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考研英语英汉翻译高分攻略 (4)

2006-7-16 23:04  张鑫友外语研究网 

  15、在语言的使用方式中,英语和汉语有何不同?

  英语多引申,汉语多推理。英语有两句俗话:一是You know a work by the company it keeps.(要知义如何,关键看词伙),二是Words do not have meaning,but people have meaning for them.(词本无人,义随人生)。这说明词典对词的定义和解释是死的,而实际运用中的语言是活的。从原文角度来说,这种活用是词义和用法的引申,翻译的时候要准确理解这种引申,译者就需要进行推理。

  经典例题19 While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians,modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.(1999年71题)

  参考译文:尽管关于历史的定义几乎和历史学家一样多,现代实践最符合这样一种定义,即把历史看作是对过去重大历史事件的再现和解释。

  “recreate”根据构词法和一般词典上解释都是“重新创造”,而考研英语大纲词汇表中只有名词“recreation”,所给词义为“娱乐、消遣”,在这种情况下,考生很容易把recreate译成“重新创造”或者“娱乐”。仔细观察一下recreate在句中的用法,不难发现它带有宾语the significant events of the part(过去的重大历史事件)。从逻辑上来讲,“过去的重大历史事件”是不能“重新创造”的,作者显然对recreate一词的词义进行了引申,再想想我们生活中发生的情况:历史、文学、电影、电视经常向我们展示过去发生的事情,这种展示用恰当的中文表达就是“再现”,所以,句中用“再现”译recreate才是正确的理解和表达。做翻译的人经常会有这样一种感受:某个词明明认识,可就是不知道该怎样表达。这其实就是词的引申和推理在起作用。现在我们看一看sure这个词在不同句子中的处理情况:

  经典例题20

  ①I am not quite sure of his having said it. 我不能确定他是否说过这话。

  ②This is the surest guarantee that we shall be successful.这是我们取得成功最可靠的保证。

  ③He made a sure step out of the mud. 他从泥淖中跨出了稳健的一步。

  ④She had a sure grasp of the subject. 她对这门学科的知识掌握得很牢固。

  ⑤He is very sure in his beliefs. 他的信仰十分坚定。

  5个sure分别译成了“确定”、“可靠的”、“稳健的”、“牢固”和“坚定”,如果都译成大家熟悉的“确信的”、“肯定的”,中文译文岂不成了天书?原文词义稍有引申,译文就要进行适当的推理。

  16、就句子结构而言,英语和汉语有何不同?

  英语多省略,汉语多补充。英语一方面十分注重句子结构,另一方面又喜欢使用省略。英语省略的类型很多,有名词的省略,动词的省略,有句法方面的省略,也有情景方面的省略。在并列结构中,英语往往省略前面已出现过的词语,而汉语则往往重复这些省略了的词。

  经典例题21

  ①Ambition is the mother of destruction as well as of evil.野心不仅是罪恶的根源,同时也是毁灭的根源。

  ②Reading exercises one's eyes;speaking,one's tongue;while writing,one's mind.F.Bacon)阅读训练人的眼睛,说话训练人的口齿,写作训练人的思维。

  ③Association with the good can only produce good,with the wicked,evil.近朱者,近墨者黑。

  ④One boy is a boy,two boys half a boy,three boys no boy.一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。

  在考研英译汉中,省略是一种很常见的现象。

  经典例题22 Whether to use test,other kinds of information,or both in a particular situation depends,therefore,upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.

  参考译文:因此,究竟是使用测试,其它种类的信息,还是在特定的情况下两者都使用,取决于关于相对效度的来自经验的证据,同时还取决于成本和可获得性这样的因素。

  whehter…or…是并列连词,or前面省略了不定式to use,and upon中间省略了动词depends,译文中补充了“使用”和“取决”。

  17、就逻辑思维而言,英语和汉语有何不同?

  英语多前重心,汉语多后重心。在表达多逻辑思维时,英语往往是判断或结论等在前,事实或描写等在后,即重心在前;汉语则是由因到果、由假设到推论、由事实到结论,即重心在后。

  经典例题23 I was all the more delighted when,as a result of the initiative of your government it proved possible to reinstate the visit so quickly.

  参考译文:由于贵国政府的提议,才得以这样快地重新实现访问。这使我感到特别高兴。

  经典例题24 The assertion that it was difficult,if not impossible,for a people to enjoy its basic rights unless it was able to determine freely its political status and to ensure freely its economic,social and cultural development was now scarcely contested.

