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新东方四级词汇笔记完整版2

2006-07-06 19:41   我要纠错 | 打印 | 收藏 | | |

  第2课

  非谓语动词与独立主格:短语,句子(或者句子,短语)

  1.当短语部分有独立主语,并且该主语不同于句子主语,这时短语结构称为独立主格。(它最明显的特点是短语部分有独立的主语)。

  独立主格的结构1:名词(代词)+ 分词 [现在分词、过去分词]

  现在分词表示主动的,正在进行的行为;过去分词表示被动的,已经完成的行为。 作题时要通过判断动作与名词(代词)之间的关系来确定是使用现在分词还是过去分词。当动作由名词(代词)发出时使用现在分词,而名词(代词)是受动者时则用过去分词。

  54. Silver is the best conductor of electricity, copper _B_ it closely.

  A followed   B following   C to follow   D being followed

  49. All things _A_, the planned trip will have to be called off.

  A considered   B be considered   C considering   D having considered

  call off     取消; cancel vt. 取消; 四级中的考点就是现在分词和过去分词的区别。

  独立主格的结构2:with + 名词(代词)+ 分词 [句子当中作状语]

  36. After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls as well as boys _C_ to go to school.

  A to be encouraged   B been encouraged   C being encouraged   D be encouraged

  as well as 和(相当于and); be encouraged不会考。

  动词不定式有预示将来行为的含义。to be encouraged 将要被鼓励;

  been encouraged 已经被鼓励完了,与主句的谓语动词相对;being encouraged 正在被鼓励

  2.短语部分没有独立主语,则短语结构称为非谓语动词。

  非谓语动词的结构:分词(分词短语)

  句子的主语决定非谓语动词中的分词是用主动还是被动形式。如果是句子的主语发出动作,则使用现在分词;如果动作不是由句子的主语发出,则使用过去分词。

  43.No matter how frequently _A_, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.

  A performed   B performing   C to be performed   D being performed

  perform vt. 表演,演出,演奏;

  to be performed 将要被演奏; being performed 正在被演奏;

  一些特殊的动词:

  第一点:forget 忘记; [反义] remember 记得;

  这两个词后加动词不定式表示将要进行的行为;这两个词后加动词ing形式表示已经做过的事情。

  注意:动名词与现在分词形式一样,但含义不同。这两个词后加动词ing形式都是动名词。

  forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事; forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事;

  remember to do sth. 记得要去做某事; remember doing sth. 记得做过某事;

  62. I remember _B_ to help us if we ever got into trouble.

  A once offering   B him once offering   C him to offer   D to offer him

  offer vt. 提出,提供; offer sb. sth. / offer to do sth.

  him once offering 如果改成 his once offering 也正确。

  动名词的复合结构:凡是一个动词的后面可以加动名词,就可以加动名词的复合结构。

  动作发出者 + 动名词;当动作发出者名字给出时:名词所有格 + 动名词;当动名词的复合结构在文章中出现,且动作发出者在前文中提过时:形容词物主代词(宾格)+ 动名词。

  形容词物主代词:his, her, my, your, their, our.代词宾格:him, her, me, you, us, them.

  第二点:want 想要; want to do sth. 想做某事; want doing 客观需要或缺乏。

  48. Your hair wants _B_. You'd better have it done tomorrow.

  A cut   B cutting   C to cut   D being cut

  注意:want doing 中doing表示的是被动含义。

  18. This room is so dirty that it wants _A_.

  A cleaning   B to clean   C being cleaned   D cleaned

  第三点:mean 意味; mean to do sth. 打算做某事,意欲… ;mean doing 意味着,…的意思是…

  25. There's a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _B_ trouble.  [reception desk 接待台]

  A making   B to make   C to have made   D having made

  55. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.

  A to erect   B be erected   C erecting   D being erected

  watch 看电视用,看比赛用; see 看电影用;

  感官动词watch, see, hear; 感官动词 + 名词(代词)+ do

  be erected 强调的是动作的结果; being erected 强调的是动作的过程。

  56. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.

  A gives up   B gives in   C gives away   D gives off

  give up 放弃; give in 屈服,让步; give off 释放,放出(烟和气体);

  give away 泄露,走漏风声;婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程;赠送礼品。

  57. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.

  A to be informed   B on informing   C informed   D informing

  keep sb. + 分词; inform v. 通知,告知; inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情

  keep me informed 使我被告知。

  60. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.

  A after which   B for which   C with which   D at which

  fight with sb. (注意要看整个句子); fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。

  I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。

  61. I should like to rent a house, modern, comfortable and _B_ in a quiet neighborhood.

  A all in all   B above all   C after all   D over all

  all in all 总而言之;above all 首先,尤其是;after all 毕竟,终究;overall 全面的,总体的

  in a word 总之,in short 简而言之,in conclusion 最后,总之,to sum up总之,总而言之。

  62. _B_ we have finished the course, we shall start doing more revision work.

