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考研英语写作与对策(二)

2006-7-15 22:59 张鑫友外语研究网 

  2. 中间段

  中间段是文章的正文,其作用是从不同的层面对文章主题进行具体和详实的解释和论证。

  1) 中间段的一般特征

  ① 篇幅一般比开头段和结尾段长。

  ② 每段有相应的主题句。

  ③ 包含定义、解释、描写,说明主题思想的扩展句可以采用实例、数据或个人经历等写作手段。

  ④ 不同种类的段落采用不同的扩展手段。

  2) 中间段的具体特点

  ① 所涉及内容应该准确、清楚,颇具说服力;

  ② 段落中一定具备主题句;

  ③ 段落内容应该保持完整、统一,没有说明不足之处或多余冗长的细节;

  ④ 内容顺序安排合理,逻辑性较强;

  ⑤ 段落之间连贯自然;

  ⑥ 段落中讨论的内容主次分明,材料比例适当;

  ⑦ 词与句型运用合理并且有变化。

  3) 中间段展开的基本方法

  ① 列举法

  例文:

  There are a number of ways for us to keep fit. First, no matter how busy we are, we should have exercise every day to strengthen our muscles. Second, it is important to keep good hours. For example, if we are in the habit of going to bed early and getting up early, we can avoid overworking ourselves and get enough sleep. Finally, entertainment is also necessary so that we may have some moments of relaxation. If we follow those instruction. We will certainly be in good health.

  ② 比较对比法

  例文:

  The older form of communication is speech. In the beginning of human history, people could only use direct verbal speech to communicate. But it had many shortcomings. For instance, we could not speak to a person far away when we needed. So distance was a problem. And the spoken word could not be kept secret easily. So people wanted to invent a new method of communication. The next big step forward in communication was the invention of writing. Writing is one of human being‘s most important inventions. It solved the problem of distance and keeping secrets, but it too had disadvantages. The written word could not be passed on quickly, so people tried to find a new quicker method of communication.

  The most recent development had been electronic means of communication, including the wireless telegraph, radio, telephone and television. The invention and use of electronic means has solved all the problems mentioned above. They are the most effective methods of communication. People will certainly try their best to invent even more modem and useful methods.

  ③ 因果法

  例文:

  The hamburger is the most popular food item in the United States. Every year Americans consume billions of them. They are sold in expensive restaurants and in humble diners. They are cooked at home on the kitchen stove or over a barbecue grill in the backyard. Why are they so popular?

  First, a hamburger is extremely easy to prepare. It is nothing more than a piece of ground beef, cooked for a few minutes. Then it is placed in a sliced bun. Nothing could be simpler. Even an unskilled cook can turn out hundreds of them in an hour. Besides that, the simple hamburger can be varied in many ways. You can melt some cheese on top of the beef to create a cheeseburger. You can also add some grilled bacon for an interesting flavor contrast. In addition, you can garnish the hamburger with other things such as lettuce, tomato, onion, mushrooms, avocado, pickles, hot pepper, ketchup, relish, mayonnaise, mustard or whatever you wish!

  ④ 例证法

  例文:

  The saying “No pains, no gains” is universally accepted because of the plain yet philosophical moral it teaches: if one wants to achieve something, he has to work and tolerate more than others. The saying is true of any pursuit man seeks. A case in point is boxing. While we heap cheers on the winner, few happen to imagine that his gold belt is won at the cost of his sweat, tears, blood, even life over years before the arrival of that exciting moment.

  ⑤ 发展过程法

  例文:

  To build your own sunscope, get a carton and cut a hole in one side, big enough to poke your head through. Paste white paper on the inside surface that you will be facing. Then punch a pinhole into the opposite side high enough so that the little shaft of light will miss your head. For a sharper image you can make a better pinhole by cutting a one-inch square hole in the carton, taping a piece of aluminum foil over this hole, and then making the pin-hole in the foil. Finally, tape the box shut and cover all light leaks with black tape.

