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孙子兵法Ⅺ(中英对照)

2006-07-29 11:37

  九地第十一XI. The Nine Situations

  孙子曰:用兵之法,有散地,有轻地,有争地,有交地,有衢地,有重地,有泛地,有围地,有死地。

  Sun Tzu said: The art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground: (1) Dispersive ground; (2) facile ground; (3) contentious ground; (4) open ground; (5) ground of intersecting highways; (6) serious ground; (7) difficult ground; (8) hemmed-in ground; (9) desperate ground.

  诸侯自战其地者,为散地;When a chieftain is fighting in his own territory, it is dispersive ground.

  入人之地不深者,为轻地;When he has penetrated into hostile territory, but to no great distance, it is facile ground.

  我得亦利,彼得亦利者,为争地;Ground the possession of which imports great advantage to either side, is contentious ground.

  我可以往,彼可以来者,为交地;Ground on which each side has liberty of movement is open ground.

  诸侯之地三属,先至而得天下众者,为衢地;Ground which forms the key to three contiguous states, so that he who occupies it first has most of the Empire at his command, is a ground of intersecting highways.

  入人之地深,背城邑多者,为重地;When an army has penetrated into the heart of a hostile country, leaving a number of fortified cities in its rear, it is serious ground.

  山林、险阻、沮泽,凡难行之道者,为泛地;Mountain forests, rugged steeps, marshes and fens——all country that is hard to traverse: this is difficult ground.

  所由入者隘,所从归者迂,彼寡可以击吾之众者,为围地;Ground which is reached through narrow gorges, and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths, so that a small number of the enemy would suffice to crush a large body of our men: this is hemmed in ground.

  疾战则存,不疾战则亡者,为死地。

  Ground on which we can only be saved from destruction by fighting without delay, is desperate ground.

  是故散地则无战,轻地则无止,争地则无攻,On dispersive ground, therefore, fight not. On facile ground, halt not. On contentious ground, attack not.

  交地则无绝,衢地则合交,On open ground, do not try to block the enemy's way. On the ground of intersecting highways, join hands with your allies.

  重地则掠,泛地则行,On serious ground, gather in plunder. In difficult ground, keep steadily on the march.

  围地则谋,死地则战。On hemmed-in ground, resort to stratagem. On desperate ground, fight.

  古之善用兵者,能使敌人前后不相及,众寡不相恃,贵贱不相救,上下不相收,Those who were called skillful leaders of old knew how to drive a wedge between the enemy's front and rear; to prevent co-operation between his large and small divisions; to hinder the good troops from rescuing the bad, the officers from rallying their men.

  卒离而不集,兵合而不齐。

  When the enemy's men were united, they managed to keep them in disorder.

  合于利而动,不合于利而止。

  When it was to their advantage, they made a forward move; when otherwise, they stopped still.

  敢问敌众而整将来,待之若何曰:先夺其所爱则听矣。

  If asked how to cope with a great host of the enemy in orderly array and on the point of marching to the attack, I should say: “Begin by seizing something which your opponent holds dear; then he will be amenable to your will.“

  兵之情主速,乘人之不及。由不虞之道,攻其所不戒也。

  Rapidity is the essence of war: take advantage of the enemy's unreadiness, make your way by unexpected routes, and attack unguarded spots.

  凡为客之道,深入则专。主人不克,The following are the principles to be observed by an invading force: The further you penetrate into a country, the greater will be the solidarity of your troops, and thus the defenders will not prevail against you.

  掠于饶野,三军足食。

  Make forays in fertile country in order to supply your army with food.

  谨养而勿劳,并气积力,运兵计谋,为不可测。

  Carefully study the well-being of your men, and do not overtax them. Concentrate your energy and hoard your strength. Keep your army continually on the move, and devise unfathomable plans.

  投之无所往,死且不北。死焉不得,士人尽力。

  Throw your soldiers into positions whence there is no escape, and they will prefer death to flight. If they will face death, there is nothing they may not achieve.

  Officers and men alike will put forth their uttermost strength.

  兵士甚陷则不惧,无所往则固,深入则拘,不得已则斗。

  Soldiers when in desperate straits lose the sense of fear. If there is no place of refuge, they will stand firm. If they are in hostile country, they will show a stubborn front. If there is no help for it, they will fight hard.

  是故其兵不修而戒,不求而得,不约而亲,不令而信,Thus, without waiting to be marshaled, the soldiers will be constantly on the qui vive; without waiting to be asked, they will do your will; without restrictions, they will be faithful; without giving orders, they can be trusted.

  禁祥去疑,至死无所之。

  Prohibit the taking of omens, and do away with superstitious doubts. Then, until death itself comes, no calamity need be feared.

  吾士无余财,非恶货也;无余命,非恶寿也。

  If our soldiers are not overburdened with money, it is not because they have a distaste for riches; if their lives are not unduly long, it is not because they are disinclined to longevity.

  令发之日,士卒坐者涕沾襟,偃卧者涕交颐,投之无所往,诸、刿之勇也。

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