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翻译经典例句与历届翻译真题--经典例句(上)

2006-7-16 23:05  张鑫友外语研究网 

  复杂修饰成份例句:The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential.

  译文:(一个社会设计出来保存自己的)方法得以形成/来保持(那个社会认为是最重要的)文化遗产的一些方面/.

  大段的插入语或同位语

  例句:Moreover, I can feel strong emotions in response to objects of art that are interpretations, rather than representations, of reality.

  译文:而且,我能够感觉到强烈的感情, [ 这些感情是对(现实的解释)的艺术目标做出的反应而不是对现实的描述的艺术目标做出的反应 ] .

  倒装

  例句:That *** ratio will be favored which maximizes

  the number of descendants an individual will have and

  hence the number of gene copies transmitted.

  译文:那种 [ 能够最大化(一个个体的后代的)数目并且因此可以最大化(被传播的)基因的份数的 ] 性别比率将会是有利的。

  难句类型:倒装 + 省略

  例句 1:That *** ratio will be favored [which maximizes the number of descendants (that an individual will have) and hence that *** ratio which maximizes the number of gene copies (transmitted)].

  译文:那种 [ 能够最大化(一个个体所拥有的)后代数目并且因此可最大化(被传播的)基因的份数的 ] 性别比率将会是有利的。

  难句类型:复杂 + 倒装 + 省略

  例 2:This is a desire (to throw/over reality/a light) [that never was might give way abruptly to the desire (on the part of what we might consider a novelist – scientist to record/exactly and concretely/the structure and texture of a flower)

  译文:这是一种(照亮现实的)欲望, [ 此欲望从来就不会唐突地取代后面的那种欲望,(后者是我们可以将其理解为一个兼任小说家和科学家的人想要去/准确并具体地/记录下一朵花的结构和纹理的那种意义上的欲望) ] .

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 省略 + 抽象词

  例 3:Hardy's weakness derived/from hisapparent inability (to control the comings and goings of these divergent impulses)/and derived/from his unwillingness (to cultivate and sustain the energetic and risky ones)/.

  译文:哈代的弱点来源/于其明显的不能够(控制这些不同冲动的来去)/,同时也来源/于他的不愿意(去培养和维持那些有活力和危险的冲动)/.

  复杂修饰 + 省略 + 抽象词

  例 4:( Virginia Woolf's provocative ) statement (about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway) has regularly been ignored/by the critics/, since it highlights an aspect {of her literary [that is very different from the traditional picture of the “poetic” novelist (concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and concerned with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness)]}/.

  译文:( VW 的挑战性的)(关于其在写作 MD 一书时的意图的)陈述通常/被评论家们/所忽视,/因为此陈述突出了这样一个方面, { 此方面是其文学兴趣中的 [ 非常不同于传统的、所谓“诗性的”小说家的情况(这些人关心的是审视白日梦幻想的状态,并关心去追寻个人意识的曲折历程) ]}/ .

  难句类型:抽象词、抽象词组 + 比喻

  例 5:/As she put it in The Common Reader/. “ Although It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set/upon another/because of anything Chaucer said or wrote/; and yet, as we read him, we are absorbing morality at every pore.”

  译文:/就像她在《致普通读者》一书中所表达的那样/,“尽管可以毫无颖问地说,没有任何法律被制定出来,也没有高楼大厦被建立起来/是因为乔叟说了什么或写了什么/;然而,当我们读他的书的时候,我们身上每一个毛孔都吸满了道德。”

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 专有名词

  例 6:/With the conclusion of a burst of activity/, the lactic acid level is high/in the body fluids/, leaving the large animal/vulnerable to attack/until the acid is reconverted,/via oxidative metabolism/, by the liver/into glucose, [which is then sent (in part) park to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis]//.

  译文:/随着爆发出来的运动的结束/,在体液中/乳酸含量会变得很高,/使得大型动物/处于容易受到攻击的状态/,直到乳酸被/通过有氧新陈代谢的方式// 由肝脏/转化成葡萄糖, [ 葡萄糖接下来又会被(部分地)传送回肌肉重新合成糖原 ]// .

  句型类型:插入语

  例 7:Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent, but he shows that the slaves' preference, revealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequent, was very much for stable monogamy.