  ⑥ 定义法

  例文:

  Diligence is the key to success. It means persistent work and does not mean that we are to exert ourselves all day and night without rest, without food and without sleep. The true meaning of diligence is the careful use of time for the purpose of improvement, or to work persistently without any waste of time.

  ⑦ 分类法

  例文:

  Nowadays the news media mainly consists of radio, television and newspapers. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages.

  Newspapers are the oldest form for communicating the news. Today many people still begin their day by reading the morning paper while having breakfast, and end their day by reading the evening paper while having dinner.

  The invention of the radio has had a tremendous influence on the world. It is able to bring up-to-minute news to distant places in a matter of seconds. Thus the development of the radio has made the world a smaller place.

  Television is the most recently developed device for communication. It allows us to see as well as to hear the news. The fact that it enables people to see visual images has had a considerable effect on our perceptions of world event.

  4) 中间段的常用核心句型

  。 Although the popular belief is that …, a current (new / recent) study (survey / poll / investigation) indicates (shows / demonstrates) that …。

  。 Common sense tells us that …。

  。 The increase (change / failure / success) in … mainly (largely / partly) results from (arises from / is because of) …。

  。 The increase (change / failure / success) in … is due to (owing to / attributable to) the fact that …。

  。 Many people would claim that …。

  。 One may attribute (ascribe / owe) the increase (decrease / change ) to …, but … is not by itself an adequate explanation.

  。 One of the reasons given for … is that …。

  。 What is also worth noticing is that …。

  。 There are many (different / several /a number of / a variety of)causes (reasons) for this dramatic (marked / significant) growth (change / decline / increase) in …。 First, …。 Second, …。 Finally, …。

  。 There is no evidence to suggest that…。

  。 Why are (is / do / did) …? For one thing, …。 For another, …。

  。 Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that …。

  。 It gives rise to (lead to / bring /create) a host of problems (consequences)。

  。 There are numerous reasons why …, and I shall here explore only a few of the most important ones.

  。 It will exert (have / produce) profound (far-reaching / remarkable / considerable / beneficial / favorable / undesirable / disastrous) effect (influence) on …。

  。 A multitude of factors could account for (contribute to / lead to / result in / influence) the change (increase / decrease / success / failure / development) in …。

  。 In 2000, it increased (rose / jumped / shot up) from 5 to 10 percent of the total (to 15 percent / by 15 percent)。

  。 By comparison with 2002, it decreased (dropped / fell) from 10 to 5 percent (to 15 percent / by 15 percent)。

  。 It accounts for 15 percent of the total.

  。 There were 100 traffic accidents in April, an increase of 5 percent in a five-month period.

  。 By 2002, only (less than / more than / almost / about / over/ as many as) three quarters (40 percent of / one out of five / one in four) college population (graduates / housewives) as against (as compared with) last year (2002) preferred to (liked) …。

  。 With the development (improvement / rise / growth / general recognition / acknowledgement / realization) of …, vast changes awaits this country‘s society.

  。 Now people in growing (ever-increasing / significant) numbers are beginning (coming / getting) to believe (realize / recognize / understand / accept / see / be aware) that …。

  。 According to a(n) recent (new / official) study (survey / report / poll), …。

  。 History (Our society) is filled (abounds) with the examples of …。

  。 The story (case / instance / situation) is not rare (isolated / unique), it is one of many examples (typical of dozens)。

  。 A (one) recent (new / general / nationwide) study (survey / poll / investigation) conducted (taken) at a university by (officials / scientists / experts) indicates (reveals / suggests / shows / proves / demonstrates) that …。

  。 According to (As can be seen in / As is shown in) the figures (statistics / findings / data / graph / table) released (provided) by the government (an institute), it can be learned (seen / predicted) that …。

  。 There is (no) good (every / little / sufficient / considerable / strong) evidence (proof) to

