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英语写作基础试卷考核知识点分析与解题思路(一)

2006-7-8 21:59  

  近几年的英语写作基础试卷在考查内容和试题类型上改动不大,保持了命题的连贯性。考查内容包括三大部分:句子的组成、段落的写作、应用文写作。题型有重写句子、改写病句、识别主题句、重新组合段落、识别与段落内容无关的句子、写信六种。本文将按题型顺序对二OOO年试题的考核知识点与解题思路进行分析和探讨,同时,也将对考生答题中的典型错误作一剖析,希望能有益于准备参加今年考试的同学。

  第一大题 重写句子(本大题共10小题,每小题1.5分,共15分)

  Rewrite each of the following sentences according to the requirement.

  一,考核知识点:考查loose sentence 与periodic sentence之间的转换。

  试题:

  2. I felt like taking a walk after watching the sunset. (periodic sentence)

  3. While they were waiting in line for the concert tickets, the rain stopped. (loose sentence)

  答案:

  2. After watching the sunset, I felt like taking a walk.

  3. The rain stopped while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets.

  解题关键:

  (1) 明确两种句型的特点:就语义结构而论,periodic sentence(掉尾句)中主要信息在后,次要信息在前,使句子的重心置于句尾,旨在造成悬念,引人入胜;而loose sentence(松散句)则正相反,将句义重心放在句首,使主要信息一目了然。就语法结构而言,periodic sentence(掉尾句)将句子成分中的修饰部分放在主要成分(一般为主谓结构)之前;而loose sentence(松散句)则反之。

  (2) 第二题原句主要信息为 I felt like taking a walk,放在次要信息After watching the sunset之前,原句是loose sentence(松散句),变换句型只要将主次信息换位即可。第三题原句的主要信息为the rain stopped,次要信息为while they were waiting in line for the concert tickets,原句是periodic sentence(掉尾句),变换成loose sentence(松散句),需主次信息换位。

  二,考核知识点:考查将两个独立短句合并成一个simple sentence的能力。

  试题:

  5. The letter is from my foreign friend. The letter arrived today. (simple sentence)

  9. My roommate was waiting for me at the door. He had a book in his hand. (simple sentence)

  答案:

  5. The letter from my foreign friend arrived today.

  9. My roommate with a book in his hand was waiting for me at the door.

  解题关键:

  (1) 明确simple sentence(简单句)的构成:simple sentence(简单句)包含一个主语+谓语动词(S+V)的结构。

  (2) 将两个短句的共同主语作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的主语,并将其中包含主要信息的短句的谓语动词确立为simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,另一短句转化为修饰成分。

  (3) 第5题原句中第一个短句为次要信息,介词短语from my foreign friend可作为修饰成分。第9题原句中,第一个短句包含主要信息,其谓语动词was waiting可作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词,第二个短句He had a book in his hand,可转化为with引导的介词短语结构,作修饰成分。

  考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)The letter which arrived today is from my foreign friend.

  (分析)错误有二:一、未将原句中包含主要信息的短句的谓语动词arrived作为合并后的simple sentence(简单句)的谓语动词;二、含有定语从句的句子不是simple sentence(简单句),而是complex sentence(复合句)。

  (错误)The letter arrived today is from my foreign friend.

  (分析)这是一个病句,句中出现两个没有合适方式连接的谓语动词,根本不符合语法规则。

  (错误)My roommate, who had a book in his hand, was waiting for me at the door.

  (分析)此句中who had a book in his hand是定语从句,而simple sentence(简单句)中不能含有从句。

  三,考核知识点:考查独立短句与compound sentence之间的转换

  试题:

  1. Jerry is a good student. He studies hard and grasps concepts well. (compound sentence)

  6. We could take a taxi. We could walk to the restaurant. (compound sentence)

  10. I needed butter to make the cookie better. I couldn't find any. I used vegetable oil instead. (compound sentence)

  答案:

  1. Jerry is a good student, for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  6. We could take a taxi or we could walk to the restaurant.

