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考研英语阅读A段答题技巧

2006-7-15 23:00 张鑫友外语研究网 

  一节 语篇中心词和段落话题是文章的精髓1.考研英语和四级有很大的区别:四级是扫描性阅读,强调对细节化信息的准确定位和事实理解。而考研英语强调对文章的宏观性的语篇层次的理解,讲究考生不仅要定位文章的总要信息,而且不局限于单词和句子的字面性意思的理解,考察考生对上下文的中心词以及段落话题理解。只有理解这些宏观信息,才对文章的理解高屋建瓴,才能理解文章的整体行文思路,多义词意思的判定以及提高效率,忽略无效信息。

  2.考点设置:考研英语大纲中反复强调上下文的一致性和连贯性的理解,而且从测试角度来说,考研英语的宏观题居多,比如推理题,例证题,作者观点题。这些题的正确的答案都是跟文章的中心和段落的话题有直接或间接的关系。

  3.中心词的查找方法:中心词的建立是靠细节和事例来支持的,读者理解中心是个自上而下的过程,而且读者有了最基本的词汇和语法知识,需要通过在文章的特殊语境下解读这些信息,通过在语篇层次上把握这些信息的内在联系,分析文章的中心。由于考研阅读的试题具有宏观性,所以通过查找题干和选项的反复重复的词可以看出,当然最重要的手段还是精读文章的首段和每段的首句。

  一。把握段落话题提高语篇分析能力和正确答案的识别

  自然段的话题是为文章服务的,一篇文章通常是围绕一个大的中心展开,同样段落也是围绕一个话题展开。段落内部的词汇,短语,小句,复杂句是为了支持首句的段落话题服务。同样,段落的话题相对于宏观的中心是微观的,也被中心所制约,控制和支配。只有把握好段落的话题,才能对段子的句子和句子的之间的关系有所把握,对段落的行文方式有更好的理解,对预测下文的信息也有帮助。更重要的是,由于正确答案在经常在考察段落的话题,所以可以通过重复来查找话题的行文轨迹,从而把握正确答案的范围,帮助读者在理解文章的情况下快速阅读段子中间的细节,锁定段落的核心价值。

  Exercise :(文章的主题是“梦以及梦的控制”,选自2005年考研阅读真题第三篇)

  Of all the components of a good night's sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. In dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and rears. By the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise”—the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. By the late 1970s researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind's emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line”。 And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better, “It's you r dream” says Rosalind Cartwright, chair of psychology at Chicago's Medical Center. “If you don't like it, change it.”

  本段话题: 梦是否被控制 关键词: unconscious和conscious control,讲对梦的认识是从无意识到一种有意识的行为。

  Evidence from brain imaging supports this view. The brain is as active during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep—when most vivid dreams occur—as it is when fully awake, says Dr, Eric Nofzinger at the University of Pittsburgh. But not all part s of the brain are equally involved, the limbic system (the “emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. “We wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day” says Stanford sleep researcher Dr William Dement.

  本段话题:大脑中的情感中枢。关键词:emotional

  The link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in Cartwright 's clinic. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing g toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don't always think about the emotional significance of the day's events-until, it appears, we begin to dream.

  本段话题:情感与梦的关系。关键词:emotional

  And this process need not be left to the unconscious. Cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. As soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. Visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time is occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. With much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep. 

  本段话题:有意识控制梦的方法。关键词:conscious

  At the end of the day, there's probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or “we wake up in a panic,” Cartwright says Terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people's anxiety. Those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. For the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. Sleep—or rather dream—on it and you'll feel better in the morning.

  本段话题:消极情感的消除方法 关键词:bad feelings

  1. Researchers have come to believe that dreams

  [A]. can be modified in their courses.

  [B]. are susceptible to emotional changes.

  [C]. reflect our innermost desires and fears.

  [D]. are a random outcome of neural repairs.

  2. By referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show

  [A]. its function in our dreams.

  [B]. the mechanism of REM sleep.

  [C]. the relation of dreams to emotions.

  [D]. its difference from the prefrontal cortex.