  。 Personal experience (Examples I heard / read of) leads me to conclude that …。

  。 We must admit the undeniable fact that …。

  。 No one can deny (ignore / doubt / overlook / obscure / brush aside) the fact that …。

  。 Experience (Evidence) suggests (shows) that …。

  。 Take for example … who (that) …。

  。 The same is true of …。

  。 As the saying goes, “…。”

  3. 结尾段

  结尾段的写作方法可以归纳为下列若干种:

  1) 总结归纳

  简要总结归纳文章要点,以便深化主题印象。

  例:

  In conclusion I would like to say that change is a problem confronting most of us today. The changes which have already taken place in every field of our life are irreversible. Continuation of the growth which has already begun is inevitable. During this evolution there are great rewards to be won — by those who are willing to take the opportunities being offered.

  2) 重申主题

  再次强调和确定文章开头阐述的中心思想。

  例:

  Admittedly, science has created atomic bombs and produced pervasive pollution. But it has transformed the lives of millions of people. It has multiplied man‘s energy, hopes, ambitions and understanding. It has elevated and will continue to elevate man intellectually and spiritually.

  3) 预测展望

  立足当前,放眼未来。

  例:

  It is time that the government should speak out against corruption and take strong action to punish whoever takes bribes or embezzles fund. For present official corruption, if permitted to continue, will not only tarnish the government‘s popularity, but lead to its ultimate downfall.

  4) 提出建议

  提出解决问题的途径、方法或呼吁人们采取相应的行动。

  例:

  College athletics plays such a vital role that it deserves close attention and persistent effort. It is suggested that physical training should be regarded as a required course wedged into college curricula, however crowded it may be, and that a fair share of college budget should be devoted to athletic programs. We sincerely hope that this suggestion will be a commitment that all colleges and universities will take up.

  5) 提出问题

  提出具有发人深省的问题,从而突出中心思想。

  例:

  Old people may choose to live alone for themselves and even embrace this living pattern. But in the deep part of their hearts, they must feel lonely. They need their children to stay with, to talk with, and take care of them. Why can‘t young people think of the days when they are getting old?

  6) 引用格言

  用格言、谚语或习语总括全文中心思想。

  例:

  Many yeas ago, a great philosopher Francis Bacon remarked that “Knowledge … is power.” This can now be translated into contemporary terms. In our social setting, “Knowledge is change”—and accelerating knowledge-acquisition, fueling the great engine of technology, means accelerating change.

  7) 结尾段的核心句型

  。 From what has been discussed above (Taking into account all these factors / Judging from all evidence offered), we may safely draw (reach / come to / arrive at) the conclusion that …。

  。 All the evidence (analysis) supports (justifies / confirms / warrants / points to) a(n) unshakable (unmistakable / sound / just) conclusion that …。

  。 It is high time that we place (lay / put) great (special / considerable) emphasis on the improvement (development / increase / promotion) of …。

  。 It is high time that we put an end to the deep-seated (unhealthy / undesirable / deplorable) situation (tendency / phenomenon) of …。

  。 We must look (search / call / cry) for an immediate action (method / measure), because the present (current) situation (phenomenon / tendency / state / attitude) of …, if permitted (allowed) to continue (proceed), will surely (certainly) lead to (result in) the end (destruction / heavy cost) of …。

  。 There is no easy (immediate / effective) solution (approach / answer / remedy) to the problem of …, but … might be useful (helpful / beneficial)。

  。 No easy method (solution / recipe / remedy) can be at hand (found / guaranteed) to solve (resolve / tackle) the problem of …, but the common (general / public) recognition of (realization of / awareness of / commitment to) the necessity (importance / significance) of … might be the first step towards change (on the right way / in the right direction)。

  。 Following these methods (suggestions) may not guarantee the success in (solution to)…, but the pay-off will be worth the effort.

