例1、In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, merging into supersystems, causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995, the top four railroads accounted for under 70 percent of the total ton-miles moved by rails. Next year, after a series of mergers is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by major rail carriers.
Supporters of the new super systems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.
The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government's Surface Transportation Board for rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will work only in truly extreme cases.
Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it reduces everyone's cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It's theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail. “Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace？” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shipper.
Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be hit with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortunes. still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the $10. 2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's net railway operating income in 1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill？ Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.
52．What is many captive shippers' attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry？（2003）
（A） Indifferent. （B） Supportive. （C） Indignant. （D） Apprehensive.
第一步：根据局部对象或者局部对象的主体找出本题的出题句；根据该题的题干，我们可以依据many captive shippers找到本题目的出题句（得分句）为最后一段的第一句话。
例2、It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional. Small wonder. Americans' life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minuts surgical procedure. Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable when I entered medicine 50 years ago. But not even a great health-care system can cure death-and our failure to confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours.
Death is normal； we are genetically programmed to disintegrate and perish, even under ideal conditions. We all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat death as a problem to be solved. Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it's useless. The most obvious example is late-stage cancer care. Physicians-frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient-too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified.
In 1950, the U. S. spent $12. 7 billion on health care. In 2002, the cost will be $1540 billion. Anyone can see this trend is unsustainable. Yet few seem willing to try to reverse it. Some scholars conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for medical care that sustains life beyond a certain age—say 83 or so. Former Colorado governor Richard Lamm has been quoted as saying that the old and infirm “have a duty to die and get out of the way”, so that younger, healthier people can realize their potential.
I would not go that far. Energetic people now routinely work through their 60s and beyond, and remain dazzlingly productive. At 78, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone jokingly claims to be 53. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor is in her 70s, and former surgeon general C. Everett Koop chairs an Internet start-up in his 80s. These leaders are living proof that prevention works and that we can manage the health problems that come naturally with age. As a mere 68-year-old, I wish to age as productively as they have.
Yet there are limits to what a society can spend in this pursuit. Ask a physician, I know the most costly and dramatic measures may be ineffective and painful. I also know that people in Japan and Sweden, countries that spend far less on medical care, have achieved longer, healthier lives than we have. As a nation, we may be overfunding the quest for unlikely cures while underfunding research on humbler therapies that could improve people's lives.
58．The author's attitude toward Richard Lamm's remark is one of .（2003）
（A） strong disapproval （B） reserved consent
（C） slight contempt （D） enthusiastic support
第一步：根据局部对象或者局部对象的主体找出本题的出题句；根据该题的题干，我们可以依据Richard Lamm's remark找到本题目的出题句（得分句）为第三段的最后一句话，但是这句话里并没有作者的情感态度，只有Richard Lamm的看法，因此本句不是出题句（得分句），但是可以肯定的是出题句就是该句附近。我们发现在第四段第一句话说I would not go that far.这里的I就是指作者，that是指Richard Lamm的看法，所以本句才是真正的出题句；
第二步：在出题句（或称得分句）中寻找含有感情色彩的词语或句子；这个句子中没有一个单词是有感情色彩的，但是作为一个整体又是有感情色彩的，意思是作者不会和Richard Lamm走一样远的。不会走一样远并不是说不走，只是说没有走的那么远，所以作者对于Richard Lamm的看法是局部的同意和支持的；
例3、When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn't biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn't cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as she'd like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. “I'm a good economic indicator,” she says. “I provide a service that people can do without when they're concerned about saving some dollars.” So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard's department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. “I don't know if other clients are going to abandon me, too” she says. Even before Alan Greenspan's admission that America's red-hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year's pace. But don't sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy's long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt-tightening. Consumers say they're not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, “there's a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses,” says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. “Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three,” says john Deadly, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job. Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldn't mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan's hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant need to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan &； Co. may still be worth toasting.
52．How do the public feel about the current economic situation？ （2004）
（A） Optimistic. （B） Confused. （C） Carefree. （D） Panicked.
第二步：在出题句（或称得分句）中寻找含有感情色彩的词语或句子；在最后一段的第一句中我们找到了not in despair这个词组，是没有绝望的意思；
例4、Americans today don't place a very high value on intellect. Our heroes are athletes, entertainers, and entrepreneurs, not scholars. Even our schools are where we send our children to get a practical education —— not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Symptoms of pervasive anti-intellectualism in our schools aren't difficult to find.“Schools have always been in a society where practical is more important than intellectual,” says education writer Diane Ravitch. “Schools could be a counterbalance.” Razitch's latest bock, Left Back： A Century of Failed School Reforms, traces the roots of anti-intellectualism in our schools, concluding they are anything but a counterbalance to the American distaste for intellectual pursuits. But they could and should be. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy. Continuing along this path, says writer Earl Shorris, “We will become a second-rate country. We will have a less civil society.”
“Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege,” writes historian and professor Richard Hofstadter in Anti-Intellectualism in American life, a Pulitzer Prize winning book on the roots of anti-intellectualism in US politics, religion, and education. From the beginning of our history, says Hofstadter, our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of elitism. Practicality, common sense, and native intelligence have been considered more noble qualities than anything you could learn from a book. Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and rigorous book learning put unnatural restraints on children：“We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing.”Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn exemplified American anti-intellectualism. Its hero avoids being civilized —— going to school and learning to read —— so he can preserve his innate goodness. Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly admire. Intellect is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of the mind. Intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, re-order, and adjust, while intellect examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes, criticizes and imagines. School remains a place where intellect is mistrusted. Hofstadter says our country's educational system is in the grips of people who “joyfully and militantly proclaim their hostility to intellect and their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual promise.”
58. The views of Ravish and Emerson on schooling are（2004）
（A） identical. （B） similar. （C） complementary. （D） opposite.