  参考译文:如果一个民族不能自由地决定其政治地位,不能自由地保证其经济,社会和文化的发展,要享受其基本权利,即使不是不可能,也是不容易的。这一论断几乎是无可置辩的了。

  不难看出,英语和汉语的重心在句中的位置有时是不一样的,翻译的时候如果不进行调整,势必给表达造成很大的困难。以上是英语跟汉语在思维方式和表达习惯上的十大区别。只有了解这些区别,才能对英译汉有正确的认识,才能在翻译中抓住重点,找到解决问题的办法。

  18. 做英译汉时所依据的标准是什么?

  最为提倡的翻译标准是一个世纪前严复提出的“信、达、雅”。大学英语测试中的英译汉虽然是应试之作,但对“信、达、雅”文字原则一样可行。“信”即忠实,译文须忠实于原文:“达”即通达顺畅,读来流畅,符合译文的语言习惯:“雅”是对语言的更高要求,即译文要雅致,是优美的汉语。对于大学非英语专业的学生来说,英译汉必须掌握前两个标准,在达到“信”和“达”的标准后,可以追求最后一则。

  翻译的过程大致分为三步: 理解、表达与校正。理解指对原文的理解,主要是指首先找到要翻译句子的主谓结构,看看这句话主要讲什么,然后再找出句子的其他成分,如定语、宾语、状语等。表达是指把原文分析后,用译文表达。校正就是在完成了表达之后,对照原文进行检查,看看所选词义是否符合上下文,原文要表达的意思有没有表达错误,汉语的译文中意义上是否与原文对等,译文有没有译者增加的不是原文作者的意思,或者译者删减,丢失了原文作者要表达的意思。这三个环境是翻译过程必不可少的。

  19、理解句子时应注意些什么问题?

  理解原文是翻译最关键、最易出问题的一步。译文的模糊不清很多时候是源于译者对原文理解得不透彻、不仔细。理由可以从以下几个方面来考虑:

  (1)搞清句子结构,辨别主语和谓语。抓住了句子的主干,各部分之间的从属关系也就看得比较清楚,有益于从整体把握句子。

  (2)理解虚拟语气。虚拟语气是英语特有的一种表达方式,它包括对现在、未来、过去的假设,在英语中有多种表现,译成汉语时一定要弄清它的对象和范围,尽量把虚拟的意思传达出来。

  (3)搞清楚关系。句中如果有代词,应根据上下文找出其所指代的内容,并将其准确地翻译出来。

  (4)明白否定的方式。英语思维的特点也表现在它对否定式的用法上,中国读者往往容易在这里产生错误。例如:

  All that glitters is not gold(发光的未必都是金子)。

  在这里是以全部否定的形式来表达部分否定的事实。英语也用双重否定表示肯定,这种现象英语中常见,汉语中并不常见,翻译时需要多加注意。

  (5)一词多义。一词多义是很常见的现象。判断词义一定要根据上下文确定其具体的义,不能因为是过去认识的词便不加深究,便草率地按以前的理解翻译而产生错误。如:

  There is company downstairs.楼下有客人。

  如按通常的理解以为company是“公司”的意思,就出错了。

  (6)注意英国英语和美国英语的不同。英美语言之间有很多差异,比如:英国英语中continent指欧洲大陆,而在美语中,continent却指美洲大陆;又如:英语中homely是“家常的、朴素的”的意思,并无贬义,在美语中却是“不漂亮的”。所以翻译时一定要搞清文章是英语作者还是美国作者写的。

  (7)成语。成语具有约定俗成的特点,属于语言中较难理解的部分。英语的某些成语具有形象思维的特点,可以和汉语相吻合,比如:Strike the iron as it is hot.(趁热打铁)但有一个成语的含义与我们的理解大相径庭,如:Claw me and I will claw thee.(互相吹捧)所以翻译时一定要小心。

  (8)语意的褒贬与轻重。翻译时还要注意词语的感情色彩,即它是褒、是贬,还是中性。这种感情色彩往往表明了作者的主观态度,好恶与爱憎。把握住它对于正确、传神的翻译是非常必要的。有时单凭个别词是难以判断的,还要根据上下文来判断,因为为达到讽刺的目的,作者可能正话反说或反话正说。

  (9)注意文章的语体色彩。如果是专业文章,那么术语一定很多,叙述也较客观,少有个人色彩,翻译时应多选用正式的词语。如果是一般的叙述,则可能日常用语较多,小词和短语较多。翻译时也要注意这一点,以此来确定词语的选择。