  3. The negative feelings generated during the day tend to

  [A]. aggravate in our unconscious mind.

  [B]. develop into happy dreams.

  [C]. persist till the time we fall asleep.

  [D]. show up in dreams early at night.

  4.Cartwright seems to suggest that

  [A]. Waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams.

  [B]. Visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control.

  [C]. Dreams should be left to their natural progression.

  [D]. Dreaming may not entirely belong to the unconscious.

  5. What advice might Cartwright give to those who sometimes have had dreams?

  [A]. lead your life as usual.

  [B]. Seek professional help.

  [C]. Exercise conscious control.

  [D]. Avoid anxiety in the daytime.

  启发思维:

  这篇文章的整体感很强,整个文章围绕梦这个主题词展开非常深入的论述,其中重要的关键词是“dream”, “conscious control”, “bad feelings”,文章的开头部分在通过人物的观点对比来说明梦是可以控制的,中间部分是在讲为什么梦是可以控制的,结尾部分是在说如何解决问题,也就是如何控制做噩梦。

  文章的结构是观点论证。第一段通过三个时间 “the late 1970s” “a century ago” “now”表明人对梦的认识的变化, 即从无意识到有意识。二,三两段用情感与梦的关系证明为什么说梦是可以控制的,是总分的写作手法。最后两个自然段倾向于解决问题,即谈如何控制噩梦。第四段讲讲如何控制做噩梦的两个方法,第五段谈如何控制噩梦所产生的消极情感。

  答案注释:

  1. [答案][A] 

  [分析] 考察第一段的重复的中心词,可采取排除法。这完全从篇章的开头和结尾强调重复说明梦是可以控制的,选A.而[C]是在讲Freud的观点,[D]是neurologist的观点,并非是researchers的观点。

  2.[答案] [C] 

  [分析] 这是一道推理判断题。作者提到梦和情感之间是有关系的,情感是段落的重点,选[C]。 [B]的干扰性很大,文章虽然谈到了REM (rapid eye movement) sleep,但是没有谈它的原理,另外这种睡眠文章只谈到一次,没有反复重复,应该当作细节词处理。[D]也谈到了prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning),但并没有谈它与梦的区别,也没有被上下文反复重复,同样可以不选。

  3.[答案][D] 

  [分析] 这是一道事实细节题。题干中的the negative feeling 以及generated在文章第三段第 二句中找到相对应的表述。这句话的大意是“关于大脑白天产生的一些消极因素极可能是其前半夜的梦境中有所反映,但继而会逐渐被更加香甜的梦所取代。”选项(D)show up in drea ms early at night(噩梦对人脑的消极作用会在前半夜里显示出来)与原文表述一致,为正 确选项。

  4.[答案][D] 

  [分析] 这是人物观点题。Cartwright观点的表述主要集中在文章的中间部分,通过分析这一部分内容,可以发现文章第四段首句“And this process need not be left to the un conscious.”便是此题的答案,另外“concious”这个词在该段反复被重复,很显然是该段的主题词,所以很容易成为正确答案,因此判断选项[D]梦并非全部属于潜意识范畴是正确答案。这道题的[A]过于绝对,文章是说了起床时控制噩梦的一种方法,没有说是essential(必不可少的),把文章的可能性说成必然性。

  5.[答案][A] 

  [分析]通过对题干的分析,可以推论其中的might一词暗示这是一道推理判断题。在文章最后 一段中作者谈及神经医生Cartwright 的一些观点。在分析语篇后可以发现题目的答案线索 不是最后一段的倒数第二句话,而是根据文章的最后一段的最后一句话sleep-or rathe dre am-on it and you will feel better in the moring中的on一词暗含了顺其自然的意思即 我们无意过分担心梦对我们的影响。换句话说,保持正常的生活状态即可。由此,选项(A )lead your life as usual是正确选项。这道题[B]寻求专家意见干扰性大,指的是经常做噩梦的人的情况。

  参考译文:

