1……Rain forest structure is distinct from most other forest types because of its many layers of vegetation， referred to as strata. 2. The lowest stratum is the under-story， composed of palms， herbaceous plants （such as wild ginger）， and saplings. 3. Many have deep red coloring on the underside of their leaves to capture some of the scarce light that does manage to reach the forest under-story. 4.I t is critical that this red coloring enables under-story plants to absorb light of different wavelengths than do the plants with rich， green-foliaged canopy， the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees. 5. Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more mid-story strata， made up of woody plants， such as large shrubs and midsized trees. 6. People have different opinions on the protection of rain forest and some criticized the view that rain forest can be exploited and restructured all the time.
这种重复指的是在特殊语境下词汇的同义转述，某个词项在语境中代替另外一个词项，代替的词项与原词项意思相近，而且在表达方向上具有同一倾向性。有些词的同义替换是意思相同，而且在任何语境下都能构成同义词，叫做简单的词汇释义。比如：句3中的capture和句4中的absorb.还有些词汇和替换词的意思有差别，但都是在描述同一个过程，而且在特殊语境下关系非常紧密，具有同一倾向，叫做复杂的释义。比如成功和自信并不完全等同，但是在描写成功法则的文章中，很显然有自信的人才能成功，是特殊语境下的重复。在比如说一个人很好，在朋友眼里可能等于诚实；一个人很好，在父母眼里可能是孝敬；在领导眼里可能是进取；在生活伴侣眼里可能等于“讨厌”（你真讨厌！）比如句2中的herbaceous plants （such as wild ginger）， and saplings 与句 5中的shrubs and midsized trees.都是在讲植物，具有同一倾向，虽然植物的类型不同。
这种重复指的是一个主概念被切割成几个子概念被分类论述，一个大的主题词被分类，主题词包含下面的分类词，并于下下面的分类词有共同的特征。句2的。Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more mid-story strata， made up of woody plants， such as large shrubs and midsized trees.中的热带雨林中间层包括很多不同种类的植物，包括woody plants， such as large shrubs（灌木丛） and midsized trees.中间层是上义词，而不同种类的植物是下义词。
代词分为人称代词，包括she， he， they； 也包括指示代词，this， that， those， these；不定代词包括 do（it/so， such/the same）， the one当指代上文时，也作为不定代词出现。
对某个关键词通过下定义来解释，句4的green-foliaged canopy， the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees，在解释canopy说的是伞状的雨林的高层。
1. As a result， the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robo-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics， there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with sub millimeter accuracy—far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone. （02年的passage2）
The word “gizmos" （line 1， paragraph 2） most probably means.
［A］ programs. ［B］ experts. ［C］ devices. ［D］ creatures.
2.Wild Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the Office of Strategic Services in the World War II and later laid the roots for the CIA was fascinated with information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the "great game“ of espionage——spying as a "profession." These days the Net， which has already re-made pastimes as buying books and sending mail， is reshaping Donovan's vocation as well. （03年passage 1）
The emergence of the Net has
[A]. received support from fans like Donovan.
[B]. remolded the intelligence services.
[C]. restored many common pastimes.
[D]. revived spying as a profession.
解析：internet——net， espionage——spying，re-made——reshaping——B. remolded，都是再说重新塑造。其中D的干扰性很大，文章谈到了间谍，但是恢复间谍服务和原文的重新塑造间谍服务的意思有很大的差距。
3. How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree？ Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictability is part of the essential nature of research. If you don‘t have unpredictable things， you don’t have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals， but history is filled with examples of it. （99年passage 5）
The author asserts that scientists __
[A] shouldn't replace "scientific method" with imaginative thought
[B] shouldn't neglect to speculate on unpredictable things
[C] should write more concise reports for technical journals
[D]should be confident about their research findings
解析； 选择[ B]，段落的结尾的this要还原，意思是上文的unpredictable（不可预测性），意思是科学家在写一成不变的报告时经常忘记不可预测性。不可预测性在重复，所以选[B]科学家不应该忽视研究不可预测性。
4.The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government's Surface Transportation Board for rate relief， but the process is expensive， time consuming， and will work only in truly extreme cases.（2003年passage 3第3段）
It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that
[A]. shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad.
[B]. there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide.
[C]. overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief.
[D]. a government board ensures fair play in railway business.
5. I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie the globalization process： falling transportation and communication costs， lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customer's demands. All these are beneficial， not detrimental， to consumers. As productivity grows， the world's wealth increases. （01年passage 4）
According to the author， one of the driving forces behind M&A wave is _________.
［A］the greater customer demands
［B］a surplus supply for the market
［C］a growing productivity
［D］the increase of the world's wealth
6. Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be his with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole， despite its brightening fortuning fortunes still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another， with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the .2 billion bids by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's net railway operating income in 1996 was just million， less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill？ Many captive shippers fear that they will， as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market. （03年passage 3）
According to the text， the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by
[A]. the continuing acquisition.
[B]. the growing traffic.
[C]. the cheering Wall Street.
[D]. the shrinking market.
6.If you feel awkward being humorous， you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile， so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.（02年passage 1第4段）
To achieve the desired result， humorous stories should be delivered.
［A］ in well-worded language.
［B］ as awkwardly as possible.
［C］ in exaggerated statements.
［D］ as casually as possible.
7.What they found， in attempting to model thought， is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented—and human perception far more complicated—than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant， instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability， and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it. （02年passage 2第5段）
The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are.
［A］ expected to copy human brain in internal structure.
［B］ able to perceive abnormalities immediately.
［C］ far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.
［D］ best used in a controlled environment.
8.To take advantage of this tool， some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anti-colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure （the basic structural foundations of a society） in the United States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure， it didn't have the capital to do so. And that is why America's Second Wave infrastructure-including roads， harbors， highways， ports and so on-were built with foreign investment. The English， the Germans， the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain's former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now？ The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure， which today is an electronic infrastructure， the better off you're going to be. That doesn't mean lying down and becoming fooled， or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.（01年passage 2）
The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _________.
［A］providing financial support overseas
［B］preventing foreign capital's control
［C］building industrial infrastructure
［D］accepting foreign investment
9. Consumers say they're not in despair because， despite the dreadful headlines， their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan， "there's a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range， predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses，" says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco， prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. "Instead of 20 to 30 offers， now maybe you only get two or three，" says john Deadly， a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.（2004年的passage 1）
When mentioning "the $4 million to $10 million range" （Lines 3-4， Paragraph 3） the author is talking about.
[A] gold market.
[B] real estate.
[C] stock exchange.
[D] venture investment.
解析：选择[B].本题是例证题，问的是用400万到一千万美金来证明什么。这是已知论据求论点，从题干中出发在原文定位，原句是"there's a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range， predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses，"意思是在400万到1000万美金之间有一种新的淘金热。淘金热只是一种现象，所证明的观点应该看上面的句子，上文说房产价格保持稳定，所以证明的观点是买房子。房地产在该段是反复重复的话题词。而[C]股票，[D]风险投资 并不是购买的对象，而且上下文只出现一次。
10. Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers？ The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.（01的passage 3）
What is the passage mainly about？
［A］needs of the readers all over the world
［B］causes of the public disappointment about newspapers
［C］origins of the declining newspaper industry
［D］aims of a journalism credibility project
解析：选择［B］。this painful question指的是上文的问题，即美国人为什么不相信报纸。