  译文:尽管 G 承认由于此售出奴隶而造成的强迫分离是经常会发生的,但是他指出奴隶们自己的偏好(此偏好最为明显的在很少出售奴隶的种植园中表现地最为明显),还是很喜欢一夫一妻制。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 8:Guman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of – and so was crucial in sustaining – the Black heritage (of folklore, music, and religious expression)/from one generation to another/, [a heritage (that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences)].

  译文:G 令人信服的论证道,黑人家庭的稳定性鼓励了—因此也在后者的保持上起到了重要的作用—(包括民间传说、音乐及宗教表达的)黑人遗产/从一代一到另一代的/传播, [ 这是一个(奴隶们不断地从其在非洲和美国的经历中塑造出来的)遗产 ] .

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 9:This preference for exogamy, Gutman suggests, may have derived/from West African rules (governing marriage), [which, though they differed from one tribal group to another, all involved some kind of prohibition (against unions with close kin)]/.

  译文:这种对于异族通婚的偏好, G 认为,有可能是来源/于(管辖婚姻的)西非的规定, [ 该规定尽管从一个部落到另外一个部落各不相同,但都涉及到一些(反对近亲结婚的)禁忌 ]/.

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 抽象词

  例 10:His thesis works/relatively well/when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States,/but his definition of racial prejudice [as “racially – based negative prejudgments against a group (generally accepted as a race) in any given region of ethnic competition,”] can be interpreted /as also including hostility toward such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe/.

  译文:他的论点/被应用于针对美国人的种族歧视时候/,/相对来说较为/管用,但是他的对于种族偏见的定义 [ 即“在任何特定区域里用基于种族的负面的先入之见来反对某人群(此人群通常被认作一个种族)” ] 能够被解释/成也包括对以下民族的敌意,比如加州的华人和中世纪欧洲的犹太人/.

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 11:Such variations (in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like) (as had been demonstrated in never cells) remained negligible/in significance/for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience/.

  译文:(类似于这些已经被在神经细胞中证明的)(在大小、形状、化学过程、产生的速度、兴奋阈值及其类似的方面上所发生的)变化,/当它们被用来与大脑的体验以可能的方式联系起来的时候/,它们在重要性上/仍然是微不足道的。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 倒装

  例 12:It was possible to demonstrate/by other methods/refined structural differences (among neuron types); however, proof was lacking [that the quality (of the impulse) or its condition was influenced/by these differences/, (which seemed instead to influenced the developmental patterning of the neural circuits)].

  译文:有可能/通过其他方法/来证明(神经元种类间的)细微的结构差异;可是,这样的证据是缺乏的, [ 即(神经冲动的)性质或状态是/受这些差异/所影响的,(而这些差异看起来却能影响神经网络的发育模式) ] .

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 双重否定

  例 13:Although qualitative variance (among nerve energies) was never rigidly disproved, but the doctrine was generally abandoned/in favor of the opposing view, (namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system)/.

  译文:尽管(在神经能量上存在着)质的不同这一点从来都没有在严格的意义上被反对过,但是以上教条通常被抛弃掉,/而转向相反的观点,(即:神经冲动从根本上本质相同,而且被当作“一种普通流” 在整个神经系统中传播)/.

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 14:Although Other experiments revealed slight variations (in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells), but/as far as psychoneural correlations were concerned/, the obvious similarities (of these sensory fields to each other) seemed much more remarkable/than any of the minute differences/.

  译文:尽管其他实验显示(在神经细胞的大小、数量、排列和相互连接上)有一些小的差异,但是/就心理——神经的关系而言/,(这些感官区域彼此间的)明显的相似性看起来远远要/比其微小的差异/更为令人注目。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 省略

  例 15:Although some experiments show that,/as an object becomes familiar,/its internal representation becomes more holistic and that the recognition process correspondingly becomes more parallel, but the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis,/at least for objects (that are not simple and familiar)/.

  译文:虽然有些实验显示/当一个物体变得熟悉的时候,/它在内心中的形象变得更为完整,而且对它的辨认过程也变得更加并行,但是证据的天平似乎更倾斜于支持(那个辨认过程是一)系列的假说,/至少对(那些不是特别简单的或熟悉的)物体来说/.

  难句类型:倒装

  例 16:/In large part as a consequence of the feminist movement,/historians have focused a great deal of attention/in recent years/on determining/more accurately/the status of woman in various periods.

