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考研英语阅读B段解题策略和备考建议

2006-7-15 23:00 张鑫友外语研究网 

  第一节 解题策略和备考建议

  一。阅读B节大纲样题给我们的启示

  我们要注意这部分考的是段落的理解,我们要通读全文寻找重复的连接手段,并确定话题词,然后再对选项进行语篇层次的剖析,发掘选项中的重复的话题,然后用选项的话题词来匹配文章段落的话题词,做到对号入座。

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions l——5, choose the most suitable one from the list A——G to fit into each of the numbered blank.There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 1)________

  本段话题:灭绝动物 关键词:extinct

  Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  本段话题:岩石 关键词:rock

  2)__________________ . Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know nothing.

  本段话题: 水保存动物化石 关键词:water

  3)_____________________ There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had tow pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses .They were usually an inch or tow long but some were 2 feet.

  本段话题: 像蟹一样的早期海洋动物 关键词:crab-like creatures

  4)_______________________. Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.

  本段话题: 甲壳动物 关键词:ammonites, shell

  5)______________

  About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.

  本段话题:爬行动物以及哺乳动物 关键词:reptiles, mammals

  [A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.

  [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils .From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world.

  [E]The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star- fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud .More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.

  [G]Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.

  启发思维:

  这篇文章讲述的中心是化石,也可说是灭绝动物的尸体。前三段介绍化石如何的形成以及保存化石的条件,在其后的段落中按时间次序介绍了早期海洋动物,爬行动物以及哺乳动物之前的一些物种情况。

  再读选项,大致确定7个选项的启示是:

  [A]关键词是“甲壳类动物(shellfish)”。

  [B]谈的是岩石保存灭绝动物,关键词应该是岩石以及灭绝动物。

  [C]首先介绍鱼类,再谈两栖动物动物的情况。

  [D]谈海洋生物分布全球。

  [E]谈最早的生物,然后是复杂点的。

  [F]谈水中的泥土是如何保存化石的

  [G]化石如何形成以及酸化。

  深入启发:

  这些选项有很多的共同点,有些选项就是在讨论相同的话题词,说明这些选项可以构成干扰选项。这些选项的细微的差别值得我们仔细看,这其中往往会有出题人留给我们的陷阱。

  比如:

  [B]和[G]都是在岩石如何保存化石。

  [D]和[E]都是谈海洋动物的情况

  我们可以了解选项的结构:

  [A]中的“many”说明与下文是总分结构

  [B]中的“nevertheless”表明上下文是转折,上文可能有“although”

  [C]中有很多时间词,说明上下文有很多时间词语与该选项对应。

  答案注释

  1、[答案][B]

  [注释]空格前内容讲远在人类之前,地球上就存在着一些诸如鱼类的动物。它们有的还在地球上生存,有的已经灭绝,没有涉及到化石的内容。空格后一段就直接谈到了化石对我们研究动物的作用。由此我们可判断空格处应为引出“化石”概念的内容,综观选项,[B]项适合,再把[B]项代入原文对照:原文前两段的结构为铺垫一转引出话题一对话题引申阐述,十分吻合,故选[B].

  2、[答案][F]

  [注释]空格前面说到了化石对人们研究古生物的作用,空格后面又说到了化石的形成:几乎所有我们知道的化石都是保存在由水作用形成的额岩石里。这些化石里的动物大多数生活在水里或者靠近水的地区。根据语脉我们可推知空格处应为与化石形成有关。有关化石形成只有[F]和[G].而[G]更多地说到影响化石形成的因素,与后面的内容联系不上,选项[F].

  3、[答案][E]

  [注释]空格后面内容提到还存在着类似螃蟹的生物,并且用形象的语言从多方面描述了

  该类生物的结构特征,从此句中aIso可知空格处涉及到内容应该与之相近 同样地是讲生物种类,同样地讲生物结构。而且根据其按时间次序叙述的特征,这儿谈的应该是更早期的物种,依据这个判断选项E符合。

  4、[答案][A]

  [注释]我们先看作为空格内容延续的其后的几句话:这当中,菊石是很有趣和重要的种类。它们有一个由许多小室组成的额壳,每一个代表它临时的家。当一个年幼的额菊石长大,它就自己生成一个新室而封存原先那个。从其中的of these我们可知,空格处应该是对菊石所属大类的概括。又从“they have a shell”可最终确定正确选项为A.它们通过词语上下义重复这一手段来维系语篇。

