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考研英语阅读B段答题技巧

2006-7-15 22:59 张鑫友外语研究网 

  第二节话题词重复模式——命题人的核心价值和正确答案的唯一。

  我们上个单元谈到了重复的中心词和段落的话题词的重要性,这节主要说明中心词是通过何种方式来重复的。凡事知易行难,了解重复的词容易,但更为重要的是怎样在真正的考场上来凭借自己的熟练的技能,在不参照辅导材料的时候,凭借对重复的深入洞察在陌生的文章中发掘中心词和话题词。抓重复的技能要掌握方法,才能熟能生巧,通过反复操练才能达到炉火纯青的地步。我国著名的语言学家许国璋先生认为:“中西方的词汇的衔接在于东方语言是简单的单一重复,而西方的语言强调同义重现,词形变化等多种重复。”词汇的衔接是为了保持上下文的连贯性和一致性,一篇好的文章句子之间的重复的方式多种多样,而句子之间的逻辑性很强,这种连贯往往是词汇意义上的关系,而句子的语法只是增加语言表现力的一种手段而已。重复可以帮助读者提高阅读效率,更好的理解文章的思路和文章表面和内在的深刻含义。

  一。掌握重复的灵活性,探究重复的方式。

  Exercise:(文章的中心是热带雨林底层)

  1……Rain forest structure is distinct from most other forest types because of its many layers of vegetation, referred to as strata. 2. The lowest stratum is the under-story, composed of palms, herbaceous plants (such as wild ginger), and saplings. 3. Many have deep red coloring on the underside of their leaves to capture some of the scarce light that does manage to reach the forest under-story. 4.I t is critical that this red coloring enables under-story plants to absorb light of different wavelengths than do the plants with rich, green-foliaged canopy, the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees. 5. Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more mid-story strata, made up of woody plants, such as large shrubs and midsized trees. 6. People have different opinions on the protection of rain forest and some criticized the view that rain forest can be exploited and restructured all the time.

  启发思维:

  这个段子由五个句子构成,每个都含有句子内部之间的重复词。每个句子都是通过重复上个句子的词项,后面的句子通过重复这个句子的词项,这样来维持句子之间的连贯性和一致性。段落的重复点可能很多,但段落的话题词是每个句子都为之服务的。句子之间也有重复点,那是为了维持句际间的逻辑性。连续两个句子要有三个词项分别构成重复照应,才能构成有意义的重复。注意和首句有共同重复的点一定要做标记,因为这些词才能对对该段的理解产生重要影响。我们下面介绍在语篇中最重要的几种重复关联模式,形式是一种载体,关键是承载的内容理解是很重要的。

  1单一重复以及单复数变化

  这种重复指的是词性和词型都不发生改变的重复方式,重复往往是文章的中心词,该中心词经常在段落的首尾出现。在每年考研四篇文章中,至少有两篇文章是单一重复。当然这种重复还包括简单的单复数变化。当然某些虚词,比如冠词,连词,介词,助动词都不能算做重复词。比如:句1中的strata和句2中的stratum, 都是在讲层次,前者是后者的复数。

  句2和句3,句4中的under-story是典型的单一重复。

  2.词汇的同义重复

  这种重复指的是在特殊语境下词汇的同义转述,某个词项在语境中代替另外一个词项,代替的词项与原词项意思相近,而且在表达方向上具有同一倾向性。有些词的同义替换是意思相同,而且在任何语境下都能构成同义词,叫做简单的词汇释义。比如:句3中的capture和句4中的absorb.还有些词汇和替换词的意思有差别,但都是在描述同一个过程,而且在特殊语境下关系非常紧密,具有同一倾向,叫做复杂的释义。比如成功和自信并不完全等同,但是在描写成功法则的文章中,很显然有自信的人才能成功,是特殊语境下的重复。在比如说一个人很好,在朋友眼里可能等于诚实;一个人很好,在父母眼里可能是孝敬;在领导眼里可能是进取;在生活伴侣眼里可能等于“讨厌”(你真讨厌!)比如句2中的herbaceous plants (such as wild ginger), and saplings 与句 5中的shrubs and midsized trees.都是在讲植物,具有同一倾向,虽然植物的类型不同。