  译文:/很大程度上作为妇女运动的一个结果/,历史学家们/近年来/把大量的注意力集中于/更为准确地/确定妇女们在不同时期的地位上面。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 抽象词

  例 17:/If one begins by examining why ancients refer to Amazons/, it become clear that ancient Greek descriptions (of such societies) were meant not/so much/to represent observed historical fact – real American societies – but rather to offer “moral lessons”/on the supposed outcome (of women's rule in their own society)/.

  译文:/如果我们先来研究一下为什么古人会提到亚马逊人/, 下面的一点就变得清晰了,那就是古希腊(对于这种社会)的描述不是/太多的/被用来表达观察到的历史事实 — 真正的亚马逊社会的——而是为了/对于(妇女在其社会中的统治的)预期后果/提供一种“道德教导”。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 省略

  例 18:Thus, for instance, it may come as a shock/to mathematicians/to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom, but it is only an approximation [to a somewhat more correct equation (taking account of spin, magnetic dipole, and relativistic effects)]; and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation (to an infinite set of quantum field – theoretical equations).

  译文:所以,我们可以举一个例子,/对于数学家们而言/, 得知以下的两种情况会令他们震惊不已; 1. 氢原子的薛定鄂方程并不是对这种原子的一个精确的、正确的描述,而它只是 [ 对于一个在某种程度上更为正确的方程式的 ] 一个近似值,(该更为正确的方程式描述自选、磁双偶极子以及相对论效应的)。 2. 后面所说的这个更为正确的方程式自己也仅是(对于无限序列的量子场论方程式的)一个不完美的近似值。

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 19:The physicist rightly dreads precise argument, since an argument (that is convincing/long if it is precise/) loses all its force/if the assumptions (on which it is based) are slightly changed,/whereas an argument (that is convincing though imprecise) may well be stable/under small perturbations (of its underlying assumptions)./

  译文:物理学家正确地不敢做精确的论证,因为一个(/只有当它是精确的时候/才令人信服的/论证),/(如果作为它的基础的)假设发生了一点点变化/就失去了其全部说服力;而(一个尽管不很精确但是却令人信服的)论证,/(当作为它的基础的假设)稍有波动时,/仍有可能是稳定的。

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 20:However,/as they gained cohesion/, the Bluestockings came to regard themselves/as a women's group/and came to possess a sense of female solidarity {lacking in the salonnieres, [who remained isolated from one another by the primacy (that each salonniere held in her own salon.)]}

  译文:然而,/随着她们获得凝聚力/,“蓝袜女”们开始把自己视/为一个妇女的团体/, 并抱有一个女性团体的意识; { 此种意识是“沙龙女”们所缺乏的, [ 她们仍然彼此之间互不来往,这是由于(每个“沙龙女”在自己沙龙女中的)老大地位造成的。 ]}

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 省略

  例 21:/As my own studies have advanced,/I have been increasingly impressed/with the functional similarities (between insect societies and vertebrate societies)/and less so (less so = I have been increasingly less impressed 的省略形式 )/with the structural differences (that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them.)/

  译文:/随着我自己的研究不断进步,/我越来越留下深刻的印象/于后面两者之间的功能上的相似性,(这两者是昆虫社会和脊椎动物的社会之间);并且就越来越感觉不/到它们之间的结构上的差异,(此差异乍看上去似乎构成了二者之间的巨大的鸿沟。)

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 22:Although fiction assuredly springs/ from political circumstances/, but its authors react (to those circumstances)/in ways other than ideological,/and talking about novels and stories/primarily as instruments of ideology/ circumvents much of the fictional enterprise.

  译文:尽管小说确实都是来自/于政治氛围之下的/,但是其作者(对这些环境的)反应/却与意识形态无关/,而且/主要以意识形态为工具来/讨论小说和故事,则在很大程度上限制(或陷害)了小说事业。

  难句类型:插入语

  例 23:Is this a defect, or are the authors working out of, or trying to gorge, a different kind of aesthetic?

  译文:这到底是欠缺,还是作者想要按照一种不同的美学来创作,抑或是试图创造一种不同的美学呢?

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 24:/In addition/, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer's Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism: does this technique provide a counterpoint {to the prevalent theme [that portrays the fate (against which Black heroes are pitted)], (a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression)}?

  译文:/不但如此/,有些黑人小说(比如 JT 的《甘蔗》的风格接近于表现主义或超现实主义;)这种技巧是否 { 为流行的主题 } 提供了一个和谐的对应呢?这种主题刻画了(黑人主人公与之相抗争的)命运,(这是一个通常用更为自然主义的表现手法所表达的主题)。

  难句类型:倒装

  例 25:Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels,/bringing to our attention/in the process/some fascinating and little-known works (like James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man)/.