  在良好的睡眠组成部分中,梦似乎在我们的最不可能被我们控制的。在梦中,一扇窗户向这样一个世界打开:逻辑是中止的,死的人也说话。 在一个世纪以前,佛洛伊德制定了他的革命理论:梦是我们的无意识的欲望和恐惧所投射的被忽视的阴影。 在70年代后期,神经学者已经转变想法,认为他们是" 大脑的噪音 "-在睡眠期间继续的神经- 修理工作的任意副产品。在70年代后期之前,研究人员怀疑梦是当大脑" 脱机" 的时候所产生的自动调温器的部份, 可以管理心情。而且权威人士说,这些强烈有力的大脑的图象可能是不但可以约束的而且实际上是在有意识的控制之下, 帮助我们睡觉而且觉得舒服多了," 这是你的梦 " 在芝加哥医学的中心心理学的主任罗莎琳德说。 " 如果你不喜欢它,改变它。“

  来自大脑的图像的证据支持这种看法。 头脑同样地在 REM(迅速的眼睛运动) 期间是活跃的睡眠-当最生动的梦发生的时候-正如它是完全醒的时候。 匹兹堡的大学的医生艾力克说。 但并不是所有大脑的部份同样地被牵涉。边缘叶系统 ( "情感大脑") 尤其活跃, 当大脑的外皮 (智力和推论的中心) 相对地是安静的时候。 史丹福睡眠研究员威廉医生 Dement 说:“我们从梦醒来-快乐的或沮丧的, 而且那些感觉整天能在我们生活出现。”

  在梦和情绪之间的联系在Cartwright的临床研究出现。 大多数的人夜晚初期似乎做比较差劲的梦, 并一直做下去,直到睡醒前的较快乐的一些情感出现。这表明这些梦正在解决在那期间产生的不良的感觉。 因为我们的有意识的思想被每日的生活占据,所以我们没有时间总是想白天的事件与情绪相关的重要性-直到它出现,我们开始做梦。

  而且这一个过程不需要被人认为是无意识的。Cartwright相信,不断练习有意识的控制可以回想的差劲的梦。 一旦你被唤醒,一定要看看梦中的什么事情让你伤心。 看你如何想要它如何结束; 下回再发生,试着仅仅醒来就可以控制它的过程。 通过很多的练习人,逐渐地就可以在睡梦中控制它。 

  在一天结束的时候, 或许几乎没有理由注意我们的梦,除非他们防止我们睡觉,或者让 " 我们在一阵恐慌方面醒来 ".Cartwright说,恐怖主义,不安全的经济不确定性和如此的痛苦感觉已经增加人的焦虑。蒙受连续的噩梦的人应该寻求来自治疗师的帮忙。对于我们的其余的人来说,大脑可以自然解决差劲的噩梦。 睡眠—或者做梦-并带着梦来睡觉,在早晨起来将会觉得舒服多了。

  复习指导:

  首段的话题词往往是文章的中心词,考研的试题一般是顺序原则,即出题的顺序和文章话题的顺序一致,有些题可能颠倒顺序,但顺序原则是考研阅读的主流,所以在做每道题时要注意针对的文章中心还是段落话题,到底在考察哪个段落话题。当某个选项可能是重复词,但并不是针对这道题的要求,比如第5题的C. Exercise conscious control是第四段的主题,并非是第五段的主题,所以弄清题干的要求很重要。

  段落可能有很多重复点,那么话题词到底是什么,应该是重点看段落的首句的重复词以及段落中间的转折处,不要认为一个单词出现两次就一定是重复的话题。

  注意通过抓住重复可以迅速忽略中间的细节,读中间的细节应该速度加快,因为阅读的重点并非细节,而是段落的话题。

  二。文章的中心词带动段落话题的理解

  中心词对话题词往往是支配作用,中心词通常是在首段和每个自然段的首句重复出现。很多题表面看是考细节,但实际上就是在变相的考中心词。所以抓住字里行间重复的中心是检验答案的有效武器。有的文章是单一重复一个中心词,文章是围绕一条主线来写作。但有些文章既谈客观中心词,又谈主观中心词(对客观对象的看法),这些文章是围绕两条线来写作。所以要注意区分客观中心和主观中心,主观中心往往是作者的看法,客观中心是作者议论的靶子。所以考生应该识别主观中心。 主观中心往往包含作者的情感色彩,比如说“overlook”, "emhasize“, ”opitmistic“, ”pessimistic“, ”panic“, ”objective“, ”cautious“等等(比如说”忽视“,”重视“,”乐观“,”悲观“,”恐慌“,”客观“,”谨慎“)

  Exercise:( 文章的客观中心为字母歧视,主观中心为忽视,也就是被大家忽视的字母歧视,其中五道题都在考这个关键词,选自2004年的考研阅读题第2篇。)

  Over the past century, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or made illegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.