  (10)留心文化背景。中西文化的差异非常明显。比如,中国的亲戚划分非常仔细,而英文中的cousin一词对应的中文可以是表(堂)兄弟(姐妹),可以有八个之多。

  本章试以2002年真题为例,帮助考生熟悉英译汉这种题型的难易程度、出题思路,并具体指导考生如何应对。

  以下为2002年真题:

  经典例题25 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior,and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone.What is needed is a technology of behavior,but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.61)One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind,feelings,traits of character,human nature,and so on.Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them.62)The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.The environment is obviously important,but its role has remained obscure.It does not push or pull,it selects,and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.63)The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago,and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however,effects once assigned to states of mind,feelings,and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions,and a technology of behavior may therefore become available.It will not solve our problems,however,until it replaces traditional pre_scientific views,and these are strongly entrenched.Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty.64)They are the possessions of the autonomous(self_governing)man of traditional theory,and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements.A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment.It also raises questions concerning“values”。Who will use a technology and to what ends?65)Until these issues are resolved,a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected,and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.

  首先通读文章。该篇主要讲的是:我们人类的一些主要问题只有借助行为科学才能解决。而行为科学的发展与人类认知环境对人类行为的影响密切相关。研究行为的技术手段存在的前提是它取代传统的科学理论。传统理论定义的自主人所拥有的自由和尊严是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定。但科学分析把这一切都归因于环境的作用。谁来使用这种技术手段?以及到什么样的程度?研究行为的技术手段只有在这些问题得到解决之后才有可能不继续受到排斥。

  在通读之后,我们再来分析理解划线的句子。

  一般来说,英汉两种语言在句子的结构上有较大的差异。英译汉试题中复合句、长难句较多,考生在答题时首先要弄清原文的句法结构,找出句子的中心内容,理清各层的意思,然后分析各层意思间的关系,最后按照汉语的特点译出原文。

  请看第61句。这是一个复合句,结构不太复杂。句子的框架是One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to…。that引导表语从句,在这个表语从句中包含了一个由what引导的宾语从句,作介词of的宾语。表语从句的主语是almost all of…,谓语动词是continues.虽然这个句子有两个层次的从句,但是可以把原文的句子结构保留下来。全句译为:难题之一在于所谓的行为科学几乎全都依然从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。

  再看第65句。这是一个主从复合句。句子的框架是Until these issues are resolved,a technology of behavior will…and with it…。until引导时间状语从句。主句如果用肯定形式,那么,这个时间状语从句翻译时可译成“如果…不…”。在主句中,and又连接两个并列的分句。it指代“a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected”,即指研究行为的技术手段受排斥这件事。with it possibly the only way to solved our problems之后省略了相同的谓语will also continue to be rejected.a technology of behavior在这里译成“研究行为的技术手段”。理顺了它们之间的逻辑关系之后,按层次把该句译为:(如果)这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的惟一方式也可能随之继续受到排斥。

  除了分析清楚各层次之间关系之外,句子翻译的另一要点是:不能断章取义。考研题的英译汉是让考生将一篇短文中的划线部分翻译出来,即断章翻译。然而,划线部分是整篇文章中的有机部分,和上下文连为一体。因此,翻译时尤其要注意划线部分中的代词所指代的内容,同时在译文中反映出来,做到准确完整。

  请看第62句。这是一个主从复合句。句子的框架是The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because…and partly because…。两个partly because引导并列的原因状语从句。主句是The behavioral sciences have been slow to change.原因状语从句在句末可译成“之所以…是因为…”的句式。句中的explanatory items原意为“用来解释的条目”。在此句中如果这样直译,那就有失准确。因为explanatory items指代的是61句中的states of mind,feelings,traits of character,human nature.所以,应当根据上下文译为“用来解释行为的依据”。此句译成:行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的,部分原因是其他的解释一直很难找到。   再看第64句。这是一个由and连接的并列句。在第二个分句中又有一个介词in+which引导的定语从句,修饰practices.文中的人称代词they指代的是上句中的freedom and dignity.在翻译此句时一定要根据语意环境,译为“自由和尊严”。全句译为:自由和尊严是传统理论定义的自主人所拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。

