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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY57

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY57

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  In order to better understand conservatism in China, it is essential that one has a grasp of what the term“Chinese conservatism” means. Chinese conservatism is markedly different from the conservatism of the modern west. The political conservative came about during the French revolution and inspired men that were determined to preserve Christian and aristocratic elements in European society. Chinese conservatism began around the time of the Taping rebellion and had as its primary objectives the preservation of both Confucian society and nonfeudal strains of preopium war in Chinese history. While western conservatism believes in sacredness of private property and distrust of cosmopolitanism, the Chinese conservatism is the defense of a rational cosmopolitan order. Thus, the only common area of agreement between European and Chinese conservatism is the intent to conserve.

  During the TungChih restoration, the great aim was the revival of Confucian values and institutions. But these aims had to be modified so that they might endure. Restoration statesmen had no desire to create a new society — they wanted to restore a men of the restoration stretched the traditional ideology to its limits in an effort to make the Confucian system work under new conditions. They were true conservatives in a great tradition, living in an age when revolutionary change was unavoidable. The aim of the restoration was to restore to their original vitality the best of the ancient institutions. During the Restorations, the two immediate problems were the suppression of rebellion and the stabilization of foreign relations. In addition, the people were striving for a restoration of the system of government by superior civil officials.

  The men in the hierarchy of the Restoration rose to prominence through proven ability in both civil and military affairs. They emphasized human and social training — that is, indoctrination, morality, and the art of leadership through the cultivation of character. The great majority of the officials rose through the examination system.

  During the chaos of this period, the examination system had lost much of is effectiveness. This is important and must be noted because the examination system was the traditional avenue for selecting officials. The senior officials of the restoration realized that their policies would be ineffective unless the quality of the junior officials was improved, so it was their duty to weed out the officials who had attained office in irregular ways and to promote the examination system as the only way to high position. But these men of the restoration had enough foresight to determine that it was impossible to select officials automatically on the basis of objective tests alone. As a result, the system of recommendation was ushered in, whereby a high official sponsored the career of a promising young man. This acted as an important supplement to the examination system.

  1. The traditional method for selecting officials was

  A. appointment by the civil government. B. the examination system.

  C. through a subjective testing system.D. sponsorship by a high government official.

  2. A primary objective in the development of restoration thought was

  A. to modify traditional Chinese society to reflect new conditions.

  B. to create a new society based on truth.

  C. the knowledge that Chinese conservatism is superior to western conservatism.

  D. the desire to familiarize China with military technology.

  3. A major similarity between Chinese and western conservatism is

  A. the intent to conserve.

  B. that Chinese conservatism developed during the Taping revolution.

  C. the cosmopolitan nature of western conservatism.

  D. that Chinese conservatism is primarily land oriented.

  4. During the restoration, ancient institutions.

  A. were no longer accepted as a viable alternative to western technology.

  B. were studied only as classical examples of a former glorious past.

  C. were to be the cornerstone of a changing but traditional society.

  D. were considered as a primary reason for the decline of traditional China.

  5. Among the following characteristics of the restoration period, which one is RIGHT?

  A. The senior officials weeded out the unqualified junior officials to solidify their own positions.

  B. The only way to become a civil official is to pass the civil official examination before recommendation was permitted.

  C. The restoration statesmen didnt believe that the traditional examination system was out of date.

  D. While preserved the old Confucian values, the men of the restoration also altered them a little bit.

  Passage 2

  Gout is the aristocrat of diseases. Ancient philosophers and physicians attributed it to high living, and it has often afflicted men of exceptional talent. Michelangelo suffered from gout, as did Galilean, Martin Luther, Samuel Johnson, Darwin, Sitting Bull, and Theodore Roosevelt. Gout was called opprobrium medicorun — the physicians shame — because so little could be done to treat it. Victims faced excruciating pain, severe crippling and often death from kidney failure. But modern medicine has turned the demon gout into amices medico rum — the physicians friend.

  The typical gout patient is a middleaged man. Hobbling into the doctors office, he complains of a severe throbbing pain in a joint. The disease usually strikes the foot, but it can also afflict the knee, ankle, elbow and hand. The spot is so sore, he says, that a bed sheet resting lightly on it, or even the wisp of a breeze, produces almost unbearable agony.

