• 站内搜索:

考研英语范文阅读(四)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Personality is to a large extent inherent-A-type parents usually bring about A-type offspring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.

  One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the win at all costs moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences: remember that Pheidippides, the first marathon runner, dropped dead seconds after saying: Rejoice, we conquer!

  By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. It is a rare school that allows pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

  Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.

  If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A- type stock. B's are important and should be encouraged.

  63. According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually ________.

  (A)impatient

  (B)considerate

  (C)aggressive

  (D)agreeable

  64. The author is strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools because ________.

  (A)the pressure is too great on the students

  (B)some students are bound to fail

  (C)failure rates are too high

  (D)the results of examinations are doubtful

  65. The selection of medical professionals is currently based on ________.

  (A)candidates' sensitivity

  (B)academic achievements

  (C)competitive spirit

  (D)surer values

  66. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that ________.

  (A)the personality of a child is well established at birth

  (B)family influence dominates the shaping of one's characteristics

  (C)the development of one's personality is due to multiple factors

  (D)B-type characteristics can find no place in a competitive society

  答案及试题解析

  CBBC

  63.(C)

  意为:攻击性的,好斗的。

  文章第一、二、三段都提到:A型性格的人在竞争的环境中成长,形成了他们的性格特征。第二段第三句直接用competitive(争强好胜的,爱竞争的)一词描述A型性格的人。

  A意为:缺乏耐心的、不耐心的。这也许是他们有时候所表现出的性格特征,但不是他们的一般性性格特征。

  B意为:体贴人的,为人着想的。这与事实形成鲜明的对比。

  D意为:和蔼的,易相处的,使人愉快的。

  64.(B)

  意为:有些学生肯定不及格。

  be bound to意为:肯定、注定。问题中be opposed意为反对。第三段指出,学校中最糟糕的竞争方式(by far用于强调最高级形式)是极力强调考试(disproportionate意为:不相称的,过分的),很少有学校让学生集中精力做自己善于做的事情。通过考试来竞争有无益处(merits)是个值得探讨的问题(questionable),但是,明知道自己会失败还去竞争的做法肯定(对人的心理,如:自信心、自我认识等)是有害的。

  A意为:给学生造成的压力过大。

  C意为:不及格率过高。

  (A)、(C)文中都末提到。

  D意为:考试成绩(或结果)值得怀疑。

  这与原文表达的内容不一样,原文并非是说考试成绩是否真正反映学生的真实水平或能力值得怀疑,而是说考试这种形式作为—个教学环节是否合适值得进一步探讨。

  65.(B)

  原文最后一段指出,如果学校不过多地注重于(preoccupation…… with)学习结果,就可以花更多的时间教些更有价值的东西。选择护理方面的人-尤其是医疗护理人员-也许应该看他们是否心细、是否有同情心,而不应看他们化学成绩如何。只从A型性格的人中选择医生的做法是不可取的,B型性格的人也是社会所需要的,应该受到相应的鼓励。在这段里。作者对现在人的培养及选择标准进行了批评。B意为:学习成绩(或学术成就)。问题中currently意为:目前,当前。

  A意为:申请者的敏感程度。指:他是否对他人的行为敏感,即是否细心。

  C意为:竞争精神。原文是说根据成绩,即:看重的是结果。

  D意为:更可靠的价值。即:更可靠或可依赖或有价值(对社会有用)的东西。

  66.(C)

  文章第一段指出,个性在很大程度上是先天形成的(inherent),但是,环境对它也有深刻影响,环境包括社会、学校与家庭。本文主要谈论了学校教育对学生的性格形成的影响。C意为:个性的发展受多种(multiple)因素的影响。

  A意为:儿童的个性在出生时早已确立。

  B意为:家庭对儿童性格特征的形成起主导作用。

  (A)、(B)两个选择项都不正确,因为,这两种说法都是片面的、极端的。儿童的个性发展受多种因素的影响。

  D意为:在高度竞争的社会中,B型性格的人是不需要的(或是找不到位置的)。这正是作者想要驳斥的观点。作者指出:世界需要各种性格的人。另请参阅第65题题解。

  翻译句子

  1、But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.