  。 Obviously (Clearly / No doubt), if we ignore (are blind to) the problem, there is every chance that …。

  。 Unless there is a common realization of (general commitment to) …, it is very likely (the chances are good) that …。

  。 There is little doubt (no denying) that serious (special / adequate / immediate / further) attention must be called (paid / devoted) to the problem of …。

  。 It is necessary (essential / fundamental) that effective (quick / proper) action (steps /measures / remedies) should be taken to prevent (correct /check / end / fight) the situation (tendency / phenomenon)。

  。 It is hoped (suggested / recommended) that great (continuous / persistent / sustained / corporate) efforts should be made to control (check/ halt / promote) the growth (increase / rise) of …。

  。 It is hoped that great efforts should be directed to (expended on / focused on) finding (developing / improving) …。

  。 It remains to be seen whether …, but the prospect (outlook) is not quite encouraging (that rosy)。

  。 Anyhow, wider (more) education (publicity) should be given to the possible (potential / grave /serious / pernicious) consequences (effects) of …。

  。 To reverse (check / control) the trend (tendency) is not a light task (an easy job), and it requires (demands / involves / entails) a different state of mind towards (attitude towards / outlook on) …。

  。 For these reasons, I strongly recommend that …。

  。 For the reasons given above, I feel that …。

  4. 段落扩展中的常用词语

  1) 总结关系过渡词语

  generally speaking, generally, as a general rule, in general, on a larger scale, to take the idea further, to take the above opinion to an extreme, in a sense, in one sense, in a way, to some extent, in my opinion, in my view, as for me, as far as I am concerned, obviously, undoubtedly, in terms of, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary, in a word, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude

  2) 比较对比关系过渡词语

  similarly, likewise, like, too, equally important, the same as, in common, in the same way, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, in sharp contrast, whereas, rather than, conversely, instead, in/by contrast, but, however, yet, nevertheless

  3) 列举关系过渡词语

  for example, for instance, as an example, as a case in point, such as, namely, that is, like, thus, first, second, third, finally, in the first place, initially, first of all, to begin with, to start with, what is more, furthermore, eventually, besides, in addition (to that), first and foremost, last but not least, next, also, moreover, for one thing, for another

  4) 因果关系过渡词语

  because (of), as, since, for, owing to, due to, thanks to, on account of, as a result of, result in (from), consequently, for the reason that, as a consequence, consequently, if follows that, accordingly, therefore, hence

  5) 让步关系过渡词语

  although, even though, after all, in spite of, despite, granted that

  6) 强调关系过渡词语

  anyway, certainly, surely, obviously, to be sure, especially, particularly, above all, in deed, in fact, even worse, needless to say, most important of all, no doubt

  五、 考研英语写作程序

  由于时间的限制及题型的要求,考生必须遵循一定的写作程序并且合理地分配时间,以便从容地完成较高水平的写作。下面的考研英语写作程序及时间分配,供考生参考并灵活地加以运用。

  1. 审题过程(2-3分钟)

  所谓“审题”,就是仔细地研究、理解题目,即根据题目所提供的条件和要求,来确定文章的内容、体裁和写法。这一过程直接关系到写作的成败,即是否“切题”。审题应该包含下列四个方面:

  1) 审文体

  文体是对文章的一种规格要求,不同的文体,在写作上有不同的规格要求。命题作文一般采用议论文文体;规定情景作文通常以描写文、叙述文为主;图表作文通常采用说明文;然而,段首句作文,应视具体内容而定。

  2) 审内容

  了解题目在内容方面的要求决定写什么,这是审题的关键。

  3) 审材料

  审查考题在选材范围方面的要求,考题对材料有特定的限制,故考生应在题目限制的范围内选取材料。

  简言之,选材的一般要点包含:

  ① 选择真实的材料;

  ② 选择典型的材料;

  ③ 选择鲜活的材料;

  ④ 选择最能展现主题的材料。

  4) 审要求

  审查考题在格式、字数、时间、内容等诸多方面的具体要求。

  总之,如果审题不当,文章跑题;审题不周,文不切题;审题不全,遗漏重点。因此,考生一定要严把审题关。

  2. 构思过程(5-7分钟)