  One look at the red and swollen toe, hot and full of fluid, tells the physician that he is probably dealing with gout. To confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the doctor draws a sample of fluid from the inflamed spot. Using a microscope, he searches for thin crystals of uric acid, a natural byproduct of metabolism that rises to abnormal levels in gout sufferers.

  Rheumatologists have learned just how the uricacid crystals create the painful symptoms of gout. A tiny urate crystal, explains New York Universitys Dr. Weissman, lodges in a white blood cell near the joint. Eventually, the cell ruptures and dies, releasing toxic enzymes that cause inflammation and searing pain.

  Relief: the first stage of treatment is to relieve the acute symptoms. Doctors used to prescribe colchicines, an extract of the autumn crocus whose medicinal value was first discovered by the ancient Greeks. But colchicines have unpleasant side effects, including diarrhea and vomiting. So, today, most physicians favor indomethacin, a potent painkiller that also reduces swelling and inflammation. Relief from the pain begins almost immediately.

  The second phrase of treatment is prevention. Gout patients are usually put on a lifelong course of daily medication. Small doses of colchicines are given for up to a year, followed by one of two newer drugs: probenicid, which increases the excretion of uric acid from the body, or allopurinol, which inhibits production of uric acid. With these medications, many patients never experience a second attack.

  The latest research has punctured some of the popular myths about gout. Examples:

  — Overeating. For centuries, gout was blamed on rich food, and patients were kept on a strict diet. Gluttony cannot cause the disease, but eating certain foods can bring on an attack. Uric acid is produced by the breakdown of substances called purines, which are concentrated in organ meats, sardines, anchovies, scallops and other delicacies. Happily, with proper drugs, the gout victim need not curb his appetite. Advises Dr. Gerald Rodnan of the University of Pittsburgh:“be merry and take your medicine.”

  — Drinking. Alcohol does block the kidneys ability to excrete uric acid, but gout patients on medication may imbibe moderately without fear of an attack.

  — Talent. For mysterious reasons, gout seems to strike the eminent and successful in disproportionate numbers. Studies of soldiers and college students have demonstrated some correlation between high intelligence and high uricacid(尿酸) levels. “This connection is beyond grandmothers tales,” says Weissman, “but a lot of trivial explanations are possible. Maybe bright people eat more meat or dont urinate as much.”

  1. Today physicians view gout as

  A. a painful and often fatal disease.

  B. a serious but treatable condition.

  C. a disease brought on by rich food and too much drink.

  D. a condition affecting only certain types of people.

  2. A doctor draws a quantity of fluid from a possible gout sufferer to

  A. relieve the swelling.B. check for white blood cells.

  C. relieve the pain.D. check for uric acid crystals.

  3. To treat the acute symptoms of gout, colchicines has now fallen out of favor with physicians because it

  A. fails to relieve pain.B. may cause the patient to feel sick.

  C. fails to relieve inflammation.D. may cause the patient to gain weight.

  4. To prevent further attacks of gout a new drug called allopurinol has been developed which

  A. lessens the bodys production of uric acid.

  B. causes the body to dispose of more uric acid.

  C. increases the bodys production of uric acid.

  D. causes the body to dispose of less uric acid.

  5. The connection between intelligence and uric acid levels

  A. is an old wifes tale.B. is now known to be a myth.

  C. has been shown in some studies.D. has been proved beyond all doubt.

  Passage 3

  Why should anyone buy the latest volume in the everexpanding dictionary of national biography? I do not mean that it is bad, as the reviewers will agree. But it will cost you 65 pounds. And have you got the rest of volumes? You need the basic 22 plus the largely decennial supplements to bring the total to 31. Of course, it will be answered, public and academic libraries want the new volume. After all, it adds 1,068 lives of people who escaped the net of the original compilers, yet in 10 years time a revised version of the whole caboodle, called the New Dictionary of National Biography, will be published. Its editor, professor Colin Matthew, tells me that he will have room for about 50, 000 lives, some 13, 000 more than in the current DNB. This rather puts the 1,068 in Missing Persons in the shade.

  When Dr. Nichols wrote to The Spectator in 1989 asking for names of people whom readers had looked up in the DNB and had been disappointed not to find, she says that she received some 100, 000 suggestions. (Well, she had written to “other quality newspapers ” too.) As soon as her committee had whittled the numbers down, the professional problems of an editor began. Contributors didnt file copy on time; some who did send too much: 500, 000 words instead of 500 is a record, according to Dr. Nichols.