  本段话题:字母歧视(客观),忽视(主观)(也是文章的中心词) 关键词:alphabetism, unaware

  It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a big advantage over Zodiac cars when customers thumb through their phone directories. Less well known is the advantage that Adam Abbott has in life over Zoe Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the halves of the alphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginning with letters between A and K.

  本段话题:忽视(主观) 关键词: less well known.注释: It has long been known that……指的是大家的观点,作者写文章时标新立异,所以这种句型的观点通常是批判性的,也就是说“A cars 比 Zodiac cars”有优势是批评的。 “suspiciously”意思是不敢相信,也是在讲人们由于对这种现象的忽视而导致的,所以也可以帮助大家理解“忽视”这个词。

  Thus the American president and vice-president have surnames starting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bush's predecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of the alphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of the seven heads of government of the G7 rich countries are alphabetically advantaged (Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chrétien and Koizumi)。 The world's three top central bankers (Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami) are all close to the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanese characters. As are the world's five richest men (Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht)。

  本段话题:成功人士和姓名字母靠前 关键词:richest, surname

  Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets in early. At the start of the first year in infant school, teachers seat pupils alphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. So short-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked the improving questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time the alphabetically disadvantaged may think they have had a lucky escape. Yet the result may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention, as well as less confidence in speaking publicly.

  本段话题:老师忽视了字母歧视 关键词:teachers, insensitive=less individual attention,注意否定前缀词是主观情感词。

  The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, the ABCs proudly get their awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans most people are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists for job interviews, election ballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be drawn up alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them.

  本段话题:讲Zysmans的不幸经历还在持续。关键词:humiliation,后面是分类论述将不幸的例子,实际也是在说Zysmans的不幸经历被人所忽视。

  1. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAA A cars and Zodiac cars?

  [A] A kind of overlooked inequality.

  [B] A type of conspicuous bias. 

  [C] A type of personal prejudice.

  [D] A kind of brand discrimination. 

  2. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs? 

  [A] In both East and West, names are essential to success. 

  [B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zoě Zysman. 

  [C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies' names.

  [D] Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize. 

  3. The 4th paragraph suggests that 

  [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students. 

  [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape from class. 

  [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students. 

  [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight. 

  4. What does the author mean by “most people are literally having a ZZ Z” (Lines 2-3, Paragraph 5)?

  [A] They are getting impatient.

  [B] They are noisily dozing off. 

  [C] They are feeling humiliated.

  [D] They are busy with word puzzles.

  5. Which of the following is true according to the text? 

  [A] People with surnames beginning with N to Z are often illtreated. 

  [B] VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism. 

  [C] The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go. 

  [D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias. 

  启发思维:

  注意文章的中心不仅是被同义替换,而且被下文的细节不停解释,话题词是为了中心词服务的,文章的前两段是在讲字母歧视被人们所忽视,第三段是从反面举例证证明很多成功人士的姓名的开头字母都是在字母表的上半区。最后两段是通过讲Zysman的不幸经历来证明姓名开头字母靠后面的人在学校和社会都被歧视。

  答案注释:

  1.[答案][A] 

  [分析]这是一道例证题,涉及作者提及AAAA和Zodiac公司的意图,意图在 第一 段。例证题是通过论据来证明论点,所以不能选择论据本身的内容,论点通常在论据的上方,因为论据在第二段的首句,所以论点在第一段的末句。选择时仍然围绕中心词“歧视”和“忽视”来选择。

  理解第一段后可知A项(是为了阐述一种被忽视的不平等现象)为正确答案 . 

