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纹身干尸解谜莫切文化

2006-07-01 09:59

  Archeologists probing Peru's lifeless northern desert discovered a 1,500-year-old mummy that may unlock(1) secrets of the Moche, one of the mysterious civilizations that once ruled the Andean(2) nation.

  Baptized(3) the Lady of Cao by researchers after it was found by a ceremonial(4) pyramid near the Pacific Ocean, the tattooed(5) mummy is the first female Moche leader ever discovered. It could debunk(6) theories that the culture, known for its pottery and human sacrifices, was governed only by men.

  Unveiling the mummy this week, U.S. and Peruvian archeologists said the woman, who probably died during childbirth at age 25, had religious and magical figures of spiders and snakes tattooed on her arms, much to the surprise of the investigating experts.

  "The conservation(7) of her body is exceptional(8). We found her buried with mercury(9) sulfide(10)  that helped eliminate(11) microorganisms(12) and help the preservation(13)," said Regulo Franco, one of the archeologists who has spent 16 years excavating(14) the Huaca Cao Viejo pyramid with funding from a Peruvian bank.

  The Lady of Cao was found with two ceremonial war clubs(15) and 23 spear(16) throwers puzzling archeologists who say such items have previously only been found in male Moche graves.

  The woman was also buried with three other mummies, including a teenage girl found alongside her who was probably strangled(17) as a sacrifice to the Moche leader.

  Those mummies will be unwrapped(18) over the next few months. Archeologists hope to extract DNA to see if they are the bodies of relatives.

  The culture of the Moche, who constructed the largest adobe(19) pyramid in the Americas, the Moche Sun Pyramid, developed along Peru's northern coast near what is now the country's third-largest city Trujillo. It flourished(20) in the river valley oases(21) from 100 A.D. to 800 A.D. The Lady of Cao dates to 450 A.D.

  The Moche's Huaca Cao Viejo pyramid is covered in reliefs(22) that suggest prisoners were sacrificed to the gods by a warrior-priest. It was abandoned for centuries.

  Moche pottery has been the main way that experts had interpreted their culture. The ceramics(23) showed the Moche had well-developed weaving techniques, but because of rainstorms every few decades, most of their textiles have been destroyed.

  在秘鲁北方寸草不生的沙漠中,考古学家发现了一具1500年前的干尸。这具干尸也许能为我们解开曾统治安第斯帝国的神秘莫切文明。

  这具干尸被发现于太平洋附近的一座仪式金字塔中,身上刺有纹身,是第一位被发现的女性莫切领导者。研究人员为她进行了洗礼,并称她为曹夫人。这无疑否定了以陶器和人葬闻名的莫切文化只由男性统治的说法。

  干尸在本周亮相时,美国和秘鲁考古学家说这位女子死时年仅25岁,并且怀有身孕。更让研究人员们惊讶的是,她的手臂上刺有神秘的宗教图案—蜘蛛和蛇。

  考古学家莱古露·佛朗哥说这具干尸的保存方法与众不同。她被硫化水银浸泡着,这样能避免微生物的侵蚀、有利于尸体的保存。佛朗哥和其他考古学家在秘鲁银行的支持下在胡瓦卡·曹·威约金字塔挖掘了16年。

  曹夫人的身边放有两根祭典战棍和23只投矛器。这让原以为这些东西只出现在莫切男性坟墓中的考古学家们感到迷惑。

  与曹夫人埋在一起的还有其他三具干尸。躺她身边的是一个年仅十几岁的女孩,很可能是被掐死为莫切领导者陪葬的。

  其余的干尸将在未来的几个月中陆续被打开。考古学家希望能够提取DNA来确定他们是否有血缘关系。

  莫切人建造了美洲最大的粘土金字塔—莫切太阳金字塔。他们的文化也沿秘鲁北海岸,也就是现在秘鲁的第三大城市特雷希略发展壮大。公元100年到800年间,莫切文化在河谷绿洲中繁荣发展。曹夫人生活在公元450年。

  莫切胡瓦卡·曹·威约金字塔中有很多浮雕,讲述一位勇士祭司用战俘祭奠众神。这座金字塔已经被废弃好几个世纪了。

  陶器曾是专家们破解莫切文化的主要途径。这些陶器显示出莫切人拥有很高的编织技术,但是由于每隔几十年就会出现暴风雨,所以大部分纺织物都被毁坏了。

  1. unlock:解开、开锁

  2. Andean:安第斯

  3. baptize:给人施洗礼

  4. ceremonial:仪式的

  5. tattoo:纹身、刺花样

  6. debunk:揭穿

  7. conservation:保持

  8. exceptional:例外的

  9. mercury:水银

  10. sulfide:硫化物

  11. eliminate:排除

  12. microorganism:微生物

  13. preservation:保存

  14. excavate:挖掘

  15. club:棍棒

  16. spear:矛、枪

  17. strangle:扼死

  18. unwrap:打开、解开

  19. adobe:土砖、粘土

  20. flourish:繁荣

  21. oasis:绿洲

  22. relief:浮雕

  23. ceramic:陶瓷制品

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