  3.词形以及词性的变化

  这种重复指的是词根不变,通过词的前后缀发生变化,而且要保证词性变化后,单词的意思维持以前的意思。虽然形式不同以及语法功能不同,但是词素相同,词义不变。比如:句1中的structure和句5中的restructuring有共同的词素。但是句4的critical和句5 中的criticized的词素相同,但意思不同。Critical的意思是重要的,关键的。但是criticized的意思是批判。

  4.上下义词的重复

  这种重复指的是一个主概念被切割成几个子概念被分类论述,一个大的主题词被分类,主题词包含下面的分类词,并于下下面的分类词有共同的特征。句2的。Above the forest floor but below the canopy are one or more mid-story strata, made up of woody plants, such as large shrubs and midsized trees.中的热带雨林中间层包括很多不同种类的植物,包括woody plants, such as large shrubs(灌木丛) and midsized trees.中间层是上义词,而不同种类的植物是下义词。

  5.代词的还原

  代词分为人称代词,包括she, he, they; 也包括指示代词,this, that, those, these;不定代词包括 do(it/so, such/the same), the one当指代上文时,也作为不定代词出现。

  6.下定义来解释关键词

  对某个关键词通过下定义来解释,句4的green-foliaged canopy, the umbrella-shaped upper structure of trees,在解释canopy说的是伞状的雨林的高层。

  二。正确答案往往是段落重复两次以上的话题词

  上一节是告诉读者重复的方式,了解重复的方式是提高抓住重复的效率的重要方针。但考生不需要太过于机械化的查找重复,不需要只注意到重复的方式,方式只不过是语法意义上的词汇衔接手段,最重要的是内容,有些细节可能也在重复,但关键是看首句的话题,以及到底哪个话题是该段重复率最高的,到底哪个重复词在该段反复被细节所支持,这才是关键。这节有三十个训练,通过近十年真题的经典自然段的分析来掌握重复词,所谓熟能生巧,理论上的东西脱离实践是无源之水,无本之木。

  所以在自然段中反复练习,才能对这个理论达到一种内化的境界,最后考生的感觉应该是主动,积极,愉快地查找重复词,并在做与该题相关的题时,牢牢抓住重复词来对答案进行去粗取精,排除答案是与出题者斗智斗勇的过程。

  Exercise:(以下都是历年来段落重复的最完美体现,段落的重复是识别正确答案的武器)

  1. As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robo-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with sub millimeter accuracy—far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone. (02年的passage2)

  The word “gizmos" (line 1, paragraph 2) most probably means.

  [A] programs. [B] experts. [C] devices. [D] creatures.

  解析:选择[B]。首句中的“gizmos”被后面分类论述,分别是工厂,银行,医院中的机器人。所以gizmos指的是机器人,意思是设备。

  2.Wild Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the Office of Strategic Services in the World War II and later laid the roots for the CIA was fascinated with information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the "great game“ of espionage——spying as a "profession." These days the Net, which has already re-made pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan's vocation as well. (03年passage 1)

  The emergence of the Net has 

  [A]. received support from fans like Donovan. 

  [B]. remolded the intelligence services. 

  [C]. restored many common pastimes. 

  [D]. revived spying as a profession. 

  解析:internet——net, espionage——spying,re-made——reshaping——B. remolded,都是再说重新塑造。其中D的干扰性很大,文章谈到了间谍,但是恢复间谍服务和原文的重新塑造间谍服务的意思有很大的差距。

  3. How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictability is part of the essential nature of research. If you don‘t have unpredictable things, you don’t have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it. (99年passage 5)

  The author asserts that scientists __

  [A] shouldn't replace "scientific method" with imaginative thought

  [B] shouldn't neglect to speculate on unpredictable things

  [C] should write more concise reports for technical journals

  [D]should be confident about their research findings

  解析; 选择[ B],段落的结尾的this要还原,意思是上文的unpredictable(不可预测性),意思是科学家在写一成不变的报告时经常忘记不可预测性。不可预测性在重复,所以选[B]科学家不应该忽视研究不可预测性。

  4.The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government's Surface Transportation Board for rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will work only in truly extreme cases.(2003年passage 3第3段)

  It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that

  [A]. shippers will be charged less without a rival railroad.

