ground.

  上雨水流至,欲涉者,待其定也。

  When, in consequence of heavy rains up-country, a river which you wish to ford is swollen and flecked with foam, you must wait until it subsides.

  凡地有绝涧、天井、天牢、天罗、天陷、天隙,必亟去之,勿近也。

  Country in which there are precipitous cliffs with torrents running between, deep natural hollows, confined places, tangled thickets, quagmires and crevasses, should be left with all possible speed and not approached.

  吾远之,敌近之;吾迎之,敌背之。

  While we keep away from such places, we should get the enemy to approach them; while we face them, we should let the enemy have them on his rear.

  军旁有险阻、潢井、蒹葭、小林、□①荟者,必谨覆索之,此伏奸之所处也。

  If in the neighborhood of your camp there should be any hilly country, ponds surrounded by aquatic grass, hollow basins filled with reeds, or woods with thick undergrowth, they must be carefully routed out and searched; for these are places where men in ambush or insidious spies are likely to be lurking.

  敌近而静者,恃其险也;When the enemy is close at hand and remains quiet, he is relying on the natural strength of his position.

  远而挑战者,欲人之进也;When he keeps aloof and tries to provoke a battle, he is anxious for the other side to advance.

  其所居易者,利也;If his place of encampment is easy of access, he is tendering a bait.

  众树动者,来也;众草多障者,疑也;Movement amongst the trees of a forest shows that the enemy is advancing. The appearance of a number of screens in the midst of thick grass means that the enemy wants to make us suspicious.

  鸟起者,伏也;兽骇者,覆也;The rising of birds in their flight is the sign of an ambuscade. Startled beasts indicate that a sudden attack is coming.

  尘高而锐者,车来也;卑而广者,徒来也;散而条达者,樵采也;少而往来者,营军也;When there is dust rising in a high column, it is the sign of chariots advancing; when the dust is low, but spread over a wide area, it betokens the approach of infantry. When it branches out in different directions, it shows that parties have been sent to collect firewood. A few clouds of dust moving to and fro signify that the army is encamping.

      辞卑而备者,进也;辞强而进驱者,退也;Humble words and increased preparations are signs that the enemy is about to advance. Violent language and driving forward as if to the attack are signs that he will retreat.

  轻车先出居其侧者,陈也;When the light chariots come out first and take up a position on the wings, it is a sign that the enemy is forming for battle.

  无约而请和者,谋也;Peace proposals unaccompanied by a sworn covenant indicate a plot.

  奔走而陈兵者,期也;When there is much running about and the soldiers fall into rank, it means that the critical moment has come.

  半进半退者,诱也;When some are seen advancing and some retreating, it is a lure.

  杖而立者,饥也;When the soldiers stand leaning on their spears, they are faint from want of food.

  汲而先饮者,渴也;If those who are sent to draw water begin by drinking themselves, the army is suffering from thirst.

  见利而不进者,劳也;If the enemy sees an advantage to be gained and makes no effort to secure it, the soldiers are exhausted.

  鸟集者,虚也;夜呼者,恐也;If birds gather on any spot, it is unoccupied. Clamor by night betokens nervousness.

  军扰者,将不重也;旌旗动者,乱也;吏怒者,倦也;If there is disturbance in the camp, the general's authority is weak. If the banners and flags are shifted about, sedition is afoot. If the officers are angry, it means that the men are weary.

  杀马肉食者,军无粮也;悬□②不返其舍者,穷寇也;When an army feeds its horses with grain and kills its cattle for food, and when the men do not hang their cooking-pots over the camp-fires, showing that they will not return to their tents, you may know that they are determined to fight to the death.

  谆谆□③□③,徐与人言者,失众也;The sight of men whispering together in small knots or speaking in subdued tones points to disaffection amongst the rank and file.

  数赏者,窘也;数罚者,困也;Too frequent rewards signify that the enemy is at the end of his resources; too many punishments betray a condition of dire distress.

  先暴而后畏其众者,不精之至也;To begin by bluster, but afterwards to take fright at the enemy's numbers, shows a supreme lack of intelligence.

  来委谢者,欲休息也。

  When envoys are sent with compliments in their mouths, it is a sign that the enemy wishes for a truce.

  兵怒而相迎,久而不合,又不相去,必谨察之。

  If the enemy's troops march up angrily and remain facing ours for a long time without either joining battle or taking themselves off again, the situation is one that demands great vigilance and circumspection.

  兵非贵益多也,惟无武进,足以并力料敌取人而已。

  If our troops are no more in number than the enemy, that is amply sufficient; it only means that no direct attack can be made. What we can do is simply to concentrate all our available strength, keep a close watch on the enemy, and obtain reinforcements.

  夫惟无虑而易敌者,必擒于人。

  He who exercises no forethought but makes light of his opponents is sure to be captured by them.

  卒未亲而罚之,则不服,不服则难用。卒已亲附而罚不行,则不可用。

  If soldiers are punished before they have grown attached to you, they will not prove submissive; and, unless submissive, then will be practically useless. If, when the soldiers have become attached to you, punishments are not enforced, they will still be unless.

  故合之以文,齐之以武,是谓必取。

  Therefore soldiers must be treated in the first instance with humanity, but kept under control by means of iron discipline. This is a certain road to victory.

  令素行以教其民,则民服;令素不行以教其民,则民不服。

  If in training soldiers commands are habitually enforced, the army will be well-disciplined; if not, its discipline will be bad.

  令素行者,与众相得也。

  If a general shows confidence in his men but always insists on his orders being obeyed, the gain will be mutual.

  【注:】①:“翳”加“艹”头。②:[垂瓦].③:[讠翕].

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