  译文:《黑人小说》考查了很广泛的范围内的小说,/把一些很迷人的、但鲜为人知的作品(比如 J.W.J 的《一个曾经是有色人种的人的自传》/在此过程中/带到了我们视野之中/.)

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 26:Although these molecules allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated,/to pass though,/but they absorb some of the longer-wavelength, infrared emissions (radiated from the Earth's surface,) (radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space.)

  译文:尽管这些分子允许(大多数太阳能集中于此的)可见光波长的辐射通过,可是它们却吸收了(从地球表面反射出来的)更长波长的红外线辐射,(如果没有二氧化碳分子这种辐射将会被传送回太空)。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 省略

  例 27:The role (that those anthropologists ascribe to evolution) is not the role of dictating the details of human behavior but is one role of imposing constraints [ — ways if feeling, thinking, and acting (that “come naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture)].

  译文:(那些人类学家们归纳诸进化的)角色不是规定人类行为的细节,而是一个施加给人类以限制 [ 即感情、思想和行为(这些在任何文化的原始状态中都会自然而然的行为) ] 的角色。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 抽象词

  例 28:Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy/from human morphology /for the (“details” versus “constraints”) distinction (made in the passage/in relation to human behavior/)?

  译文:以下那一个选项最有可能为(文章中所谈到的/与人类行为有关的/)(“人类进行的细节”相对“人类所受限制”)之间的差异/从人类形态的角度上/提供了一个合适的类比?

  难句类型:插入语

  例 29:A low number of algal cells/in the presence of a high number of grazers/suggested, but did not prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae.

  译文:/在食草动物的数量很大时/却仅有少量的水藻细胞这一点暗示着(但却不能证明)是食草动物除去了大多数水藻。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 30:/Perhaps/ the fact {that many of these studies considered/ only /algae [of a size (that could be collected/in a net/)](net phytoplankton)}, a practice [that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) (that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on)], led /to a de – emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research/.

  译文:/可能/这样一个事实, { 那就是很多这样的最初的研究/只考虑了 [ (那些能够/用网/捞起来的)尺寸的 ] 水藻( n p ), 这样一个 [ 忽视了更小的浮游植物( nn p ) ] 的做法,导/致了在接下来的研究中对于捕食者的作用的贬低/.

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 31:Studies (by Hargrave and Geen) estimated natural community grazing rates/by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory/and then/by computing community grazing rates for field conditions/ using the known population density of grazers.//

  译文:( Hg 和 G 所做的研究)估计了自然群体的捕食速率,/是通过首先测量了实验室中的浮游动物品种的个体的捕食速率/,然后// 再用已知的捕食者的种群密度/计算出其野外的群体捕食速率。/

  难句类型:插入语

  例 32:/In the periods of peak zooplankton abundance, that is, in the late spring and in the summer, /Haney recorded maximum daily community grazing rates, for nutrient-poor lakes and bog lakes, respectively, of 6.6 percent and 114 percent of daily phytoplankton production.

  译文:/在浮游动物最多的季节,也就是在晚春和夏天, /H 记录下了最高的群体捕食速率,对于贫养湖和沼泽湖来讲,各自是 6.6% 和 114% 的浮游植物的日产量。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 省略

  例 33:The hydrologic cycle, a major topic in this science, is the complete cycle of phenomena (through which water passes), /beginning as atmospheric water vapor, passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation, thence passing along and entering into the ground surface, and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration/.

  译文:水文循环,水利科学中的主要课题,是一个(水需要经历的)完整的循环过程,循环在开始时作为大气中的水蒸气,再进入液体和固体状态作为降雨或降雪,然后流过并进入地表,并最终通过蒸发和气化作用重返气态的水蒸气的形式。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 倒装

  例 34:Only /when a system possesses (natural or artificial) boundaries [that associate the water (within it) with hydrologic cycle] /may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeology.

  译文:只有当一个系统拥有(自然的或人工形成的)边界 [ 来把(边界中的)水与水文循环联系起来的时候 ] ,才有可能把整个的系统恰当地称为水与水文地质学相关。

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 35:The historian Frederick J. Turner wrote/in the 1980s/that the agrarian discontent (that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870) had been precipitated/by the closing of the internal frontier – [that is, the depletion of available new land (needed for further expansion of the American farming system)]/.