  在翻译英语句子时,特别是长句时往往会碰到一些比较难翻的词和词组。所以,在确定词义时一定要从词语的搭配和句子或段落等语言单位对词义进行考虑,以保证词义理解的准确。词义的引申和词性的转换是两种重要的解题技能。它可以使译文忠实通顺,符合汉语的表达习惯。

  例如:第63句。这是一个由and连接的并列句,句子的层次相对来说比较简单。但句中的难点是词组natural selection,selective role和动词formulate的翻译。natural selection译为“自然选择”,selective role译为“选择作用”。动词formulate原意为“用简明的形式表示”,在此应引申为“阐明”。

  英译汉其目的是测试考生正确理解书面英语材料的能力。考试大纲规定,英译汉试题通常是一篇约400词的短文,要求考生在30分钟内根据上下文将文章中划线的5个部分译成汉语,译文应该通顺达意。短文题材一般为政治经济、社会生活、文化教育或科普知识。2002年英译汉试题译文

  我们遇到的几乎所有重要问题都涉及到人的行为,而且仅靠物理技术和生物技术是无法解决这些问题的。我们所需要的是一种行为技术,但是可能产生这种技术的科学一直发展缓慢。(61)难题之一在于所谓的行为科学几乎全都依然从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。物理学和生物学一度模仿类似的做法并且只有当它们抛弃这些做法后才得到发展。(62)行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的,部分原因是其他的解释方式一直难以找到。环境因素显然是重要的,但是它的作用仍然是模糊不清的。它既不推动也不阻碍行为科学的发展,它具有选择作用,因而这种作用是很难发现和分析的。(63)自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明,而环境在塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。然而,由于人(生物)和环境之间的相互作用已经逐渐被人们所认识,所以现在正开始从已知的环境去寻找一度认为是心态、情感和性格特征所造成的影响其根源所在。因此就可以建立一门行为技术。但是,如果行为技术代替不了传统的科学发展以前的观点,那它将无法解决我们的难题。而这些传统的观点是根深蒂固的。自由和尊严是难处之所在。(64)自由和尊严(它们)是传统理论定义的自主人所拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。科学的分析把责任和成绩归因于环境。它还提出有关“价值观念”的种种问题。谁会使用一门技术?其目的何在?(65)在这些得到解决以前,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问题的惟一方式可能也随之继续受到排斥。

  注释:

  1.assign…to…认为…是…造成的。例如:1)They assigned his odd behavior to his ill health.(他们认为他古怪的行为是身体不好造成的。)2)The fire was assigned to various causes.(这次火灾是种种原因造成的)

  2.shift…to(onto)…把…推到…的头上。例如:1)I mustn't shift my responsibility to[upon]you.(我不能把责任推到你身上。)2)I don't want to shift the blame onto her.(我不想把错推到她身上)

  3.64题中give sb.credit for sth.意为“因为…而肯定某人的功劳”,如:The police was given credit for keeping the public services running smoothly.(由于使公用事业顺利运转,警方受到表彰)

  4.65题中with it随之。and引导一个并列的省略分句,补全后为:and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected.

  练习

  Now zoom forward to our present time and think of our pre_Internet communications systems as sorts of protozoa(原生动物)。What we're witnessing today in the realm of cyberspace—the online reformulation of everything from the way we play and learn to how we shop and trade stocks may represent no less a world_ transforming change than the spectacular burst of creation so long ago.

  One notable difference:The primeval organisms did not have a guide_book to inform them about what to expect and how to deal with some of the fabulous things to come.We do,in the recently released New Rules for the New Economy by Kevin Kelly,a founding editor of Wired magazine.

  “The key premise of this book is that the principles governing the world of the soft—the world of intangibles,of media,of software,and of services—will soon command the world of the hard—the world of reality,of atoms,of objects,of steel and oil,and the hard work done by the sweat of brows,”Kelly writes.Driving this economic transformation is the combination of shrinking computers and expanding communications,he says,adding:(1)“We have seen only the beginnings of the anxiety,loss,excitement,and gains that many people will experience as our world shifts to a new highly technical planetary economy.”Does that sound like techno_hype?

  It's barely a taste of the radical and often counterintuitive“rules”that Kelly dishes out.(2)He employs an aphoristic(格言的)and,well,wired style that will easily appeal to geeks and should also turn on any mainstream readers who are a little more than curious about where the digitally rendered world is headed.