  A For now   B Now that   C Ever since   D By now

  now that 既然,由于(相当于since); ever since 自从…以来。

  与that搭配且后面可以加句子的几个表达形式:

  now that 既然,由于; in that 因为; except that 除…之外。

  except后面加名词或代词;except that后面加句子。

  63. What you have done is _D_ the doctor‘s orders.

  A attached to   B responsible to   C resistant to   D contrary to

  be attached to 连接,附属; This school is attached to Beida. 这所学校附属于北大。

  responsible to 对…负有责任; resistant adj. 反抗的,抵抗的; water resistant 防水的。

  be contrary to 与……相反(相违背)。

  64. John regretted _A_ to the meeting last week.

  A not going   B not to go   C not having been going   D not to be going

  regret doing 后悔做过某事; regret to do sth. 遗憾的做某事(应用语境非常有限)。

  63. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are _B_.

  A out of work   B out of stock   C out of reach   D out of practice

  out of work 失业; out of reach 够不着 within reach 够得着; out of practice 缺乏练习。

  65. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.

  A carried out   B carried off   C carried on   D carried forward

  in spite of 尽管; carry on 坚持,继续。

  66. Mrs. Brown is supposed _A_ for Italy last week.

  A to have left   B to be leaving   C to leave   D to have been left

  be supposed to do sth. 应该(理应)做某事。

  37. He‘s watching TV? He’s _D_ to be cleaning his room.

  A known   B considered   C regarded   D supposed

  regard as 把…认作

  67. My camera can be _B_ to take pictures in cloudy or sunny conditions.

  A treated   B adjusted   C adopted   D remedied

  treat 对待,处理; I‘ll treat you. 我请客,应用于真正请客之前。It’s on me. 应用于结帐时。

  adjust vt. 调整,调节; adopt vt. 收养,领养; remedy vt. 弥补,补救,修正;

  68. A new technique _C_, the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.

  A working out   B having worked out

  C having been worked out   D to have been worded out

  yields 产量; work out 作出,推出

  关于百分数之前介词的用法

  increase to 80 percent 增加到80% (增加到用to)

  increase by 60 percent增加了60% (表示增加的幅度用by)

  55. Between 1974 and 1997, the number of overseas visitors expanded _A_ 27%.

  A by   B for   C to   D in

  69. Children who are over-protected by their parents may become _C_.

  A hurt   B damaged   C spoiled   D harmed

  spoil vt. 宠坏,溺爱

  70. When Mr. Jones gets old, he will _B_ over his business to his son.

  A take   B hand   C think   D get

  take over 接管接收; hand over 移交,交出; think over 仔细考虑; get over 克服,战胜。

  41. We had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so let‘s have _A_ one this month.

  A another   B more   C the other   D other

  不定代词:1 两者中的一个用one;另一个则用the other; 2 很多东西中的一个用one;

  剩下的所有叫the others; 3 很多东西中的一个用one;剩下的所有里面再拿一个叫another;

  在剩下的里面再拿一个还叫another(单数概念); 4 很多东西中拿了若干出来用some;

  剩下所有叫others; other 后通常要加可数名词的复数形式; more 要用在数词的后面

  once more 再来一个(用于很不正式的场合) vravo 再来一个(用于正式场合)

  44. No agreement was reached in the discussion as neither side would give way to _A_.

  A the other   B any other   C another   D other

  neither 两者中任意一者都不

  42. It was difficult to guess what her _B_ to the news would be.

  A impression   B reaction   C comment   D opinion

  reaction n. 反应; reaction to 对…作出反应。

  43. I decided to go to the library as soon as I _D_.

  A finish what I did   B finished what I did

  C would finish what I was doing   D finished what I was doing

  as soon as所引导的时间状语从句与主句的时态搭配有一种情况是主从句都用一般过去时。

  45. We are interested in the weather because it _B_ us so directly what we wear, what we do, and even how we feel.

  A benefits   B affects   C guides   D effects

  affect vt. 影响; effect n. 影响。

  46. Will all those _D_ the proposal raise their hands?

  A in relation to   B in contrast to   C in excess of   D in favor of

  in relation to 与…相比; in contrast to 与…形成对照;

  in excess of 超过,超出(一定的限定范围); in favor of 赞同,支持。

  47. Children are very curious _D_.

  A at heart   B in person   C on purpose   D by nature

  at heart 在心理,在内心; heart 强调的是内心的感情,mind 强调的是思维,头脑,soul 灵魂

  in person 亲自,本人; on purpose 有意的,故意的; by nature 生性(天性)使然。

  48. The match was cancelled because most of the members _A_ a match without a standard court.

  A objected to having   B were objected to have

  C objected to have   D were objected to having

  58. The man in the corner confessed to _B_ a lie to the manager of the company.

  A have told   B having told   C being told   D be told

  confess v. 忏悔; confess to 承认,坦白。

  49. The teacher doesn‘t permit _C_ in class.

  A smoke   B to smoke   C smoking   D to have a smoke

  permit v. 允许,准许; permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事; permit doing 允许做某事。

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