  There remains the dinnerparty game of whos out. That is a game that the reviewers have played and will continue to play. Criminals were my initial worry. After all, the original edition of the DNB boasted: malefactors whose crimes excite a permanent interest have received hardly less attention than benefactors. Mr. John Gross clearly had similar anxieties, for he complains that, while the murderer Christie is in, Crippen is out. One might say in reply that the injustice of the hanging of Evans instead of Christie was a force in the repeal of capital punishment in Britain, as Ludovie Kennedy (the author of Christies entry in Missing Persons) notes. But then Crippen was reputed as the first murderer to be caught by telegraphy (he had tried to escape by ship to America)。

  It is surprising to find Max Miller excluded when really not very memorable names get in. There has been a conscious effort to put in artists and architects from the Middle Ages. About their lives not much is always known.

  Of Hugo of Bury St. Edmunds, a 12th century illuminator whose dates of birth and death are not recorded, his biographer comments: “whether or not Hugo was a wallpainter, the records of his activities as carver and manuscript painter attest to his versatility”。 Then there had to be more women, too (12 percent, against the original DNBs 3), such as Roy Strongs subject, the Tudor painter Levine Teerlinc, of whom he remarks:“her most characteristic feature is a head attached to a too small, spindly body. Her technique remained awkward, thin and often cursory ”。 Doesnt seem to qualify her as a memorable artist. Yet it may be better than the record of the original DNB, which included lives of people who never existed (such as Merlin) and even managed to give thanks to J. W. Clerke as a contributor, though, as a later edition admits in a shamefaced footnote,“except for the entry in the List of Contributors there is no trace of J.W. Clarke”。

  1. The writer suggests that there is no sense in buying the latest volume

  A. because it is not worth the price.

  B. because it has fewer entries than before.

  C. unless one has all the volumes in his collection.

  D. unless an expanded DNB will come out shortly.

  2. On the issue of who should be included in the DNB, the writer seems to suggest that

  A. the editors had clear rules to follow.B. there were too many criminals in the entries.

  C. the editors clearly favored benefactors.D. the editors were irrational in their choices.

  3. Crippen was absent from the DNB

  A. because he escaped to the U.S.B. because death sentence has been abolished.

  C. for reasons not clarified.D. because of the editors mistake.

  4. The author quoted a few entries in the last paragraph to

  A. illustrate some features of the DNB.B. give emphasis to his argument.

  C. impress the reader with its content.D. highlight the people in the Middle Ages.

  5. Throughout the passage, the writers tone towards the DNB was

  A. complimentary.B. supportive.C. sarcastic.D. bitter.

  Passage 4

  Through out human history, it has been one of mankinds most enduring, yet perverse quirks to take phenomena that would yield to rational explanation, and to embellish them into extravagant mystery, almost something wickedly distasteful, in spite of their simple unvarnished truth. Consider Stonehenge. This strange assembly of massive rocks in southeastern England dates back almost four thousand years. Until recently, no one could say how it was built or what purpose it served. Superstition then filled the gap. Modern followers of ancient Druids enacted strange ceremonies there. For them, this was a temple where ancient sacrifices were once performed. Scientists now have established that Stonehenge once served primarily as a remarkably accurate solar observatory. But the question remains: How were these gigantic stones put into place?

  For that reason, a group of volunteers in France living near some monumental stone ruins once set out to prove that it was muscle, not magic, that moved the stones, weighing 22 tons each. One hundred and seventy men strained at the ropes; rollers made of oak trees were wedged underneath one of the huge stones. At first, it seemed impossible to move it, but in ancient times basic laws of mechanics had been applied, simple leverage was pried against the stone. In one morning, the stone was dragged almost two miles. It was enough to prove that, given enough manpower, ancient builders could have accomplished amazing feats.

