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考研英语写作与对策(一)

2006-7-15 22:59 张鑫友外语研究网 

  研究生入学考试英语写作部分占总分的百分之二十,是决定考研英语成绩优劣的重要因素。因此考生需要认真理解领会考研英语写作的每个细节,并且尽快掌握相应的应试对策,以便在考试最后的40分钟能够合理地控制时间,从容地完成较高质量的写作。

  一、 大纲对写作的界定与最新评分细则

  写作是全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试卷的第四部分。该部分考查考生的书面表达能力。共1题,20分。要求考生根据提示信息写出一篇约200词的短文(标点符号不计算在内)。提示信息的形式有主题句、写作提纲、规定情景、图表等。考生在答题卡上作答。

  1. 大纲对写作的界定

  《全国硕士研究生入学考试英语考试大纲(非英语考生)》在考试说明部分对写作有如下界定:

  考生应能写不同类型的应用文,包括私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等,还应能写一般描述性、叙述性和说明或议论性的文章。短文写作时,考生应能:

  1) 做到语法、拼写、标点正确、用词恰当;

  2) 遵循文章的特定文体格式;

  3) 合理组织文章结构,使其内容统一、连贯;

  4) 根据写作目的和特定读者,恰当选用语言。

  2. 最新考研英语写作具体评分细则

  20—17分 内容切题,包括题中所列的各项内容,清楚表达其内涵,文字连贯;句式有变化,句子结构和用词正确。文章长度符合要求。

  16—13分 内容切题,包括题中所列的各项内容;比较清楚地表达其内涵,文字基本连贯,句式有一定变化,句子结构和用词无重大错误。文章长度符合要求。

  12—9分 内容切题,基本包括题中所列各方面的内容;基本清楚地表达其内涵;句子结构和词有少量错误。文章长度符合要求。

  8—5分 内容基本切题,基本包含题中所列各方面的内容;语句可以理解,文章长度基本符合要求。

  4—1分 基本按要求写作,但只有少数句子可以理解。

  0分 文不切题,语句混乱,无法理解。

  二、 考研英语写作的高分标准

  考研英语写作的高分标准涉及以下六个方面:

  1. 内容切题。审题准、不跑题。文不对题会严重影响成绩,导致写作失败。

  2. 表达清楚。语言要简洁、准确、条理清晰,主题明确。

  3. 意义连贯。遣词造句得当,表达连贯平稳。论点论据展开合理(以因果、对比、分类、定义、列举、概括、详情、时间、空间、过程或综合等方法来展开)。

  4. 句式有变化。采用适当的句式来表达相应的内容。常用句式包括简单句、并列句、复合句、主被动句、长句、短句、否定句、双重否定句、疑问句、反问句、倒装句、强调句、插入语、独立主格成分等。

  5. 用词有变化。避免重复使用同一词汇,可适当使用代词、同义词、近义词、关联词使表达富有动感。同义词的使用是衡量考生语言运用能力的一个尺度。

  6. 语言规范。符合英语的表达习惯,语法错误少,写出的英语不是中式英语。

  三、 历届考研英语写作命题与启示

  1. 历届考研英语写作命题总览

  考试年代 考试题目 选题范围1991年 WHERE TO LIVE—IN THE CITY OR THE COUNTRY? 环境1992年 FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN PARENT AND CHILD  人际关系1993年 ADVERTISEMENT ON TV 传媒1994年 ON MAKING FRIENDS 人际关系1995年 THE “PROJECT HOPE” 教育1996年 GOOD HEALTH 健康1997年 SOMKING  健康1998年 BUSINESS PROMISE & GUARANTEE 诚信1999年 HUMAN POPULATION & WILDLIFE PROTECTION  环境2000年 WORLD COMMERCIAL FISHING  环境2001年 LOVE 人际关系2002年  CULTURE—NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 文化2003年 YOUTH DEVELOPMENT 教育

