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孙子兵法Ⅷ(中英对照)

2006-07-29 11:30

  九变第八VIII. Variation in Tactics

  孙子曰:凡用兵之法,将受命于君,合军聚合。

  Sun Tzu said: In war, the general receives his commands from the sovereign, collects his army and concentrates his forces

  泛地无舍,衢地合交,绝地无留,围地则谋,死地则战,When in difficult country, do not encamp. In country where high roads intersect, join hands with your allies. Do not linger in dangerously isolated positions. In hemmed-in situations, you must resort to stratagem. In desperate position, you must fight.

  途有所不由,军有所不击,城有所不攻,地有所不争,君命有所不受。

  There are roads which must not be followed, armies which must be not attacked, towns which must be besieged, positions which must not be contested, commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed.

  故将通于九变之利者,知用兵矣;The general who thoroughly understands the advantages that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle his troops.

  将不通九变之利,虽知地形,不能得地之利矣;The general who does not understand these, may be well acquainted with the configuration of the country, yet he will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account.

  治兵不知九变之术,虽知五利,不能得人之用矣。

  So, the student of war who is unversed in the art of war of varying his plans, even though he be acquainted with the Five Advantages, will fail to make the best use of his men.

  是故智者之虑,必杂于利害,Hence in the wise leader's plans, considerations of advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together.

  杂于利而务可信也,If our expectation of advantage be tempered in this way, we may succeed in accomplishing the essential part of our schemes.

  杂于害而患可解也。

  If, on the other hand, in the midst of difficulties we are always ready to seize an advantage, we may extricate ourselves from misfortune.

  是故屈诸侯者以害,役诸侯者以业,趋诸侯者以利。

  Reduce the hostile chiefs by inflicting damage on them; and make trouble for them, and keep them constantly engaged; hold out specious allurements, and make them rush to any given point.

  故用兵之法,无恃其不来,恃吾有以待之;无恃其不攻,恃吾有所不可攻也。

  The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  故将有五危,必死可杀,必生可虏,忿速可侮,廉洁可辱,爱民可烦。

  There are five dangerous faults which may affect a general: (1) Recklessness, which leads to destruction; (2) cowardice, which leads to capture; (3) a hasty temper,

  which can be provoked by insults; (4) a delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame; (5) over-solicitude for his men, which exposes him to worry and trouble.

  凡此五者,将之过也,用兵之灾也。

  These are the five besetting sins of a general, ruinous to the conduct of war.

  覆军杀将,必以五危,不可不察也。

  When an army is overthrown and its leader slain, the cause will surely be found among these five dangerous faults. Let them be a subject of meditation.

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