  译文:历史学家 FJT/在十九世纪九十年代/写道,(自从 1870 年开始就在美国持续发展的)农民的不满是被内部边疆的消失所加剧的, [ 而内部边疆的消失即指(所需进一步扩展美国农业系统的)可资利用的新土地的枯竭 ] .

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 36:/In the early 1950;s/ historians [who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800)] began,/for the first time in large numbers/, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent [(who comprised the political and social elite: the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates)(who had hitherto usually filled history books)].

  译文:/在二十世纪五十年代的早期,/[ 研究欧洲工业化以前的(我们在此把这个时间段模糊定位于公元 1300 年至 1800 年)历史学家们开始/第一次以大量的数据/来调查那些在占工业化以前的欧洲人口 2% 到 3% 的包括政治和社会精英以外的人口, [ 而那 2% 到 3% 的精英们(是到目前为止一直充斥着历史教科书的)(国王、将军、贵族、主教以及地方上的达官显贵们) ] .

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 37:Historians (such as Le Roy Ladurie) have used the documents/to extract case histories,/[which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these attitudes include, but are not confined to, attitudes toward crime and the law) and have revealed how the authorities administered justice].

  译文:(像 LRL 这样的)历史学家使用这些记录/来提取出个案史/,(这些个案史说明了不同社会团体的态度(这些态度说明了,但是又不局限于,对犯罪和法律的态度),并且也说明当权者是怎样管辖司法的)。

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 38:It can be inferred/from the passage/that a historian [who wished to compare crime rates (per thousand in a European city) (in one decade of the fifteenth century)/ with crime rates (per thousand in a European city) (in another decade of that century)/] would probably be most aided/ by better information about which of the following/?

  译文:从文章当中可以推断出来,一个 [ 希望比较(十五世纪以前一个十年的)(某个欧洲城市中的每千人)犯罪率/与(另外一个十年中的)(城市中每千人)犯罪率/的 ] 历史学家将会/被以下哪种信息的提高/所最好地帮助?

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 39:My point is that its central consciousness – its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people's lives – owes much to that earlier literary heritage, a heritage that, in general, has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics.

  译文:我的观点是,其中心的意识 — 即其深刻的把阶级和性别理解( understanding )成( as ) 对人们的生活起到一个塑造性的影响的作用 — 很大程度上是得益于那个更早的文化遗产,一个总体而言没有被当代的文学评论家所足够重视的遗产。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 省略 + 专有名词 + 固定搭配

  例 40:Even the requirement [that biomaterials (processed from these materials) should be nontoxic to host tissue] can be met/by techniques [derived from studying the reactions (of tissue to biomaterials) or derived from studying short – term implants]/.

  译文:即使是这样的要求, [ 即(从这些材料中加工出来的)生物材料应该对受移植者的组织无害 ] ,也能够/通过 [ 从研究(组织培养对生物材料的)反应而来的、或从研究短期移植而来的 ] 技术/来满足。

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 41:But achieving necessary matches/in physical properties across interfaces between living and nonliving matter/requires knowledge (of which molecules control the bonding of cells to each other – an area that we have not yet explored thoroughly).

  译文:但是,/想要在活的与无生命的物质之间在物理性质上/达到必要的匹配,需要这样的知识,(那就是到底是什么分子控制细胞彼此连接——这是一个我们到目前为止尚未透彻研究的领域)。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插队入语 + 抽象词

  例 42:Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law – notwithstanding, of course, it has a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them/as far as subject matter and positive enactment are concerned/- that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena.

  译文:伊斯兰法是一个与其他所有形式的法律都如此之不同的法现象——尽管,当然,/从其主体事物和积极的实施的角度来看/,伊斯兰法与其他的某些法律存在着大量的必然的一致之处——以致于对于它的研究是不可缺少的,这样才能充分地理解所有可能的法律现象的全部范围。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 省略 + 专有名词

  例 43:Both Jewish law and canon law more uniform than Islamic law. Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and Jewish law of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), but the spirit (of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament) is very close to that of the Talmud, one

  译文:犹太法和天主教法都比伊斯兰法更为完整。尽管在历史上在古以色列的独立国家的犹太法和 D 时期(即以色列在被征服后犹太人被驱逐的时期)的犹太法之间有一个明确的断裂,但(旧约全书后半部分中的法律事务的)精确与 T (指犹太法在 D 时期的主要法典)是极为一致的。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 44:Islam, on the other hand, represented a radical breakaway [from the Arab paganism (that preceded it)]; Islamic law is the result {of an examination, from a religious angle, [of legal subject matter (that was far from uniform)]},/comprising as it did the various components (of the law of pre – Islamic Arabia) and numerous legal elements (taken over from the non – Arab people of the conquered territories)/.