  [参考译文] 但环境也一定对其有深刻的影响,因为如果竞争对父母来说很重要的话,那它也可能成为孩子生活中的一个重要因素。

  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是… the environment must also have a profound effect.后面的since 引导一个原因状语从句,而这个从句又是一个 if 引导的条件主从复合句。

  [阅读重点] 注意 profound 的词义为意义深远的。另外要看到最后一个逗号后面的 it所指代的是 competition.

  2、The merits of competition by examination are somewhat questionable, but competition in the certain knowledge of failure is positively harmful.

  [参考译文] 通过考试进行竞争本身的优点就有些让人怀疑,但是如果在明知注定要失败的情况下还要竞争就肯定是有害的了。

  [结构剖析] 本句由两个子句构成,中间有一个 but 表示意思的转折。

  [阅读重点] 要正确理解本句,重点在于抓住单词的正确意思。questionable 可疑的,值得疑问的;而后面的 knowledge 如果理解成知识那么这句话就怎么也看不懂了,在这里它的意思应该是知道,知晓,因此 in the knowledge of 应被理解为在了解……的情况下。

  3、Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy.

  [参考译文] 也许对从事照顾他人的职业,特别是医疗事业(从业人员)的选择应该更少地基于化学成绩而更多地基于对敏感个性和同情心的考虑。

  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是… selection…could be made less by… and more by…。两个逗号隔开的是对于 caring professions 的进一步具体说明。

  [阅读重点] 注意在阅读的时候抓住 less… and more…的结构,同时注意 more 后面的可能要更加重要一些。

  补充难句翻译

  1、The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows.

  [参考译文] 现在这种让孩子们和其同学或时间竞争的热情导致了一个双层结构,在这个结构里面善于竞争的A类好像在某个方面要比他们B类的同辈更胜一筹。

  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是 The current passion… produces a two-layer system;passion后面的介词 for 的宾语比较复杂,是一个 make sb. do sth. 的结构,而主句的宾语 a two-layer system 后面有一个非限定性的定语从句。

  [阅读重点] 可以先抓主干,然后再分析其它成分,另外在理解的时候也要有一定的想象力,比如 compete against the clock 不能从字面上理解为和钟表竞争,而应该理解成与时间竞争/和时间赛跑。

  2、One place where children soak up A characteristics is school, which is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution.

  [参考译文] 孩子们吸收A类个性的地方是学校。就学校的本质而言,它是一个高度竞争的机构。

  [结构剖析] 本句的主干是 One place…is school,这个简单句的主语和谓语都有一个定语从句修饰,前面的是限定性的,后面的是非限定性的,并且在其里面还有一个插入成分 by its very nature.

  [阅读重点] 可以先抓主干,然后再分析那两个定语从句,另外注意 soak up 的意思是吸收,摄取,其实即使我们不是很清楚这个词组的意思,只要我们抓住 soak 的基本意思浸泡,浸湿,浸透,词组的意思也能猜出来。

  语言点详解

  1. to a large extent 在很大程度上

  [大纲词汇] extent n.广度,宽度,长度;程度,限度

  [经典例句] His attitude will influence the result to a large extent.

  2. inherent 天生的

  [大纲词汇] inherent a.固有的,内在的,天生的 inherit v.继承

  [经典例句] Parents should be waken to the inherent nature of their children.

  3. bring about 造成

  [大纲词汇] bring about 带来,造成

  [经典例句] The new policy brought about many improvements in the employment of women.

  4. offspring 后代

  [大纲词汇] offspring n.子孙,后代;结果,产物

  5. profound 深刻的

  [大纲词汇] profound a.深刻的,意义深远的;渊博的,造诣深的

  [经典例句] The city has undergone a profound change in the past few years.

  6. soak up 吸收

  [大纲词汇] soak v.浸泡,浸湿,浸透

  [经典例句] The earth soaks up rainwater.

  7. sport achievements 夸耀成就

  [大纲词汇] sport n.运动;pl.运动会 sportsman n.运动员

  [扩充词义] sport v.炫耀,夸示

  [经典例句] The young man sported a roll of money his father gave him to his friends.

