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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY24

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the word recognition drills below.Note the word on the left, then underline it every time it appears in the same form to the right.No regression,no vocalization.Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. minutesminute minimum minutes minutely minors

  2. destroy              destruct destroyable destroy destitute destiny

  3. victims              victimize victims victors victory victuals

  4. predict              predicate predicts prediction predict predial

  5. overdue            overdo overdue overcome overflow overseas

  6. similar              similarly simple simplify similar single

  7. strike               stricture stripe strike stroke striking

  8. surface              service surfeit surface surname surplus

  9. technique          technical technician technique unique technic

  10. conclude         conclusion conclusive concrete concert conclude

  Finishing Time: Total Reading Time:

  Errors: Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  Can Scientists Predict Killer Earthquakes?The date was November 23,1980. People near Naples,in Southern Italy,felt the Earth roll and Shake. Earthquake! Suddenly buildings came tumbling down. Cracks appeared in the earth. Within minutes, entire towns were destroyed. Thousands of people were dead. Thousands more were injured.

  As rescuers searched through the rubble,many people must have wondered,if only the victims had known ahead of time,many lives could have been saved.

  Actually, an Italian scientist did predict that such a quake would happen. In 1977 Dr. M. Caputo of the Universite Degils Studi in Rome warned that a large quake would soon strike the east of Naples. Unfortunately, he couldnt predict the exact time and date of the quake.

  Dr. Caputo made his general prediction after talking with scientists at 54 earthquake monitoring stations throughout Italy. He learned that many earthquakes had recently rocked different areas around Naples. But none had occurred in one particular spot east of Naples for many years. Dr. Caputo felt that the area was long overdue for a large quake. And it was.

  Earthquake Strikes in GapThe quake occurred in a region that Dr. Caputo called a seismic gap. A seismic gap is an area in an active earthquake region where no earthquake or seismic activity has been recorded in a long time. Seismic gaps are located where two large plates in the Earth have become stuck.

  When the plates slide past each other,they sometimes became locked in place. A similar thing happens when you make a running leap on a sidewalk while wearing sneakers. When you land on both feet,the sneakers grab onto rough surface. Friction tends to hold your feet back while the rest of your body goes forward. You may end up falling flat on your face.

  In the case of plates,however,the uneven surfaces between the plates cause the plates to remain locked in place for years. Huge pressure builds up behind each plate. Periodically,a shudder,or tremor,is recorded as some of this energy is released.

  Finally,after about 50 years,aock in the seismic gap either suddenly breaks or moves under the great stress. This sudden release of energy sends shock Waves through the rock layers above. The ground shakes, sidewalks crack, and buildings tumble. A mighty quake has struck.

  Gaps Used To Predict QuakesMany geologists have used what is called the seismic gap technique to accurately predict earthquakes. The technique was first developed by Soviet earthquake expert Dr. V. Fodotov during his studies of ancient and recent Japanese earthquakes. Dr. Fodotov was marking the location,size,and date of all known quakes in Japan when he noticed a striking pattern.

  All major earthquakes were found to occur in only a few isolated spots in Japan. Each of these spots,he noted, experienced a major quake only once every 50 to 60 years. Dr. Fodotov concluded that spots that hadn't had a quake in more than 50 years were "ripe" for a quake. The Russian scientist named these locations seismic gaps.

  In the past several years,geologists from other countries have found seismic gaps in other parts of the world. After making detailed studies of past quakes in these regions,the geologists were able to make an accurate prediction of when a quake would occur.

  Prediction Comes TrueOne of the most dramatic predictions using the seismic gap method was the prediction of the earthquake that struck Oaxaca,Mexico,in November 1978. Several years ago scientists studying earthquake records in Mexico and South America found that there hadnt been a large earthquake in the quakeprone Oaxaca area since 1928. The researchers from the LamontDoherty Geological Observatory in New York announced that Oaxaca was due for a large quake.

  This general forecast prompted seismologists around the world to monitor the moderate tremors that still occurred in the Oaxaca area. Perhaps,they thought,these tremors would provide a more precise clue as to when the quake would occur.

  In 1975 even the small tremors stopped. The area remained "silent" for almost three years. Then suddenly minor earthquake activity began again. Supersensitive earthquake monitoring equipment was immediately flown into the area. Dr. Karen McNally of the California Institute of Technology set up a portable laboratory where the information from the monitoring instruments could be analyzed.