  译文:伊斯兰,在另一方面,代表着 [ 与(伊斯兰法以前的)阿拉伯异教的 ] 决然断裂;伊斯兰是一种从宗教的角度 { 检查 } 结果, { 检查的对象 [ (是远远谈不上统一的)主体事物 ]} ;/它包括了不同的伊斯兰以前的阿拉伯的法律成分,并包含了(很多从被征服的非阿拉伯地区那里拿来的)法律因素/.

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 倒装 + 省略

  例 45:One such novel idea is that idea [of inserting/into the chromosomes of plants/discrete genes (that are not a part of the plants' natural constitution)]: specifically, the idea [of inserting/into nonleguminous plants/the genes, if they can be identified and isolated, (that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen – fixing bacteria)]. Hence, there is the intensified research on legumes.

  译文:一个这样的全新的想法,是把(非此植物的自然组成部分的)不相关的基因插入/到植物的染色体中/:具体说来就是这么一个想法:把一些使得豆科植物能够成为固氮菌的寄主的基因,(如果它们能够找到并分离出来的话)插入/到非豆科植物的基因中去/. 因此才出现了豆科植物的深入研究。

  难句类型:复杂修饰

  例 46:It is one of nature's great ironies that the availability of nitrogen (in the soil) frequently sets an upper limit/on plant growth/even though the plants' leaves are bathed/in a sea of nitrogen gas/.

  译文:这真是自然界的一个巨大的讽刺;(土壤中的氮的供给之少)经常/给植物的生长/设立一个上限,尽管植物的叶子被沉浸于/氮气的海洋中/.

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语

  例 47:Unless they succeed, the yield gains (of the Green Revolution) will be largely lost/even if the genes (in legumes) (that equip those plants to enter into a symbiosis with nitrogen fixers) are identified and isolated, and/even if the transfer of those gene complexes, once they are found, becomes possible/.

  译文:除非他们(指基因生物学家)成功,否则/即使(使得豆科植物与固氮菌形成共生关系的)基因能够被找到和分离出来,而且即使基因综合体在被发现之后的转基因成为可能,/绿色革命所带来的产量上的获得将很大程度上被丧失掉。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 插入语 + 抽象词 + 熟词僻义

  例 48:Its subject (to use Maynard Mack's categories) is “life – as – spectacle,” for readers, diverted/be its various incidents,/observe its hero Odysseus/primarily from without/; the tragic Iliad, however, presents “life – as - experience”: readers are asked to identify/with the mind [of Achilles, (whose motivations render him a not particularly likable hero)]/.

  译文:其主题(如果使用 MM 的分类法)是“把生活作为景象”,对于读者而言,由于被/其不同的事件/转移了注意力,/主要从外部的角度来/观察其主人公 O ;然而悲剧 I , 却表现了一种“把生活当作经历”:读者们被要求去认同/A [ 的内心世界,(而 A 的动机使得他成为一个不是特别有吸引力的主人公) ]/ .

  难句类型:倒装 + 省略

  例 49:Most striking/among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish/is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates, so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head.

  译文:/在很多的成年比目鱼所表现出来的不对称中/,眼睛的位置是最引人注目的:在成熟以前一个眼睛迁移了,以致于在一个成年鱼的身上,两只眼睛都在身体的同一侧。

  难句类型:复杂修饰 + 省略

  例 50:A critique [of the Handlins' interpretation (of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660's)] suggests that assumptions [about the relation (between slavery and racial prejudice)] should be reexamined, and suggests that explanations {for the different treatment [of Black slaves (in North and South America)] should be expanded}.

  译文:一个 [ 对于 H 的(关于为何法律上的奴隶制没有在 17 世纪 60 年代以前出现的原因)所做解释的 ] 批评显示, [ (关于奴隶制和种族偏见之间的)关系的 ] 假说应当被重新检查,而且显示出, { 对于 [ (在北美和南美之间的)对黑奴的 ] 不同处理的 } 解释应当被扩展。

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