  Where it's likely headed,in Kelly's words,is“upside down”。Chew,for example,on the idea that“the surest way to smartness is through massive dumbness”。What that means in essence is that tiny computer chips,though relatively“dumb”on their own,can be added to billions of mundane objects and,thereby,yield substantial economic benefits.Such as real time buying patterns on everything from shirts to soda cans.In the conventional world of supply and demand where we all grew up,value came from scarcity.As in,diamonds,gold and oil.In a world of digital imperatives,as Kelly correctly points out,“power comes from abundance.”(3)That was a principle that Apple tragically failed to understand when it backed off from licensing its graphic computer interface,assuring that its market share would be savaged by Microsoft's more open Windows operating system.Which leads us to another of Kelly's hardwired laws:Follow the free.In the universe of atoms,as a resource is consumed it becomes more expensive to produce.As gold is mined,nuggets(天然金块)at first may be easy,and therefore cheap,to find.But when particles of ore must be squeezed out of tons of rock,the price of gold becomes more dear.

  But in what Kelly terms“the new order”,the law of plentitude kicks in,leading a savvy company such as Netscape to distribute its Web browser for free in order to sell auxiliary services or products.Similarly,expensive cell phones are offered as freebies(免费的东西)to gain contracts for phone services.

  Finally,Kelly tells us to look around and see how much the world has already changed under our very feet.(4)An American farmer today,for instance,may still get some dirt under his fingernails,but much of his labor is performed under the umbrella of the electronic network.The cab in his tractor has a wireless phone and a satellite_linked GPS location device;his home computer is connected to a never_ending stream of weather data,grain market reports and moisture detectors in the soil.(5)New Rules for the New Economy suggests that we might even learn something from those plucky life forms that exploded on the scene a half billion years ago.“The qualities needed to succeed in the network economy can be reduced to this:a facility for charging into the unknown.”

  答案

  文章大意: 正在日益缩小的电脑与不断壮大的通讯业的结合在推动着经济变革。《有线》杂志的创刊编辑凯文·凯利在他发表的《新经济之新规则》一书中指出:网络正影响着全人类的各个领域,而网络经济使整个社会翻天覆地。而我们想在网络经济中取得成功所需的素质就是一种冲入未知领域的技能。(1)结构分析:句子的框架是We have seen only…and gains that many people will experience as our would shifts to…。关系代词that引导定语从句,修饰先行词the anxiety,loss,excitement,and gains.as引导时间状语从句。shift to在此句中译为“转变”。gains在此句中应转译为“成就”。

  参考译文:我们看到的仅仅是我们的世界向一个新的高科技全球经济转变时许多人将体验到的焦虑、失落、激动与成就的开端。

  (2)结构分析:句子的框架是He employs an aphoristic…style that will easily appeal to…and should also turn on…readers who…。关系代词that引导定语从句,修饰style.在此从句中包含了由关系代词who引导的定语从句,修饰先行词any main_stream readers.where the digitally rendered world is headed作介词about的宾语。main_stream readers在此译为“主流读者”。

  参考译文: 他采取的是一种格言式的而且还是有线的风格,很容易吸引那些怪人,而且吸引那些主流读者的兴趣,他们对这个数字化世界的发展前途多少都有点好奇。

  (3)结构分析: 句子的框架是That was a principle that Apple…when it backed off from…,assuring that its market share would…。本句的主句是That was a principle…。关系代词that引导定语从句,修饰先行词principle.when引导时间状语从句。现在分词短语assuring that…充当that引导的定语从句的原因状语。名词从句that its market share would be savaged by…作assuring的宾语。principle指代上文的“power comes from abundance”这一原则。back off原意为“屈服,让步”,在此句中译为“放弃”。

  参考译文:“苹果”电脑公司悲剧性地未能理解这一原则,它放弃了它的图形电脑界面的

  销售许可,因为担心自己的市场份额会被微软更开放的视窗操作系统无情地侵占。

  (4)结构分析: 句子的框架是An American farmer…may still get some dirt…,but much of his labor is performed under…。这是一个由but连接的并列句。dirt在此句中译为“污泥,泥巴”。under the umbrella of应转译为“在…覆盖下”。

  参考译文: 比如今日的美国农民,也许指甲盖里仍藏着些许污泥,但他的许多劳作都是在电子网络覆盖下进行的。

  (5)结构分析: 句子的框架是New Rules for the New Economy suggests that we might even learn…life forms that exploded on the scene…。that we might…是宾语从句,作suggest的宾语。在这个从句中包含了由关系代词that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词plucky life forms.explode原意为“爆发,爆炸”,在此句中译为“急速增长”。life forms指文中的原生动物。

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