  5、[答案][C]

  [注释]

  空格后面内容讲大约七十五百万年前,爬虫纪的结束,许多种类灭绝。取而代之的是哺乳类动物。我们可将这个物种交替的过程往前推,我们可知空格所在段落应涉及物种更替—有关爬虫纪的发展状况。联系选项只有[C]是有关爬虫纪的内容。

  参考译文:

  人类生活在地球上的很久又前,地球上有鱼、爬虫、鸟、昆虫、和一些哺乳动物。尽管这些动物里有些是现代生物的祖先,但其他的却已灭绝了,也就是说,它们现在已经没有后代了。1[B]然而,我们对它们了解很多是因为它们的骨骼和外壳作为化石保存在了岩石里,从这些岩石中我们可以看出它们的尺寸和形状,以及它们是如何行走的,以及他们所吃的食物的种类。

  2[F]当一个动物死亡,它的尸体、骨骼和外壳常常被溪水带进湖泊海洋,之后由泥土覆盖。如果是生活在海里动物,那么它的尸体可能会下沉,被泥土覆盖,越来越多的泥土跌落覆盖在上面,直到骨骼或者外壳完全被包围保存起来。几乎所有我们知道的化石都是保存在由水作用形成的岩石里。这些化石里的动物大多数生活在水里或者靠近水的地区。因此,必然有许多我们还一无所知的动物、鸟类和昆虫生活在它左右。

  3[E]已发现的遗留物中早期的都是生活在海洋中的相当简单的物种。后来的形状更复杂,当中有海合,有着长手臂、由一根通向底或岩石的长茎吸附的星鱼亲系。也有蟹类生物,它们的身体由角状物覆盖。身体部分每边有两对脚。一对是用来在沙底行走,另一对用来游泳。鱼上面有一双复合眼,通常有成千上万个透镜。

  4[A]甲壳类动物在岩石里有很长的历史,许多不同的种类已为人类所知。这当中,菊石是很有趣和重要的种类。它们有一个由许多小室组成的壳,每一个代表它临时的家。当一个年幼的菊石长大,它就自己生成一个新室而封存原先那个。在多西特海滩的岩里可见到成千上万个这样的东西。

  5[C]最初真正的脊椎动物是鱼,最早被发现在生活到三亿七千五百万年前。大约在三百百万年前,两栖动物即既能生活在陆地又能生活在水里的动物出现了。它们很大,有时有八英尺长。许多生在沼泽地里,那里也是煤炭断层形成的地方。两栖动物滋生了爬虫动物。在近一百五十百万年里这些是生活在陆地海洋和空气里的生物的最初形式。

  在约七十五百万年前,爬虫纪过去,许多种类灭绝。哺乳动物迅速发展,我们可以追溯出许多熟悉动物的进化轨迹如大象和马。许多后来的哺乳动物尽管现在已经灭绝,但却为原始人所知,这在他们的壁画和骨骼雕刻中可以发现。

  Sample two 排列段落的顺序

  第二节选考题型之二——语段排序题经典语篇模式一:话题+问题+解决办法

  阅读指导:这类文章多属叙述性的说明文。文章往往是先提出某个领域或某个方面出现的问题,然后分析问题,最后提出或陈述解决的办法。这类文章的结构可能多种多样,但只要我们善于识别“问题——分析——解决办法”这些主要步聚,就能把握文章的主线。

  经典语篇模式二:列举

  阅读指导:列举(listing) 是常见的段落写作方式,其特点就好比我们列一个清单。作者用列举的方式来呈现事实、观点、理由、原因等。列举涉及大量的事实或细节,在有明确的表示列举的信号词的情况下(如:First/Second/Third/Finally/)比较容易把握;但在没有这类信号词时,考生有时会因头绪繁多而难以把握。但实际上,列举总是逐项或分层次进行的,无论有没有信号词,我们只要清楚有哪几个层次,在心里给它们标个序号,纷繁的内容就会变得井然有序。

  经典语篇模式三:结果原因/现象成因

  阅读指导:探讨某种现象的原因的文章是考试阅读中经常遇到的。它属于说明文。这类文章往往先引入某种现象或状况:可能是社会现象或某一方面问题的状况,也可能是自然现象,然后探讨为什么会有这种现象或状况,即产生的原因。在阅读这类文章时首先要确定讨论的现象或状况,然后梳理清楚作者所列举的若干原因。

