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考研写作技巧:怎样才使文章有亮点

2006-7-16 23:07 张鑫友外语研究网 

  考研英语书面表达评分标准“最高档”要求:“应用了较多的语法结构或词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有少许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致;有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑。”从历年书面表达高分文章来看,每篇文章都有“亮”点,即在用词、造句或段落安排上都有独到之处。要想获得高分就应在“正确”表达的基础上写出自己的特色,写出自己的“亮”点。

  一、词汇选择——标新立异在写作中“较高级词汇”的使用主要是指使用《大纲》上没有的词语、使用通过构词法变化来的新词、使用同(近)义词或反义词等来代替常见词语。

  1)这栋房子在芳草街的一栋楼上。

  A: The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street. B: The flat situates in a building on Fangcao Street.分析:is in是常见词语,而situates in则是《大纲》上没有的,属于高级词汇。

  2)在周末我们做很多作业。

  A: At weekends, we have a lot of homework to do. B: At weekends, we have endless homework to do.分析:B句在表达时没有使用过于直接的a lot of,而是使用了endless.endless就是由《大纲》词汇end加后缀-less变化来的。

  3)洗澡间和厨房都很好。

  A: The bathroom and the kitchen are good. B. The bathroom and the kitchen are well-furnished.在表达要点时,B句使用了well furnished,这比good语气强,也显得生动。在造句时,“较高级词汇”如能运用贴切自然,哪怕整篇文章只用上一个,也会使你的作文显示出与众不同。

  二、结构造句——与众不同在造句时,既要使句子生动,又要使其简明扼要。

  1、使用与人不同的表达方式,特别是提倡打破汉语句子结构的束缚而重组的句子更受欢迎。

  1)唐山曾在二十世纪八十年代发生过一次大地震。

  A: There was a strong earthquake in Tangshan in the 1980s. B: A terrible earthquake hit/struck Tangshan in the 1980s.大多数同学使用了there be结构,这是对的,但是B句却摒弃了常见句式。另辟蹊径而使用了“主语+谓语+宾语”结构,且使用了terrible,hit/strike这样的词汇,更是难能可贵的。

  2)你八月十五日的来信我今天早晨收到了。

  A:I received your letter which was written on August 15th this morning.(多数人使用的方式)

  B: Your letter of August 15th reached/ got to me this morning.(与多数人使用的方式不同,简洁)

  2.使用一些强势句式,如强调句、感叹句、倒装句等增强语句表现力。如:

  3)阿福救了我妹妹。

  A: Ah Fu saved my sister.(一般句式)

  B: It was Ah Fu that saved my sister.(强调句式)

  4)我们看到庄稼和蔬菜长势喜人很是高兴。

  A: We were glad to see crops and vegetables growing well.(一般陈述句)

  B: How glad we were to see crops and vegetables growing well.(感叹句)

  3、句式多样,复杂得体。在写作中应避免使用相同长度的相同句型,而应注意句式的变化,如长短句结合,简单句、并列句与复合句共用,还可使用简化句等;一些较复杂的结构如独立主格,分词结构等也可使用。下面的表达中A句简单句多,而且多处使用there be结构,显得单调、乏味,而B句就有自己的特色(请同学们自己分析)。

  5)这是一套25平方米的住房,住房里面有卧室、有洗澡间、有厨房;卧室里有床、沙发、桌子和椅子等。

  A: It's a flat of 25 square metres. There is a bedroom in the flat. There is a bathroom and a kitchen in it, too. In the bedroom, there is a bed; there is a sofa, a desk and a chair as well.

  B: It's a flat of 25 square metres, with a bedroom, a bathroom and a kitchen. In the bedroom there is a bed, a sofa, a desk and a chair.

  三、布局谋篇——独具匠心在写作中,我们可按时间、空间或其它逻辑顺序来安排各要点,同时为使主题突出,结构严谨,我们应注意学习和使用交代句以及段落的主题句等。在布局谋篇上,NMET2002范文堪称典范。请看:

  Opinions are divided on the question.

  60% of the students are against the idea of entrance fees. They believe a public park should be free of charge. People need a place where they can rest and enjoy themselves. Charging entrance fees will no doubt keep some people away. What is more, it will become necessary to build gates and walls, which will do harm to the appearance of a city.

  On the other hand, 40% think that fees should be charged because you need money to pay gardens and other workers, and to buy plants and young trees. They suggested, however, fees should be charged low.

  1)该文使用Opinions are divided……作交代句,开门见山,随后两个段落均使用了主题句(见黑体字部分),使全文结构紧凑,表达严谨。

  2)在表述要点时范文还对要点出场顺序作了调整,如“40%的同学认为应收门票,但不宜过高。”前部分作为主题句放在句首,而后部分另起一句放在句末:They suggested, however, fees should be charged low.这样就分清了轻重缓急,主题突出,条理清楚。

  3)范文使用了and, what is more, however等连词,在段落之间使用了on the other hand(说明前后两个观点是相悖的),这些连接手段的运用加强了句子之间、段落之间的联系,使文章表达连贯,浑然一体。

  4)范文在第二段为说明不收门票的“原因”时增加了Charging entrance fees will no doubt keep some people away.等细节,这也是解决句与句之间缺少连贯性的常见方法。

  总之,要想使自己的文章有亮点,吸引读者,在考试中获得高分,就应在用词、造句、谋篇上下功夫,哪怕是有一处特长都是“亮”点,都是值得肯定的。

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