  一旦确定了主题,就开始构思选材。选材的思路围绕题目、提示、数据、图形和所给的提纲来进行。考生应从自己所熟悉的素材中筛选出最能表达和说明主题的内容,思路要灵活,想象要丰富,同时要有创新,避免落入写作俗套。在此基础上,草拟出作文提纲,提纲要简明扼要,能抓住段落主题。同时,考生对文章段落展开的方法、过渡句和句型等也要有所考虑。

  从历年考研英语写作试题来分析,写作题目大多已给出了基本的提纲或相应的要求。在这种情况下,考生可将给出的提纲扩展成相应的主题句,这样便迅速地拟出了一个详细且完整的写作提纲。

  拟出带有主题句的具体提纲,才能围绕主题句构思出要写的内容,选出展现主题的最佳素材,形成一条清楚的写作主线,然后根据主线具体地提出和回答what, who, when, how, why 等一系列考题规定的问题。

  3. 下笔创作过程(20-25分钟)

  下笔创作过程即段落的展开,考生要用贴切的词与句将自己的所思所想所感一层层地明确表达出来。

  考生要注意以下几点:

  1) 段落应有段落的主题,并且段落中所涉及的内容都是为文章主题服务的。

  2) 写初稿时要一气呵成,尽量不使用自己没有把握的词语或句型。

  3) 在下笔创作的过程中可以适当修改提纲,注意不要脱离主题。

  4) 注意利用过渡词和过渡句使句子和段落结构严谨连贯,也使内容更易于展开。

  4. 检查与修改过程(3-5分钟)

  初稿一定存在着某些不妥之处,故需要最后订正。

  首先检查内容是否切题,论点是否明确,论据是否充分,结论是否合理,然后检查语法是否正确,语句是否通顺,用词是否贴切,数字是否准确,表达是否恰当,拼写是否正确,标点是否得当等等。

  六、考研英语写作常见题型

  如果考生想在较短的时间内对考研英语写作有所认识、有所突破,首先应该了解考研英语写作常见题型,并弄懂各种题型的写作技巧,然后进行有针对性的练习,并且研读相关范文。考研英语写作中的常见题型如下:

  1. 提纲题型写作

  1) 写作要点

  ① 认真研究所给提纲

  考生要注意领会提纲的含义,不要遗漏提纲要点或错误理解提纲的意思。

  ② 确定各段的主题句

  考生应根据所给提纲写出各段的主题句,合格的主题句应具备以下四个要点:

  。意义完整 主题句结构要完整,即结构符合语法规则;意义要完整,即主题句是一个符合逻辑的完整命题。

  。表意清晰 主题句要清晰明确,不使用意思含混的词或句子。

  。内容具体 主题句的内容要明确具体,否则不利于段落的拓展。

  。用词贴切 主题句一定要用词准确,简明达意,使段落的拓展有一个良好的基础。

  ③ 逐步展开段落

  段落写作应围绕自己列好的主题句进行,在写作过程中可稍加调整。

  ④ 检查与修改

  检查考题所给提纲是否准确且完整地被表达于文章之中,如有偏差,应作出相应的修改。

  2) 提纲题型写作试题实例

  ① 写作题目

  Title: THE “PROJECT HOPE”

  Outline:

  1. Present situation

  2. Necessity of the project

  3. My suggestion

  ② 参考范文:

  Education plays a very significant role in the modernization of our country. There are, however, still a large number of school-agers in remote and isolated rural areas who can‘t afford to go to school because of their financial predicament. This is a very serious problem which needs to be resolved as soon as possible. Thus, the Chinese authorities have worked out a plan to assist them financially, which is called “Project Hope”。

  This project, I do believe, is of most importance and necessity. To begin with, as a developing country, China is unlikely to inject a huge amount of money in education at present. So education has to turn to the general public to find its way out. Secondly, with the financial assistance of the general public, many of the poor children who have dropped out of school can go back to go on with their schooling. This will, in turn, contribute a great deal to the expansion of the rural economy in our remote and isolated rural areas. Apparently, the Project Hope is of profound significance for the modernization of our country.