  的统计数字反映的情况真实,这说明D项“没有反映出经济的真实状况”之意也不对。A项的考点是单词“exclude(排除)”和“rebound(反弹)”以及短语“business cycle(商业周期)”;B项的考点是短语“fall short of(达不到)”和单词“anticipation(预期)”;C 项的考点是单词“meet(达到)”和短语“expectation(期望)”;D项的考点是单词“fail(没能)”和“reflect(反映)”以及短语“the true state of……(……的真实状况)”。

  经典语篇模式四:对比与比较

  阅读指导:对比(contrast)和比较(comparison)模式的文章也是考试阅读中经常出现的。文章通过对比或比较来说明两个事物间的不同之处或某些相似点。对比或比较的写作方式一般有两种:一种是分开比较模式,即先论述甲事物的特点或状况再论述乙事物的,可简述为“A+B”模式;另一种为交替比较模式,即对事物的几个方面进行逐项比较,可简述为“A/B+A/B”模式。在阅读这类文章时要注意文章在哪几个方面进行了比较,哪些是不同点,哪些是相同点。

  经典语篇模式五:议题+观点+论证

  阅读指导:这类文章往往是作者就某一话题发表自己的观点,然后加以论证。阅读这类文章要注意以下几点:①文章的话题是什么?②作者就这一问题提出了什么样的观点?③作者用了哪些主要事实来证明自己的观点?

  经典语篇模式六:错误观点+异议+证明/议论

  阅读指导:这类文章在考试阅读中出现频率很高,属于论说文中的驳论。作者通常在文章一开始就介绍一种对某一问题的流行观点,然后表示异议或直接表明不同的观点。接着用事实论证流行观点的错误所在或通过议论驳斥流行观点,支持自己的论点。在阅读这种类型的文章时我们要注意以下几点:①所引述的流行观点或他人的观点是什么?②作者的观点或态度是什么?是赞成还是反对?要注意区分作者的观点和他人的观点。一般来说,一些转折词语往往是作者的观点和流行的观点的分界线,如:However/But/Nevertheless/As a matter of fact等。③作者用了哪些论据来反驳流行的观点或证明自己的观点

  (三)排序题的解题技巧

  1.按照大纲样题所给的情况,如果五道题目全部选择同一个答案的话,这种题目就至少可以做对一道,获得2分。

  按照大纲样题所给的情况,这种题目往往只需要做对四个就可以了,最后一个答案不用做就水到渠成。

  如果在给出两个正确答案的情况下,如果最后剩余两个答案没有做出,而自己又没有太大把握,为了保险起见,可以在最后的两个答案中任意选择一个字母,两道题目均选此字母,这样至少可以选对一道题。

  这种题目在做对一道的情况下,每道题目可以选择的概率分别是P51 , P41 , P31 , P21, P11

  在这种数学概率的情况下,对于我们的提示就是尽量先确定答案线索比较明确的题目的答案。不用按照题目的顺序答题。

  一。 大纲样题

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A] "I just don't know how to motivate them to do a better job. We're in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we'll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It's hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn't ——it's boring, routine paperwork, and there isn't much you can go about it.

  [B] "Finally, I can't say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they know it's not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding ace. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed.

  [C] "I've got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat. They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.

  [D] "Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that's not fair-too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn't necessarily mean you'll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly, No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.

  [E] "The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.

  [F] "So I just don't know what to do. I've been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work."

  [G] A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation-how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.

  Order:

  G ______41 ______42 ______43 ______44 ______45 ______ F

  41.C 42.E 43.A 44.B 45.D

  二。 实战演习:

  1. Exercise (本文中心是预测未来)

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A].Over the years, societies have developed various ways to try to divine the future. Some groups attempted to acquire insight into events through magic or contact with the supernatural.

  To do this, they might have read portents in the entrails of animals or in tea leaves. In ancient Rome, generals used these methods to calculate their likely success in upcoming battles. Reliance on patterns of stars as a means of predicting personal futures also developed early on.

  [B]Although this is the most conservative approach to using history to predict the future, it is often the most accurate. However, each of these attempts to use history as a basis for predicting the future is inherently flawed. Therefore, they do not provide entirely accurate descriptions of the future. Perhaps this is why some people continue to prefer fortune-tellers and astrological charts to predictions based on historical events.