  2.[答案][D] 

  [分析] 这是一道推论题。综合前三段,可以认为:有些歧视现象令人难以察觉。D项符合此意,为正确答案。 注意[D]的too subtle to recoginze 表示否定,是说难以认识到,最接近文章的中心“忽视”,而[A]意思是名字对成功必不可少,过于绝对,文章说有些人成功又有好名字,没有说所有人都这样。[C]的意思是顾客重视公司的名字,很显然偏离中心,文章讲的是忽视。

  3.[答案][C] 

  [分析]这是一道推论题,问第四段暗示了什么。第四五六句暗示,老师对学生的歧视不敏感,言外之意是老师应该多关注学生,注意选项情感动词的使用,“should”表示应该做的事情并没有做。[B]学生逃脱上课,文章说了逃脱,但宾语是逃脱被提问,这种错误是逻辑错误,保留了原文的关键词,但在宾语做了手脚。

  4.[答案][B]

  [分析]这是一道句意题。在英文中,ZZZ常被用来描述人打瞌睡时发出的声音,因此,该句句意为B(他们就睡着了)。A是一个干扰性很强的选项,意思与上下文连贯,按一般的句意题设计规律,其实也可接受。选B不选A,跟本篇阅读文章的命题者的命题 习惯有关。 

  5. [答案][D] 

  [分析] 这是一道是非判断题。综合全文,不难发现 D项(按字母顺序排列 一切会导致意想不到的歧视)为正确答案。"unintentional“ 的意思是无意识的,最接近文章中心词 ”忽视“,而[A]姓名的字母排列是N-Z的人经常被歧视,过于绝对应该加上”有些人“来限制,更加符合原文。同样,[B]西方世界的重要人物从字母歧视中受益,也过于绝对,应该是”有些人“。[C]消除字母歧视有很长路要走,文章根本没有提及。

  参考译文:

  过去一百年中,各种不公正和歧视要么遭到谴责,要么被视为非法,(46)然而,有一种歧视 却潜伏下来,继续蔓延,那就是:字母主义。许多人迄今还不了解这种现象,它指的是姓氏 首字母位于字母表下半部分的人们所遭受的歧视。 

  众所周知,当顾客翻寻电话号码簿的时候,名为AAAA的出租车公司就比名叫Zodiac的公司占 有优势。有一点还不太为人所知,Adam Abbott在生活中比Zoe Zysman拥有优势。英文名在 字母表中前后分部均匀,但许多上层人士的姓的首字母都在A至K之间,令人感到离奇。 

  因此,美国总统和付总统的姓名分别为B和C;乔治。布什的前任中(包括其父)有26位的姓在 字母表的上半部,只有16位在字母表的下半部。更令人称奇的是,七大工业国的七位首脑中 有六位的姓在字母表上位列上部(Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chretien, Koizumi )。世界三大央行行长(Greenspan, Duisenberg, Hayami)也是如此,即使其中一位用的 是日本字。世界五位首富(Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison,Albrecht)也是一样。 

  这难道只是一个巧合?有一种理论(那些字母表上列位不佳者闲时构造出来的)认为情况从 一开始就很糟。(48)早在幼儿学校的第一年,老师就按字母顺序给学生排座位,以便能记住 孩子们的名字,因此,近视眼小日斯曼(Zysman junior)就永远坐后排,并且很少被那些 粗心的教师提问,而这些提问对孩子的成长有益。当时,那些姓氏字母不佳的孩子会为逃避 提问而暗自庆幸,但结果是使他们素质欠佳,因为他们得到的个人关注少,在公众场合说话 也信心不足。 

  这种不幸还在持续。大学毕业典礼上,姓氏为ABC字母的学生首先得意洋洋的拿到奖状,轮到Zysman的时候,(49)多数人都在打瞌睡了。就业面试,选举投票,会议发言或列席等诸多表格,也都是按字母顺序排序,人们费劲地翻阅,越往后翻兴趣也越少。

  Exercise:(本文的客观中心是经济衰退,主观中心是人们乐观)

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