  As for me, a university student, my suggestions are as follows. In the first place, our government should encourage more of the public in cities to finance the project. In addition, it is most necessary to set up a special foundation to receive the contributions donated by the public at home and abroad. Last but not least, those in charge of the project are supposed to make sure that the money is directly sent to the families whose children have dropped out of school. In short, I am convinced that the project will be fruitful and successful in the long run. (284 words)

  2. 图画题型写作

  图画题型写作是较难的题型之一,近两年考研英语写作试题均为图画题型,故考生应该认真对待。面对此类题型,考生应首先确定主题,然后再动笔。

  1) 图画题型写作要点

  ① 详细查看图画。考生应对图画进行全面而细致的研究,尤其注意图画中人或物(人与物)的体貌表情特征和背景,确定人物之间,人物与背景之间的主要关系,以便正确掌握图画所传达的信息。

  ② 如果图画以系列形式(既两幅以上)出现,考生除了掌握每一幅图画的信息,还应该对图画之间的相应联系有所理解,从而在整体上把握图画所传达的信息。

  ③ 面对图画题型,考生应该展开合理而丰富的联想,用生动而恰当的言辞抒发自己对图画的所思所想所感。

  ④ 注意图画题型中的文字提示。文字提示非常重要,文字提示通常十分清楚地提供一些写作要点。

  ⑤ 草拟提纲,合理组织材料。根据图画内容的不同采用不同的段落发展方式。如果画面内容是以描述为主,即按空间方位或时间先后顺序排列,可采用“开头——扩展——结尾”的写作方式。如果画面内容是以解释说明为主,写作时则先给出主题句,再围绕主题句完成各段落的写作,这是采用“主题句——扩展句——总结句”的写作方式。

  ⑥ 系统且突出地展开段落。展开段落要根据画面内容进行,同时也要围绕每一段的主题句进行。

  ⑦ 检查与修改。考生应重点检查图画内容是否准确地被表达出来,题目所给提示是否完整地反映在文章之中。如果存在与画面不相符的内容,或未能完全涵盖题目所给提示,考生应对文章做出相应修订。

  2) 图画题型写作试题实例

  ① 写作题目

  Directions:

  Study the pictures carefully and write an essay about 200 words based on the following:

  1. describe the set of drawings and interpret its meaning

  2. point out its implications in our life

  ② 参考范文:

  Shakespeare has ever stated that I came, I suffered and I survived, which gives us much for thought about our life and development.

  The set of drawings above vividly depicts the destiny of a flower in two different living circumstances. As is shown in the first drawing, the flower is placed in a cozy green house which shelters it from the severe wind and storm. With proper temperature and other good conditions, the flower is growing in full bloom. In contrast, when removed from the green house and exposed to the wind and storm, the flower immediately fades and withers, with most of its petals cast about on the ground.

  The purpose of the drawings is to reveal the fact that the flower growing in the green house can not withstand the ordeal of the wind and storm, yet the implied meaning subtly conveyed should be taken into account more seriously. The weak flower is naturally associated with our young people, to be exact, the only children in our current society; the green house epitomizes our parents‘ excessive doting care and material supplies that can protect the children from the wind and storm, to be specific, the harsh reality. Once our young people begin to seek independence and face challenges from the real competitive world, they are found too spoiled to be strong enough to endure the hardships and difficulties of various sorts.

  In sum, it is essential for our young people to derive positive implications from the above thought-provoking drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently employ them to enlighten ourselves to be more independent in life. On the other hand, our parents should be sensible enough to offer children more right and freedom to cope with their own troubles and problems. Only by undergoing more predicaments can young people develop strong personality and ability needed in the future, and only in this way can they eventually become winners in our competitive changing world. (326 words)

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