  2. 历届考研英语写作试题类型

  历届考研英语写作试题主要分为以下两大类型:

  1) 1991—1996年:给出提纲或开头句的命题写作(writings based on given outlines or opening sentences)

  2) 1997—2003年:给出提纲的图画或图表写作(writings based on visual information or pictures or graphs)

  3. 历届考研英语写作命题的启示

  从1991年至2003年共计13年的考题来分析,我们可以对考研英语写作命题有如下认识:

  1) 写作题目忌偏忌怪。考研英语写作选题范围都是目前人们最为关注的问题,从子女与父母的关系到健康的重要性,从近年来泛滥的行业“承诺”到世界烟民的现状、从希望工程到电视广告、从环境保护到生物种类趋于灭绝,以及2002年和2003年的考题所涉及的国际文化交流与青少年成材的题目,无不反映了当前社会的热门话题。

  2) 文体基本上是说明文和议论文。考这类体裁的写作比较符合形势发展的实际需要。在学习、工作和生活中,人们所书写的材料大多也是说明文或议论文。

  3) 出题形式在平稳中逐渐趋于多样化。

  4) 写作题目易于理解。写作题目无论以文字的形式还是以图表、图画的形式出现都会浅显易懂。考生不会因题目中出现生词或难以理解的短语而影响正常发挥。

  四、 考研英语写作文章的常规整体构建模式

  考研英语写作的文章一般包括一个开头段、若干扩展段和一个结尾段。开头段和结尾段一般比扩展段短。各种段落的作用、特点和写作方法如下所示。

  1. 开头段

  开头段一定要语言精练,并且直接切入主题。开头段一般不对主题进行深入的探讨,具体的论证或叙述应该在扩展段进行。一般在开头段写四、五句即可。考生应注意以下若干要点:

  1) 开头段的作用

  概括陈述主题,提出观点或论点,表明写作意图。

  2) 写开头段时考生应该避免的若干问题

  ① 开头偏离主题太远;

  ② 使用抱歉或埋怨之词句;

  ③ 内容不具体,言之无物;

  ④ 使用不言自明的陈述。

  3) 开头段的表达方法

  ① 使用引语(use a quotation)

  使用一段名人名言,或人们常用的谚语、习语,以确定文章的写作范围和方向。

  例:

  “Great minds must be ready not only to take the opportunity, but to make them.” Colton, a great writer once remarked. But it still has a profound significance now. To a person, in whose lifetime opportunities are not many, to make opportunities is more essential to his success.

  ② 使用具体详实的数字或数据(use figures or statistics)

  引用一些具体详实的数字或数据,然后作出概括性分析,指明问题的症结所在。

  例:

  In the past 5 years there has been a marked decline in the number of young married couples who want to have children, coupled with a growing trend toward delayed childbearing. According to official statistics, in 2003, about 28 percent of married couples with wives under 35 gave no birth to children, compared with the 1993 level of 8 percent.

  ③ 提出问题(ask a question)

  提出有争议或探讨性的具体问题,然后加以简要回答或展开引导性简短讨论。

  例:

  What do you want from your work? Money? Promotions? Interesting challenges? Continual learning? Work-based friendships? The opportunity to develop your own idea and potentials? Though we are all individuals and so our answers will differ, all agree that work provide more than material things.

  ④ 给出背景(offer relevant background)

  描述具体事件的时间、地点和发生背景等。

  例:

  Once in a newspaper I read of a crowd of people who remained appallingly indifferent to the plea of a mother. As she failed to offer the required amount of cash as a price to save her drowning son, the woman at last watched her son sink to death. The story is not rare in newspapers and on TV, and the casualness and detachment our people now have developed has aroused nationwide concern.