例1、The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen, striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen； and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller-producers. If the product is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be bid up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system.
The important factor in a private-enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources（private property）, and they are permitted to hire labor, gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
54．The passage is mainly about .（1994）
（A） how American goods are produced
（B） how American consumers buy their goods.
（C） how American economic system works
（D） how American businessmen make their profits
第三步：A选项是原文讲到的选项，原文第一段最后一句话说that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it，因此A是正确的，但是我们不能立刻就选A，因为我们在找最佳答案，既然是最佳就要有4个选项的比较，完全有可能4个选项都是正确的，但是只能选择一个；B选项是原文第一段最后一句讲到的，the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes，因此B也是正确的，符合原文意思的；C选项原文四句话都讲到了，但是美国经济模式的运作的范围很显然大于这个4句话的范围。D选项在原文第一段的最后一句也讲到了desire of businessmen to maximize profits，因此D也是正确符合原文意思的。4个选项都是正确的，但是不同的是A、B和D只是在原文的第一段的最后一句讲到了，很显然C选项概括了4句话的全部内容，因此因该选择C.
例2、One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card. They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the country, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is open. For many of us the “cashless society” is not on the horizon-it's already here.
While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to reorder or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns. Computers are relied on by manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marketing reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future, and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself.
Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.
58. What is this passage mainly about？ （1994）
（A） Approaches to the commercial use of computers.
（B） conveniences brought about by computers in business.
（C） Significance of automation in commercial enterprises.
（D） Advantages of credit cards in business.
第三步：A的意思是电脑的商业使用的方法，文章在最后一段讲到了电脑的商业使用的问题，因此A是符合原文意思的；B的意思是商业中电脑带来的便利，原文讲到了B选项，明显的证明是bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers，所以B也是正确并符合原文意思的；C的意思是自动化在商业企业中的重要性，文章4句话没有讲到自动化的问题，更没有讲到什么重要性，因此C是和原文无关的选项；D的意思是商业中信用卡的重要性，文章在第一段的第一句话就讲到了信用卡，但是没有讲到信用卡的重要性，因此D也是无关选项；因此这个题目的答案必然在A和B中产生。这个时候我们应该比较A和B有什么不同的地方。我们发现A强调的是“方法Approaches”而B强调的是“便利conveniences ”，很显然文章着重讲解的是电脑带来的便利，因此这个题目应该选B；
例3、Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age. For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
Although we focus on the needs of exceptional children, we find ourselves describing their environment as well. While the leading actor on the stage captures our attention, we are aware of the importance of the supporting players and the scenery of the play itself. Both the family and the society in which exceptional children live are often the key to their growth and development. And it is in the public schools that we find the full expression of society's understanding-the knowledge, hopes, and fears that are passed on to the next generation.
Education in any society is a mirror of that society. In that mirror we can see the strengths, the weaknesses, the hopes, the prejudices, and the central values of the culture itself. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
“All men are created equal.” We've heard it many times, but it still has important meaning for education in a democratic society. Although the phrase was used by this country's founders to denote equality before the law, it has also been interpreted to mean equality of opportunity. That concept implies educational opportunity for all children-the right of each child to receive help in learning to the limits of his or her capacity, whether that capacity be small or great. Recent court decisions have confirmed the right of all children—disabled or not—to an appropriate education, and have ordered that public schools take the necessary steps to provide that education. In response, schools are modifying their programs, adapting instruction to children who are exceptional, to those who cannot profit substantially from regular programs.
61. This passage mainly deals with . （1994）
（A） the differences of children in their learning capabilities
（B） the definition of exceptional children in modern society
（C） the special educational programs for exceptional children
（D） the necessity of adapting education to exceptional children
第三步：A的意思是孩子在学习能力上的不同，但是文章的4句话并没有讲到学习能力的问题，因此是无关选项；B的意思是例外的孩子（弱智儿童）在现代社会的定义，文章4句话虽然讲到了exceptional children，但是并没有给它下定义，因此也是无关选项；C的意思是针对exceptional children的特别的项目，文章在最后一段讲到了这个问题；D的意思是调整教育以适应那些exceptional children的必要性，文章也讲到了；因此答案必然在C和D中产生，那就比较它们的不同，发现一个强调项目，一个强调必要性，而文章的4句话是强调必要性的多一点，因此应该选D；
例4、Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots. Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface； on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. Most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. The hot spots and their trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.
That the plates are moving is now beyond dispute. Africa and South America, for example, are moving away from each other as new material is injected into the sea floor between them. The complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior. It is not possible to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it. Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. From an analysis of the hot-spot population it appears that the African plate is stationary and that it has not moved during the past 30 million years.
The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. It now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe. When a continental plate come to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from deeper layer creates a broad dome. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures （cracks）； in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. Thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability （inconstancy）.
20. The passage is mainly about . （1998）
（A） the features of volcanic activities
（B） the importance of the theory about drifting plates
（C） the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies
（D） the process of the formation of volcanoes
第三步：A的意思是火山运动的特征，该4句论点句并没有讲到这个问题，因此属于无关选项；B的意思是漂流板块理论的重要性，4句论点句也没有谈到漂流板块的问题，同A；C的意思是 hot spots在地球物理学研究中的重要性，文章讲到了hot spots的重要性，那么讲到地球物理学了吗？其实火山运动不就是地球物理学的一部分吗？因此看一个选项讲到没有，不应该仅仅看有没有一样的单词文章中出现没有，而且还要看相近意思的单词或句子出现没有，因此C是符合原文意思的正确选项，但是不能立刻选择，因为我们找的是最佳答案；D的意思是火山构成的过程，虽然这个4句话讲到了火山，但是没有谈及火山构成过程的问题，属于无关选项；因此这个题目应该选C；