  The most fantastic ancient monument is the Great Pyramid at Giza; an Egypt artificial mountain almost fifty stories high and weighing thirtyone million tons. Some say only visitors from outer space could have built it. Butt there are simpler explanations. For example, establishing precisely straight lines can be accomplished with just three wooden poles. Ancient Egyptian architects could easily have laid out the basic plane of the Great Pyramid. Accurate measurement is still easier. Archaeologists have established that laying measuring sticks end to end is accurate to within a quarter of an inch over a hundred yards. Flooding the area and then drilling holes down a uniform distance from the waters surface might have done leveling the site. When excavated, the land would become as smooth and level as the water was originally.

  It probably took a hundred thousand workers twenty years to build the Great Pyramid at Giza, but they needed no help from astronauts from outer space; they needed only the ingenuity and determination of ancient Egyptian craftsmen.

  1. The main idea of this article is that

  A. its human beings weakness that they turn to superstition for help when they fail to understand or explain those mysterious phenomena.

  B. according to modern exploration, ancient monuments in this passage were constructed based on manpower and intelligence.

  C. scientists made experiments for the purpose of clearing up superstition.

  D. its facetious to attribute Stonehenge and Great Pyramid to alien from outer space.

  2. In paragraph one, why does the author say “superstition then filled the gap”?

  A. Because this was a place for performing religious rituals.

  B. Because modern followers of Druids performed ceremonies there.

  C. Because no convincing explanation could be proposed then.

  D. Because superstition oppressed scientific development.

  3. From the volunteers experiment, how the ancient builders transfer huge stones?。

  A. They managed it merely by muscle.

  B. Rollers were installed underneath to reduce rubbing pressure.

  C. Simple lever principle in mechanics was put into practical use.

  D. Its still unknown yet.

  4. Which of the following does NOT describe the Great Pyramid correctly?

  A. Its such a miracle beyond imagination that someone even couldnt believe its accomplished by mankind.

  B. Ancient Egyptian architects instead of any westerner created the earliest plane.

  C. Flooding was used as a means to level the site.

  D. The measurement equipment was very accurate.

  5. We can assume that the authors attitude towards ancient monument is.

  A. subjective B. suppositious and puzzled

  C. suspiciousD. objective and critical

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  本文主要介绍了中国的保守主义的开始和发展情况,指出他们的根本目的是为了维护其统治地位。

  1. The political conservative came about during the French revolution and inspired men that were determined to preserve Christian and aristocratic elements in European society. 政治上的保守主义大约产生于法国大革命时期,它激励了很多立志于维护欧洲社会的基督教义和贵族体系的人。

  2. While western conservatism believes in sacredness of private property and distrust of cosmopolitanism, the Chinese conservatism is the defense of a rational cosmopolitan order. 西方的保守主义信仰私有财产的不可侵犯性,摒弃所谓的世界主义,而恰恰相反,中国的保守主义正是要维护理性的世界主义秩序。

  1. 「B」本题答案可从最后一段第二句“This is important and must be noted because the examination system was the traditional avenue for selecting officials.”中找到。

  2. 「A」本题答案可从第二段第三句“had no desire to create a new society”中找到。

  3. 「A」本题答案可从第一段最后一句“thus, the only common area of agreement between European and Chinese conservatism is the intent to conserve.”中找到。

  4. 「C」理解题。本题答案可从全文得出。

  5. 「D」细节判断题。从最后一段第三句可看出A 是错的。第三段最后一句说“the great majority of the officials”并不是指全部官员,而且最后一段中提到有些人是通过irregular ways而为官的,因此B 也是错的。从最后一段倒数第三句可看出C是错的。从第二段第二句得出D是对的。

  Passage 2

  痛风由来已久,许多杰出人士都受过它的折磨。但现在痛风已不再可怕,医学家们已找到了治疗它的有效方法——提取秋水仙碱。

  The spot is so sore, he says, that a bed sheet resting lightly on it, or even the wisp of a breeze, produces almost unbearable agony. 他说,这个地方痛得如此厉害,就是一张床单碰到上面,或是一阵风吹来,都会痛得无法忍受。

  1. 「B」文章的第1段最后一句是本文的主旨句:现代医学把痛风变成了医生的朋友。随后的段落先展示痛风的严重症状,然后讲解如何治疗,接着寻求病因。说明这些方面的宗旨是告诉读者,痛风很可怕,但能够治疗。