  [B]. there will soon be only one railroad company nationwide.

  [C]. overcharged shippers are unlikely to appeal for rate relief.

  [D]. a government board ensures fair play in railway business.

  解析:charge——overcharged——C. overcharged,都是在说费用高,而B,D根本就没有这个词。段落的最后谈到了由于费用过高,所以上诉要求下调费用,但最终并未成功。A的意思是托运者将来只为一家铁路公司,而原文的意思是现在只有一家铁路公司,时态不一致。

  5. I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customer's demands. All these are beneficial, not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity grows, the world's wealth increases. (01年passage 4)

  According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&A wave is _________.

  [A]the greater customer demands

  [B]a surplus supply for the market

  [C]a growing productivity

  [D]the increase of the world's wealth

  解析:选择[B],首句提出了在兼并背后最主要的推动力,后面分析的推动力很多,其中最重要的是满足顾客的需求,扩大和顾客这两个关键词单一重复。

  6. Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be his with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortuning fortunes still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the .2 billion bids by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail's net railway operating income in 1996 was just million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who's going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market. (03年passage 3)

  According to the text, the cost increase in the rail industry is mainly caused by

  [A]. the continuing acquisition.

  [B]. the growing traffic.

  [C]. the cheering Wall Street.

  [D]. the shrinking market.

  解析:选择[A].这道题问的是主要原因,一定是该段的主题词,这段主要是在分析铁路托运费用上涨的原因,其中谈到了[B].变化的交通,[C].华尔街的支持,都是费用上涨的原因,但[B].变化的交通,是投资的原因。[C].华尔街的支持,是贷款的原因,这些次要的原因。而真正的根本原因是[A].持续的兼并,acquire上下文重复两次。

  6.If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.(02年passage 1第4段)

  To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered.

  [A] in well-worded language.

  [B] as awkwardly as possible.

  [C] in exaggerated statements.

  [D] as casually as possible.

  解析:选择[D],这道题问的是幽默故事应该如何被制造。casual—— natural——light-hearted,

  7.What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented—and human perception far more complicated—than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it. (02年passage 2第5段)

  The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are.

  [A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure.

  [B] able to perceive abnormalities immediately.

  [C] far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.

  [D] best used in a controlled environment.

  解析:选择[C]。题干问用猴子的例子证明机器人如何,猴子的例子是为了首句中的观点,观点是人的大脑比机器人更加智慧,"人的大脑“ 在反复重复,言外之意就是机器人没有人的大脑智慧。

  8.To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anti-colonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure, it didn't have the capital to do so. And that is why America's Second Wave infrastructure-including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on-were built with foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain's former colony. They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now? The Americans. I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you're going to be. That doesn't mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled. But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet.(01年passage 2)

  The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _________.

  [A]providing financial support overseas

  [B]preventing foreign capital's control

  [C]building industrial infrastructure

  [D]accepting foreign investment

  解析:选择[D]。美国的例子是为了证明首句的主题,主题词是外国投资,本段在讲外国投资的好处,不应该把外国投资看成殖民主义。

  9. Consumers say they're not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, "there's a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses," says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. "Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three," says john Deadly, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.(2004年的passage 1)

  When mentioning "the $4 million to $10 million range" (Lines 3-4, Paragraph 3) the author is talking about.

  [A] gold market.

  [B] real estate.

  [C] stock exchange.

  [D] venture investment.

  解析:选择[B].本题是例证题,问的是用400万到一千万美金来证明什么。这是已知论据求论点,从题干中出发在原文定位,原句是"there's a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses,"意思是在400万到1000万美金之间有一种新的淘金热。淘金热只是一种现象,所证明的观点应该看上面的句子,上文说房产价格保持稳定,所以证明的观点是买房子。房地产在该段是反复重复的话题词。而[C]股票,[D]风险投资 并不是购买的对象,而且上下文只出现一次。

  10. Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.(01的passage 3)

  What is the passage mainly about?

  [A]needs of the readers all over the world

  [B]causes of the public disappointment about newspapers

  [C]origins of the declining newspaper industry

  [D]aims of a journalism credibility project

  解析:选择[B]。this painful question指的是上文的问题,即美国人为什么不相信报纸。

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