独立主格的结构1：名词（代词）+ 分词 [现在分词、过去分词]
54. Silver is the best conductor of electricity， copper _B_ it closely.
A followed B following C to follow D being followed
49. All things _A_， the planned trip will have to be called off.
A considered B be considered C considering D having considered
call off 取消； cancel vt. 取消； 四级中的考点就是现在分词和过去分词的区别。
独立主格的结构2：with + 名词（代词）+ 分词 [句子当中作状语]
36. After the Arab states won independence， great emphasis was laid on expanding education， with girls as well as boys _C_ to go to school.
A to be encouraged B been encouraged C being encouraged D be encouraged
as well as 和（相当于and）； be encouraged不会考。
动词不定式有预示将来行为的含义。to be encouraged 将要被鼓励；
been encouraged 已经被鼓励完了，与主句的谓语动词相对；being encouraged 正在被鼓励
43.No matter how frequently _A_， the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.
A performed B performing C to be performed D being performed
perform vt. 表演，演出，演奏；
to be performed 将要被演奏； being performed 正在被演奏；
第一点：forget 忘记； [反义] remember 记得；
forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事； forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事；
remember to do sth. 记得要去做某事； remember doing sth. 记得做过某事；
62. I remember _B_ to help us if we ever got into trouble.
A once offering B him once offering C him to offer D to offer him
offer vt. 提出，提供； offer sb. sth. / offer to do sth.
him once offering 如果改成 his once offering 也正确。
动作发出者 + 动名词；当动作发出者名字给出时：名词所有格 + 动名词；当动名词的复合结构在文章中出现，且动作发出者在前文中提过时：形容词物主代词（宾格）+ 动名词。
形容词物主代词：his， her， my， your， their， our.代词宾格：him， her， me， you， us， them.
第二点：want 想要； want to do sth. 想做某事； want doing 客观需要或缺乏。
48. Your hair wants _B_. You'd better have it done tomorrow.
A cut B cutting C to cut D being cut
注意：want doing 中doing表示的是被动含义。
18. This room is so dirty that it wants _A_.
A cleaning B to clean C being cleaned D cleaned
第三点：mean 意味； mean to do sth. 打算做某事，意欲… ；mean doing 意味着，…的意思是…
25. There's a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _B_ trouble. [reception desk 接待台]
A making B to make C to have made D having made
55. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.
A to erect B be erected C erecting D being erected
watch 看电视用，看比赛用； see 看电影用；
感官动词watch， see， hear； 感官动词 + 名词（代词）+ do
be erected 强调的是动作的结果； being erected 强调的是动作的过程。
56. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.
A gives up B gives in C gives away D gives off
give up 放弃； give in 屈服，让步； give off 释放，放出（烟和气体）；
give away 泄露，走漏风声；婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程；赠送礼品。
57. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.
A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing
keep sb. + 分词； inform v. 通知，告知； inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情
keep me informed 使我被告知。
60. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.
A after which B for which C with which D at which
fight with sb. （注意要看整个句子）； fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。
I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。
61. I should like to rent a house， modern， comfortable and _B_ in a quiet neighborhood.
A all in all B above all C after all D over all
all in all 总而言之；above all 首先，尤其是；after all 毕竟，终究；overall 全面的，总体的
in a word 总之，in short 简而言之，in conclusion 最后，总之，to sum up总之，总而言之。
62. _B_ we have finished the course， we shall start doing more revision work.
A For now B Now that C Ever since D By now
now that 既然，由于（相当于since）； ever since 自从…以来。
now that 既然，由于； in that 因为； except that 除…之外。
63. What you have done is _D_ the doctor‘s orders.
A attached to B responsible to C resistant to D contrary to
be attached to 连接，附属； This school is attached to Beida. 这所学校附属于北大。
responsible to 对…负有责任； resistant adj. 反抗的，抵抗的； water resistant 防水的。
be contrary to 与……相反（相违背）。
64. John regretted _A_ to the meeting last week.
A not going B not to go C not having been going D not to be going
regret doing 后悔做过某事； regret to do sth. 遗憾的做某事（应用语境非常有限）。
63. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are _B_.