  [C]. Well before the considerable decline of beliefs in magic by the 18th century, however, human societies had also developed ways to think about the future in clearer relation to historical time.

  That is, they became aware that their societies had pasts, and they tried to relate those pasts to the

  future. Most of the forecasts we deal with today, such as those that inform military or business policy, actively use history because the forecasters assume a connection among past, present, and future events. As we will see, the types of connections on which predictions are based, as well as the success rate of those predictions, vary hugely. However, the need to assess predictions applies regardless.

  [D]. Three major types of predictive modes, or history-to-future thinking, exist. The first mode to arise, and one that is still widely used today, is based on assumptions about the recurrence of historical events and patterns. Analysts who employ this predictive mode assume that certain types of past developments will happen again, and that by understanding history, they can better handle future recurrences. This thinking lies behind the familiar phrase, “Those who do not know the past are condemned to repeat it.” The second predictive mode to develop, and by far the most dramatic, involves assumptions about a phenomenon called historical disruption. In this mode, prediction highlights the belief that some force is about to radically change the course of history, and therefore, the future. The third predictive mode, not necessarily the newest but certainly the one developed most systematically during the past century, involves looking to recent history for the trends that are likely to continue in the future.

  [E].In order to predict the future by means of stars. They have invented a new way called astrology. Astrology, the study of how events on earth correspond to the positions and movements of astronomical bodies, was a key science in classical China, Greece, and Rome, and in the Islamic Middle East. Although astrology and astronomy went their separate ways during the 1500s, as late as the 17th century many Europeans consulted astrologers to calculate the fate of an imminent wedding or a sign of illness. For many years, scientists have rejected the principles of astrology. Even so, millions of people continue to believe in or practice it.

  [F].With the three major prediction forms at our disposal, all of them plausible and widely used, why does the future continue to elude us? Why are so many predictions wrong? Many seem plausible at the time they are made- even the 1940s forecast that by the 1970s everyone would be riding around in helicopters rather than cars and the predictions during the 1970s that communes would replace individual families and youth would become a revolutionary force. Why are we still wrong?

  [G].Humans have long been interested in predicting the future. It is impossible to know when groups of people became aware that what happens in the future is likely to differ from what is happening at the present moment, but realize this they did.

  Order:

  G ______41 ______42 ______43 ______44 ______45 ______ F

  Sample Three 已知论点求论据

  一、大纲解读

  语段论据匹配题主要考查考生区分论点、论据,把握论点论据一致性的能力。如样题所示,该

  题型要求考生根据文章的内容,从多个选项中找到能支持相应论点的论据。

  这就要求考生理解各个论点/观点的重点和含义,并能找出与论点一致的论据。

  二、基础知识必备

  在某一标题或主题的限定下面展开论述,一般情况下可以采用的方法如下:

  1分类法:这种方法常用于阐述某一概念。它通过对概念中所包括的事物进行分门别类,分别加以叙述,使考生对于这一概念获得更为清晰的认识。如:标题中有“various forms of communication”等词,那么,作者就可能将其分为oral speech, sign language, body language 或other forms of nonlinguistic language来加以阐述。

  2例证法:即举例法,指用典型、具体而生动的事例来说明、阐述一个观点,支持文章标题。此种方法通常用于主题比较抽象的文章中,通过使抽象意义具体化而使文章通俗易懂并有说服力。如:讲如何学习,就可能举几个类似于如何记单词的例子来使文章更加生动、具体。

  3列举法:就是在文章中用一个细节来对标题所体现的主题思想进行说明的方法。列举法的使用会使文章显得思路清晰,有条有理。

  4因果法:即通过分析事物发展的原因和结果将文章标题阐述清楚的一种方法。因果法有两种;先因后果法和先果后因法。顾名思义,就是原因和结果在段落中出现的顺序不同。

  5比较、对比法:即在文章中找出两个或两个以上不同种类的事物之间的共同点或不同点进行阐述的方法 .比较对比法有两种具体写作方法:一是进行整体的比较和对比,二是进行逐项的比较和对比。

  三、 解题思路指引

  考生阅读时可按照卷面排列的自然顺序先看六个试题选项后读短文,因为试题选项中的六分之五是正确答案,可以通过试题选项迅速理解文章大意,从而准确建立宏观主旨观念,进而有效的做到“抓大放小”。考生读后可以首先了解试题的内容,这样在