  8. compete against 和…竞争

  [大纲词汇] compete v.比赛;竞争 competent a.有能力的,胜任的 competitin n.比赛;竞争 competitive a.竞争的,比赛的 competitor n.竞争者,对手

  [经典例句] He competed with other fellow colleagues for the position.

  9. keen 热衷于

  [大纲词汇] keen a.锋利的;敏锐的;敏捷的;(on)热心的,渴望的

  [经典例句] He is very keen to visit China.

  10. consequece 后果

  [大纲词汇] consequence n.结果,后果,影响;重要性 in consequence因此,结果 in consequence of 由于…的缘故 consequently ad.因而,所以

  [经典例句] Your mistake will surely bring about unfavorable consequence.

  11. marathon 马拉松长跑

  12. rejoice 高兴

  [大纲词汇] rejoice v.(使)欣喜,(使)高兴

  [经典例句] He rejoiced at his friend's good fortune.

  13. conquer 战胜

  [大纲词汇] conquer v.征服,战胜,占领;克服,破除(坏习惯)conquest n.征服

  [经典例句] Napoleon conquered a number of European countries in a few years.

  14. by far …最…

  [大纲词汇] by far…得多,最

  [经典例句] His explanation is clear by far.

  15. disproportionate 不成比例的

  [大纲词汇] proportion n.比例;部分,份儿;均衡,相称 in proportion 与…成比例的

  [衍生词汇] proportionate a.成比例的;均衡的,相称的 disproportionate a.不成比例的,不相称的

  [经典例句] A disproportionate number of fatal accidents take place at night.

  16. emphasis on 强调

  [大纲词汇] emphasis n.强调,重点 emphasize v.强调

  [经典例句] The teacher lay emphasis on the importance of the assignment.

  17. concentrate on 专注于

  [大纲词汇] concentrate v.(on)集中,专心;浓缩;n.浓缩物 concentration n.集中;专心,专注

  [经典例句] He concentrates solely on law studies.

  18. merit 优点

  [大纲词汇] merit n.优点,价值,功绩;v.值得,应得

  [经典例句] The new method has few merits.

  19. questionable 可疑的

  [大纲词汇] question n.问题,议题;发问,询问 v.询问,审问;怀疑,对…表示疑问 in question 正在考虑 questionable a.可疑的,不可靠的

  [经典例句] The accuracy of the news is questionable.

  20. in the knowledge of 在了解…的情况下

  [大纲词汇] know v.知道,了解;认识,熟悉;精通 know as 被认为是

  knowledge n.知识,学问;知道,了解

  [经典例句] He felt safe in the knowledge of his enemy's death.

  21. change into 变为

  [大纲词汇] change n.变换,调换,交换,互换;改变,变化 v.改变,变化;零钱,找头

  [经典例句] Water change into ice at zero degree.

  22. fit …to 与……相称

  [大纲词汇] fit v.使适合,使配合,适应;安装,装配 a. (for,to)适合的,恰当的;健康的,强健的 fitting a.适当的,恰当的;n. [pl.]配件,附件;装配,安装

  [经典例句] One should fit his action to the world.

  23. personality 性格

  [大纲词汇] person n.人;本人,自身 in person 亲自 personal a.个人的,私人的;亲自的,本人的;身体的,人身的 personality n.人格,个性

  [经典例句] Environment shapes personality.

  24. preoccupation 主要关心的事

  [大纲词汇] occupy v.占,占用;占据,占领;使忙碌,使从事

  [衍生词汇] occupation n.从事;工作 preoccupy v.使全神贯注,使入神;抢先占有

  preoccupation n.抢先占有;全神贯注;使人全神贯注的事

  [经典例句] Environmental protection is clearly their main preoccupation.

  25. academic 学术的

  [大纲词汇] academic a.学院的,学术的 academy n.学院,研究会,学术团体

  [经典例句] The professor puts greater emphasis on academic studies.