  10. I needed butter to make the cookie better, but I couldn't find any, so I used vegetable oil instead.

  解题关键:

  (1) 明确compound sentence(并列句)的特点:compound sentence(并列句)是由并列连词或特定的标点符号将意义相关、结构完整的两个或两个以上的simple sentence(简单句)连接起来构成的。

  (2) 理顺独立短句间逻辑关系:是承递、转折、选择、还是因果?确定好后在并列连接词and, nor, but, yet, or, for, so之中选一个出来连接各分句。

  (3) 第1题中,两分句间的关系为前因后果,所以选择for引出解释原因的分句。第6题中,两分句为选择关系,可用or连接。第10题较为复杂,前两个分句是转折关系,可用but或yet连接;它们又与第三个分句形成前因后果的关系,所以选择so引出结果。

  考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)Jerry is a good student for he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  (分析)用for引导表示原因的分句时,它前面一定要用comma(逗号)。

  (错误)For Jerry is a good student, he studies hard and grasps concepts well.

  (分析)除了因果关系不妥外,for的位置也不正确。用for连接两个简单句时,前句表示结果或结论,后句说明产生前述结果的原因,所以for只能出现在后句中。

  (错误)We could take a taxi or walk to the restaurant.

  (分析)此句仍是一个simple sentence(简单句)而不是compound sentence(并列句),compound sentence(并列句)必须包含两个或两个以上的simple sentence(简单句)

  四,考核知识点:考查compound sentence与complex sentence之间的转换

  试题:

  4. The tape recorder was not working right, so I returned it to the store. (complex sentence)

  答案:

  4. Because the tape recorder was not working right, I returned it to the store.

  解题关键:

  (1) 了解complex sentence(复合句)的构成:complex sentence(复合句)包含一个主句及一个或多个从句。从句分为名词性从句、形容词性从句和副词性从句。

  (2) 第4题原句是compound sentence(并列句),两个分句为因果关系,要把compound sentence(并列句)重写成complex sentence(复合句)时,只需将第一个分句改为由从属连接词because引导的原因状语从句即可。

  考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)I returned the tape recorder to the store, for it was not working right.

  (分析)for虽然也可引导表示原因的分句,但它是并列连接词,用在compound sentence(并列句)中,这点与because、as、since等引导原因状语从句的从属连接词不同。

  五,考核知识点:考查对compound-complex sentence的掌握和运用。

  试题:

  7. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week's notice. I am very busy this month. (compound-complex sentence)

  答案:

  7. If you want me to clean your windows, please give me a week's notice, for I am very busy this month.

  解题关键:

  (1) 了解compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)的构成:顾名思义,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)是由复合句并列而形成的。具体地说,compound-complex sentence(并列复合句)可以是一个简单句与一个主从复合句用并列连接词连接起来的,也可以是两个主从复合句的并列。

  (2) 第7题原句中的第一个句子是含有条件状语从句的主从复合句,第一句与第二句是前因后果的关系,将两句话用并列连接词for连接起来,即可合并为一个compound - complex sentence(并列复合句)。

  考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)Please give me a week's notice if you want me to clean your windows, because I am very busy this month.

  (分析)此句仍是complex sentence(复合句),因为because为从属连接词。在表示原因的连接词中,只有for是并列连接词,用于连接两个具有并列关系的分句。阅卷中发现,相当多的考生没有掌握好连接词for的用法。

  六,考核知识点:考查对parallel structure概念的掌握和运用

  试题:

  8. Minnie bought a ticket to the play. She went out for dinner. She arrived at the theater by 8:00. (parallel structure)

  答案:

  8. Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, and arrived at the theater by 8:00.

  解题关键:

  (1) 明确parallel structure(平行结构)的特点:parallel structure(平行结构)是把两个或两个以上意思并列的成分用同等的语法形式表示出来。平行的结构可以是单词、词组、从句,也可以是句子。

  (2) 第8题原有的三个短句中,主语均为Minnie,谓语动词bought、went out、及arrived是意思并列的成分,可以成为平行结构。

  考生典型答题错误分析

  (错误)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, arrived at the theater by 8:00,and went out for dinner.

  (分析)Minnie买票、外出吃饭、到达剧院是按照时间顺序先后发生的,次序不能随意更改。

  (错误)Minnie bought a ticket to the play, went out for dinner, then arrived at the theater by 8:00.

  (分析)then不是并列连接词,不能取代and.

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