  ⑤ 定义法(give definition)

  针对讨论的主题或问题加以定义,然后进行深入探讨。

  例:

  Flexibility is defined as being adaptable to change. In the course of your lifetime, it is essential that you learn to bend and flex around every new circumstance, as rigidity deprives you of the opportunity to see new possibilities. Paradigms change over time, and so must you. Your company may restructure, and you will have to survive. Your spouse may choose to leave the marriage, and you will have to cope. Technology will continue to advance and change, and you must constantly learn and adapt or risk becoming a dinosaur. Flexibility allows you to be ready for whatever curve lies ahead in life instead of getting blindsided by it.

  ⑥ 主题句法(use of topic sentence)

  文章一开始就以主题句点明全文主题,然后围绕主题内容进行发展。

  例:

  Now people become increasingly aware of the importance of acquiring a mastery of a foreign language. To them, the knowledge of a foreign language, say, English, often means a good opportunity for one‘s career, even a passport to a prosperous future. Many of them equate success in life with the ability of speaking a foreign language.

  4) 开头段的常用核心句型

  。 The arguer may be right about …, but he seems to neglect (fail) to mention (take into account) the fact that …。

  。 As opposed to (Contrary to) widely (commonly / generally) held (accepted) belief (ideas / views), I believe (argue) that …

  。 Although many people believe that …, I doubt (wonder)whether the argument bears much analysis (close examination)。

  。 The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we gained from (carry more weight than those of / are much greater than) A.

  。 Although it is commonly (widely / generally) held (felt / accepted / agreed) that …, it is unlikely to be true that …。

  。 There is an element of truth in this argument (statement), but it ignores a deeper and more basic (important / essential) fact (reason) that …。

  。 It is true that (True, / To be sure, / Admittedly,) …, but this is not to say (it is unlikely / it doesn‘t follow / it doesn’t mean / it won‘t be the case) that …。

  。 The main (obvious / great) problem (flaw / drawback) with (in) this argument (view / remark) is that it is ignorant of (blind to) the basic (bare) fact that …。

  。 It would be possible (natural / reasonable) to think (believe / take the view) that …, but it would be absurd (wrong) to claim (argue) that …。

  。 In all the discussion and debate over …, one important (basic) fact is generally overlooked (neglected)。

  。 There is absolutely (in fact) no (every) reason for us to believe (accept / resist / reject) that …。

  。 Logical (Valid / Sound) as this argument and I wholeheartedly agree with it, it appears insignificant (absurd) when … is taken into consideration(account)。

  。 To assume (suggest) that … is far from being proved (to miss the point)。

  。 A close (careful) inspection (examination / scrutiny) of this argument would reveal how flimsy (groundless /fallacious) it is.

  。 On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a sound (an attractive) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing on the mind (on closer analysis / on second thought), we find that …

  。 Too much emphasis placed on (attention paid to / importance attached to) … may obscure (overlook / neglect) other facts …。

  。 The danger (problem / fact / truth / point) is that…。

  。 What the arguer fails to understand (consider / mention) is that …。

  。 We don‘t have to look very far to see (find out) the truth (validity) of this argument (proposition)。

  。 However just (logical / sound / valid) this argument may be, it only skims the surface of the problem.

  。 Among the most convincing (important) reasons given (cited / offered / identified) by people for …, one should be stressed (emphasized / mentioned)。

  。 As far as I am concerned, however, I believe that …。

  。 I believe that the title statement is valid because (of) …。

  。 I agree with the above statement because I believe that …。

  。 Although I appreciate that …, I cannot agree with the title statement.

  。 There is a public controversy nowadays over the issue of …。 Those who object to … argue that …。 But people who favor …, on the other hand, argue that…。

  。 Currently (In recent years / In the past few years / For many years now), there is (has been) a(n) general (widespread / growing / widely held) feeling towards (concern over / attitude towards / trend towards / awareness of / realization of / illusion of / belief in)…。

  。 Now it is commonly (widely / generally / increasingly) believed (thought / held / accepted/ felt / recognized / acknowledged) that …。 But I wonder (doubt) whether …。

  。 These days we are often told that (often hear about) …, but is this really the case?

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