  2. 「B」第3段告诉读者,医生从痛风患者的红肿处取一点儿液体,在显微镜下寻找尿酸结晶。

  3. 「B」第5段中说秋水仙碱有副作用,包括呕吐和腹泻,所以多数医生更乐意给患者用其他药物。

  4. 「A」答案可在第6段中找到:“allopurinol, which inhibits production of uric acid”。

  5. 「C」最后一段中有“Studies of soldiers and college students have demonstrated some correlation between high intelligence and high uricacid levels”之说,说明有些研究已找到一些两者之间的联系,但尚无定论。

  Passage 3

  传记词典DNB 出了新版本,但作者认为没有必要购买,文中详细列举了其原因。

  1. After all, the original edition of the DNB boasted: malefactors whose crimes excite a permanent interest have received hardly less attention than benefactors. 毕竟,让原版的DNB引以为荣的是:在这本词典里,即使是引起人们长期关注的犯罪分子得到的注意也不会比哪一位乐善好施的人少。这句话的意思是说,DNB内容涵盖面广,无所不及。boast 即 pride on .

  2. Yet it may be better than the record of the original DNB, which included lives of people who never existed (such as Merlin) and even managed to give thanks to J. W. Clerke as a contributor, though, as a later edition admits in a shamefaced footnote,“except for the entry in the List of Contributors there is no trace of J.W. Clarke”。 但是,新版的DNB比起旧版的应是大有改善了。旧版里列入的人有的根本就不存在。它甚至还向J. W. 克拉克致谢,感谢他作为供稿人之一。虽然后来的修订本在脚注里羞怯地标明,除了这个名字曾在供稿人名单里出现过外,这个人实际上不存在。

  1. 「C」A项与文章不符,第1段第3句说买这本词典要花65英镑,比较贵。B项违背原文含义, 第1段第7句说明,实际上新出版的传记词典比老版本多了若干词条。D项与原文有悖,文中说:经过修订的DNB将在十年内出版,没有必要购买这本扩版的 DNB.只有C项与“And have you got the rest of volumes? you need the basic 22 plus the largely decennial supplements to bring the total to 31.”相关。你必须在原来各卷的基础上,加上现在出版的十来本增订本,才能凑全31册。

  2. 「D」通过第3段中有关罪犯词条的选择,第4段中有关不包括Max Miller 的例子以及第5段中有关什么样的妇女应包括进去这几段文字,作者告诉读者的信息就是编辑们的选择没什么章法。

  3. 「C」第3段中作者提到包括Christie的原因是促进在英国取消死刑,但是Crippen 的犯罪在历史上也创下了记录,却没有被包括进去,到底是什么原因,作者并没有明确地说明。

  4. 「B」作者写作的目的不是为宣传DNB的特点,亦不是为介绍中世纪人物,而是为强调自己的观点,即DNB编辑人员的条目选择标准是不科学的。

  5. 「C」文章中的“dinner party game”, reputed 等用词,大量设问句的运用,体现了作者在语气上是讽刺的。

  Passage 4

  文章主要介绍了现代人对Stonehenge 与Great Pyramid 建造方式的实验、推测,从而批驳各种对历史遗迹的迷信说法。

  Superstition then filled the gap. 迷信说法便填充了这个空白。(迷信说法便趁虚而入。)

  1. 「B」文中的主要阐述对象为英国的Stonehenge与埃及的Great Pyramid.作者通过叙述现代人对它们的研究探索来批驳各种对历史遗迹的迷信说法,指出它们都是人类劳动智慧的结晶。最后一句话也正是作者观点的表述。

  A项实际上是文中第一句话的重复,是一种泛泛而谈。

  C项过于片面, 不足以概括全文,而且Stonehenge是由一群自愿者进行调查的,并非一定是科学家。

  D项只是作者观点的一方面,而且facetious(滑稽的)用在这里不合适。

  2. 「C」这句话的前面部分即为解释:“Until recently, no one could say how it was built or what purpose it served.”

  A, B项都是对原文中事实的叙述,并非对原因的解释。D项的内容文中未出现过。

  3. 「C」原文中“basic laws of mechanics had been applied, simple leverage was pried against the stone”即为解题根据。

  4. 「B」原文“architects could easily have laid out the basic plane of the Great Pyramid”中的plane 是指平面图,不是指飞机。

  5. 「D」很明显,作者持的是一种客观科学的态度, 而不是怀疑、主观、迷信的态度。

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