  For a few days tiny earthquakes were detected by Dr. McNally's instruments. Then suddenly there was total silence. Dr. McNally was sure that a large earthquake would occur very soon. She immediately notified local Mexican officials who evacuated people from large buildings in that part of the country.

  Eighteen hours later a massive quake rocked the area. Thanks to the scientists pinpoint prediction, no human lives were lost.

  ——from Current Science, Sept. 10,1980

  Time:  799 words= wpm

  Minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。 READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. Since  of the earthquake striking east of Naples, people there suffered heavy loss in the destruction.

  A. no prediction had been madeB. no correct prediction had been made

  C. no one had predicted the precise date

  D. no one had cared about Dr. Caputo's prediction

  2. Dr. Caputo based his prediction upon .

  A. the recent,abnormal behavior of many animals

  B. the fact that lots of earthquakes had recently occurred in all areas around Naples but its east

  C. the fact that no earthquake had rocked the areas around Naples for years

  D. the conclusions made by scientists at 54 earthquake monitoring stations throughout Italy

  3. A seismic gap .

  A. is a region where no seismic activity has ever been recorded

  B. is an area where no large earthquake has ever been detected

  C. refers to a deep and wide crack in a large plate

  D. is located at the junction of two interlocking plates in the earth,and where no seismic activity has been recorded for a long time

  4. By describing a leaper in sneakers the author intends to .

  A. define the cause of an earthquake analogically

  B. warn the readers about the danger of friction

  C. explain how friction worksD. both B and C

  5. As it is used in the last sentence of paragraph 9,the word "when"means .

  A. just asB. at a time whenC. and thenD. although

  6. Which of the following statements is meant by the author?

  A. A mighty earthquake will strike when two sliding plates become locked in place.

  B. Fifty years after the two plates have become locked in place,a shudder or tremor will take place.

  C. Once every 50 years or so,a mighty earthquake will be recorded at the seismic gap.

  D. Dr. Fodotov decided that spots that hadnt experienced a major quake in more than 50 years were not seismic gaps.

  7. From the passage we learn that a  striking pattern can be found in   .

  A. strange……a quake prone regionB. regular……an active earthquake region

  C. irregular……a seismic gapD. regular……all parts of the world

  8. Scientists predicted that there would be a mighty earthquake in Oaxaca,Mexico around 1978 because .

  A. Oaxaca is in an active earthquake region

  B. no large earthquake had been recorded there since 1928

  C. they had noted the frequent tremors in the Oaxaca area

  D. all of the above

  9. We can infer from the passage that the minor earthquake activities .

  A. sometimes serve as a prelude to a massive quake

  B. stopped in Oaxaca in 1975C. began again in 1978

  D. were detected by Dr. McNally's instruments

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of the words in italics using the context given and wordbuilding skills.

  The planet we live on is not just a ball of inert material. During past ages dramatic changes have taken place inside the earth. Indeed,it is likely that without these changes life could never have originated on the earth. And changes are still going on today. They show themselves in the occurrence of earthquakes,in the outbursts of volcanoes,and in the uplift of mountain ranges.

  In outward appearance,the earth is a nearly spherical ball with a radius of 6,350 kilometers. Internally the earth consists of two parts;a core and a mantle. An essential difference is that the core consists mainly of liquid and the mantle mainly of solid rock. The core extends outwards from the centre to a distance of some 3,450 kilometres. The mantle,as its name shows,is an outer covering extending from the core to the surface of the earth.

  Judged by ordinary standards, the core is made of rather dense stuff. The material at the centre of the earth is at least thirteen times as heavy as ordinary water,whiIe in the outer parts of the core the material is about ten times as heavy as ordinary water.

  ——from Further Scientific English Practice p.1

  Ⅲ。CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Animals and Predicting Earthquakes

  Who is better at predicting earthquakes: animals or scientists with instruments? Evidence collected so     1     suggests that an ordinary     2      - a dog,  a horse, a pig - may give   3 reliable a warning of an impending     4     as the scientists.

  In 1979, 200 instruments failed to     5     a California earthquake     6     shook buildings in San Francisco, 78 miles     7. But in 1976, several months     8     a massive earthquake     9     China, pigs climbed the walls, hens     10     not roost, trained dogs     11     commands and barnyard geese      12     to fly. The Chinese heeded     13     and other     14     and educated people before the  15    struck thereby saving a hundred thousand     16.

  Many nations now have animalwarning centers to try to learn what it is that the animal senses so that instruments can be built to detect the same signals.

  ——from Readers Digest

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