A out of work B out of stock C out of reach D out of practice
out of work 失业； out of reach 够不着 within reach 够得着； out of practice 缺乏练习。
65. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.
A carried out B carried off C carried on D carried forward
in spite of 尽管； carry on 坚持，继续。
66. Mrs. Brown is supposed _A_ for Italy last week.
A to have left B to be leaving C to leave D to have been left
be supposed to do sth. 应该（理应）做某事。
37. He‘s watching TV？ He’s _D_ to be cleaning his room.
A known B considered C regarded D supposed
regard as 把…认作
67. My camera can be _B_ to take pictures in cloudy or sunny conditions.
A treated B adjusted C adopted D remedied
treat 对待，处理； I‘ll treat you. 我请客，应用于真正请客之前。It’s on me. 应用于结帐时。
adjust vt. 调整，调节； adopt vt. 收养，领养； remedy vt. 弥补，补救，修正；
68. A new technique _C_， the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.
A working out B having worked out
C having been worked out D to have been worded out
yields 产量； work out 作出，推出
increase to 80 percent 增加到80% （增加到用to）
increase by 60 percent增加了60% （表示增加的幅度用by）
55. Between 1974 and 1997， the number of overseas visitors expanded _A_ 27%.
A by B for C to D in
69. Children who are over-protected by their parents may become _C_.
A hurt B damaged C spoiled D harmed
spoil vt. 宠坏，溺爱
70. When Mr. Jones gets old， he will _B_ over his business to his son.
A take B hand C think D get
take over 接管接收； hand over 移交，交出； think over 仔细考虑； get over 克服，战胜。
41. We had a party last month， and it was a lot of fun， so let‘s have _A_ one this month.
A another B more C the other D other
不定代词：1 两者中的一个用one；另一个则用the other； 2 很多东西中的一个用one；
剩下的所有叫the others； 3 很多东西中的一个用one；剩下的所有里面再拿一个叫another；
在剩下的里面再拿一个还叫another（单数概念）； 4 很多东西中拿了若干出来用some；
剩下所有叫others； other 后通常要加可数名词的复数形式； more 要用在数词的后面
once more 再来一个（用于很不正式的场合） vravo 再来一个（用于正式场合）
44. No agreement was reached in the discussion as neither side would give way to _A_.
A the other B any other C another D other
42. It was difficult to guess what her _B_ to the news would be.
A impression B reaction C comment D opinion
reaction n. 反应； reaction to 对…作出反应。
43. I decided to go to the library as soon as I _D_.
A finish what I did B finished what I did
C would finish what I was doing D finished what I was doing
as soon as所引导的时间状语从句与主句的时态搭配有一种情况是主从句都用一般过去时。
45. We are interested in the weather because it _B_ us so directly what we wear， what we do， and even how we feel.
A benefits B affects C guides D effects
affect vt. 影响； effect n. 影响。
46. Will all those _D_ the proposal raise their hands？
A in relation to B in contrast to C in excess of D in favor of
in relation to 与…相比； in contrast to 与…形成对照；
in excess of 超过，超出（一定的限定范围）； in favor of 赞同，支持。
47. Children are very curious _D_.
A at heart B in person C on purpose D by nature
at heart 在心理，在内心； heart 强调的是内心的感情，mind 强调的是思维，头脑，soul 灵魂
in person 亲自，本人； on purpose 有意的，故意的； by nature 生性（天性）使然。
48. The match was cancelled because most of the members _A_ a match without a standard court.
A objected to having B were objected to have
C objected to have D were objected to having
58. The man in the corner confessed to _B_ a lie to the manager of the company.
A have told B having told C being told D be told
confess v. 忏悔； confess to 承认，坦白。
49. The teacher doesn‘t permit _C_ in class.
A smoke B to smoke C smoking D to have a smoke
permit v. 允许，准许； permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事； permit doing 允许做某事。