  26. lessen 减轻

  [大纲词汇] lessen v.减少,减轻

  [词汇比较] lesson n.功课;教训

  [经典例句] The latest news lessened their worries.

  27. caring profession 照顾他人的职业

  28. consideration 考虑

  [大纲词汇] consider v.认为,把…看作;考虑,细想;体谅,照顾 considerable a.相当大(或多)的,可观的,值得考虑的 considerate a.考虑周到的,体谅的

  consideration n.需要考虑的事,理由;考虑,思考;体谅,照顾

  [经典例句] The matter is receiving the serious consideration of the board.

  29. sensitivity 敏感

  [大纲词汇] sensitive a. (to)sensitivity n.

  [经典例句] The machine must be used with care considering its sensitivity.

  30. sympathy 同情心

  [大纲词汇] sympathy n.同情,同情心,赞同 sympathetic a.同情的,共鸣的sympathize v.(with)同情,怜悯;共鸣,同感

  [经典例句] Those people need our help and sympathy.

  31. exclusively 仅仅

  [大纲词汇] exclusive a.专有的,独占的;除外的,排他的 exclusively ad.仅仅;专门地,排他地

  [经典例句] The article was written exclusively for Newsweek.

  32. stock 某一类的人

  [大纲词汇] stock n.备料,库存,现货;股票,公债,存储 in stock现有,备有

  [扩充词义] stock n.祖先,世系,家族,类

  [经典例句] He descended from Jewish stock.

  33. aggressive 有进取心的

  [大纲词汇] aggressive a.

  [衍生词汇] aggression n.

  [经典例句] The councilor appealed to the city to take aggressive action.

  34. be opposed to 反对

  [大纲词汇] oppose v.反对,反抗

  [衍生词汇] opposed a.反对的,对抗的 be opposed to 反对 opposition n.反对,反抗;抵抗,对立

  [经典例句] We are firmly opposed to power politics.

  35. draw conclusion 下结论

  [大纲词汇] conclude v.结束,终止;断定,下结论;缔结,协议 conclusion n.结束,终结;结论,推论 in conclusion 最后,总之

  [经典例句] He drew a conclusion without discussing the matter with others.

  36. at birth 生下来时

  [大纲词汇] birth n.出生,分娩;出身,血统

  [经典例句] The child weighed 7 pounds at birth.

  37. due to 由于

  [大纲词汇] due a. (to)应支付的;(车,船等)应到达的;应有的 due to 由于,因为

  [经典例句] The ship was late due to the heavy storm.

  全文翻译

  性格在很大程度上是先天形成的-A型性格的父母会有A型性格的子女。但环境也一定对其有深刻的影响,因为如果竞争对父母来说很重要的话,那它也可能成为孩子生活中的一个重要因素。

  让孩子吸收A型性格的一个地方是学校。学校,就其本质而言,是高度竞争的机构。很多学校采用不惜一切代价获取成功的道德标准并通过炫耀成绩来估量孩子们是否成功。目前热衷于让孩子与同学竞争或与时间赛跑造成了一种双重体制,在这种体制中,竞争性的A型学生在某些方面似乎比B型的学生要好。过分地热衷于获胜会产生危险的后果:记住,第一位跑马拉松的费迪皮迪兹在说完欢呼吧,我们赢了之后几秒便倒地而死。

  学校里最糟糕的竞争形式就是不恰当的强调考试。很少有学校允许学生集中精力做他们能做好的事。以考试竞争这种做法的好处本身有点值得怀疑,而明知有人考试会通不过的情况下还要进行竞争,则肯定是有害的。

  显然,要将所有A型孩子变成B型孩子既不现实也不可取。这个世界需要各种性格的人,一个重要职责是使孩子的性格适合将来可能从事的工作。这才是最好的管理理念。

  如果学校对学业的强调减少一些,也许就有更多的时间教孩子更重要的价值观念。也许对护理职业-特别是医疗护理人员-的选择应少注重化学成绩而多关注他们是否敏感、是否有同情心。只从A型性格的人员中挑选医生的确是个错误。B型性格的人非常重要,应该受到鼓励。

栏目相关课程表