  阅读时可以做到目标明确,有的放矢,尽量减少盲目阅读对时间的耗费。具体做法可

  分为以下几步进行:

  1仔细阅读六个试题选项,正确理解每个选项的意思。对于谈论相似主体的选项,需区别内容的相同处和不同处,并牢记体现不同处的关键词语。

  2快速浏览短文,依靠标题迅速抓住每篇短文的主题。浏览过程中若发现答题所需的

  具体信息,在词语或句子下面划线并标上所答的题号,以初步敲定。对那些暂时无法肯

  定的可暂且放置一边,留待第二次阅读时解决。

  提示:在快速浏览短文时,要特别注意所给的标题或黑体字,这无疑是把握各篇短文主题的最佳途径,它们犹如门牌号码,可使我们在查找信息时直入大门,避免走弯路。最

  后,阅读问题部分的六个选项时,要抓住每选项的核心意义,这样有利于我们在查阅时迅速对号入座,减少误差。

  3第二次阅读短文时必须有针对性,主要为了解决两个问题:一是仔细检查已初步认定的内容与单句是否匹配;二是找到第一遍浏览时尚未找到的信息。

  4为确保准确无误,若有时间可再次将选项从短文中已选择的内容进行比较,检查有无谬误或疏漏之处。

  一。 大纲解析

  Directions:

  You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list if examples. Choose the best example fro, the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. There are two kinds. One is the familiar "tombstone" chronological order. The other is what I call the "functional" resume-descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.

  It's handy to have a "tombstone" for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those un-requested "tombstone" lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.

  What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read-a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.

  (41) Put yourself fist:

  In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.

  (42) Sell what you can do, not who you are:

  Practice translating your personality traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.

  Toot your own horn!

  Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch-if only you show it.

  (43) Be specific, be concrete, and be brief!

  Remember that "brevity is the best policy."

  (44) Turn bad news into good:

  Everybody has had disappointments in work, If you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.

  (45) Never apologize:

  If you're returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph (summary of background) in place of a chronology of experience, just don't mention education.

  The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don't worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list, you will come closet to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments (leadership skills, budget management kills, child development kills etc.) Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered. It may take for drafts or more, and several weeks, before you're ready to show it to a stranger (friends are usually too kind) for a reaction. When you're satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.

  Isn't that the kind of person you'd want working for you?

  [A]A woman who lost her job as a teacher's aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote:“ Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher's aide she would rehire if government funds became available."

  [B] One resume I received included the following:“ Invited by my superior to straighten out our organization's accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled account weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion.” Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward-all in 34 words.

  [C] For example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills.

  [D] An acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement "Ready to learn though not so well educated".

  [E] One of my former colleagues, for example, wrote three resumes in three different styles in order to fin out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the one that highlights skills and education background.

  [D] A woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She'd agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story wasn't in her resume. She answered, "It wasn't important." What she was really saying of course was "I'm not important."

  [答案]

  41.F 42.C 43.B 44.A 45.D

  Sample four 段落标题的选择

  选考题型之四——概括大意题

  。一。 大纲样题解析:

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use, Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] What to do as a student?

  [B] Various definitions of plagiarism

  [C] Ideas should always be sourced

  [D] Ignorance can be forgiven

  [E] Plagiarism is equivalent to theft

  [F] The consequences of plagiarism

  Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person's ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one's ideas. Simply stated, plagiarism is "the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one's own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of another."

  41.

  The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. In many universities, In the literary world, where writers are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws, the penalty may range from a small fine to imprisonment and a ruined career. Protection of scholars and writers, through the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and literary communities, is a relatively recent concept. Such social pressures and copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources. 42.

  Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholars' ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students' inexactness in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance, and by intention.

  43.

  Plagiarism by accident, or oversight, sometimes is the result of the writer's inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues. He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.

  44.

  Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their sources. The techniques for documentation-note-taking, quoting, footnoting, listing bibliography-are easily learned and can prevent the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. Although "there is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of them," the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.

  45.

  The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism by intention. The wrier, limited by his laziness and dullness, copies the thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own. He not only steals, he tries to deceive the reader onto believing the ideas are original. Such words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.

  The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students, as developing scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders, should recognize and assume their responsibility to document all sources from which language and thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will mot only respect the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.

  41.F 42.A 43.D 44.C 45.E

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