• 站内搜索:

70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY43

2006-7-28 01:05  

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1 If you are a classic 'Type A' personality — harddriving, impatient, competitive, easily irritated — you are far more likely than a calm, laidback 'Type B' to suffer a heart attack, right?

  Wrong, says a Massachusetts General Hospital psychiatrist who has studied more than 200 heart patients awaiting diagnostic tests and found virtually no correlation between classic Type A personalities and subsequent heart disease.

  What does appear to be a predictor of serious heart trouble — in conjunction with other known risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol(胆固醇) — says Dr. Joel E Dimsdale, director of the MGH stress Physiology Laboratory — is a chronic inability to deal constructively with anger and hostility. He is now doing a study on anger and heart disease.

  “The whole Type A theory is a lovely theory that has been controversial for a long time,” says Dimsdale, “there is undoubtedly some validity to it by trying to piece together exactly what constitutes the virulence of Type A and for what people, that the rub.”

  “Type A is a very broad concept that encompasses a host of many different personality and behavioral factors. The real research task today is to search for the way in which specific behaviors might increase the risk for specific patients. And a number of studies are showing that people who readily experience hostility ,but have difficulty expressing it, are at increased risk for coronary artery(冠状动脉) disease. This dimension is a better prediction for various cardiac(强心剂) end points than the gross measure of Type A.”

  The original insight that people could be classified into Type A and Type B personalities and that Type A were more heartattacked prone grew more out of research at the Framingham Laboratories in the late 1970s.

  Dr. Peter Wilson, director of the Framingham Laboratories, agreed in a telephone interview last week that since the early studies, “the AB issue has been getting weaker. A large prospective study (in which people are followed for years before they get sick) last year showed the distinction of the AB behavior was not associated with coronary artery disease. Now researchers are thinking in terms of” “anger in” vs “anger out” as the latest area of concern.“

  Behavior epidemiologist Elaine Eaker at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in Bethesda, one of the nations foremost scholars of correlations between behavior and heart disease, agrees in principle.

  “There is no epidemiologist evidence that on hostility alone, but anger has been linked to CHO (Coronary Heart Disease) events, weakly for white collar men and more strongly for women in clerical jobs.” she said last week.

  “The Type A concept is still viable because it has been a predictor of heart disease in at least two longterm studies. But recent research has shown that how you cope with anger is the critical point.” she added.

  1. The word “rub” in the third paragraph means

  A. result.B. difficulty.

  C. eraser.D. rudder.

  2. What may lead to the heart disease?

  A. Type A blood.

  B. Type B blood, an high cholesterol.

  C. Smoking, high blood pressure, the inability to deal with anger and hostility.

  D. Type A, smoking, and high blood pressure.

  3. Dr. Dimsdale thought the Type A theory

  A. it is a ridiculous theory.

  B. the theory fails to illustrate what is the virulence of Type A and for what people.

  C. it is a lovely theory.

  D. it is based on no scientific experiments.

  4. The relation between the Type A and the heart disease is

  A. there is no direct connection.

  B. people with Type A are more heartattacked prone than people with Type B.

  C. people with Type A are free from the heart disease.

  D. most of the people with Type A are suffering the heart disease.

  5. Which of the following is not behavior epidemiologist Elaine Eakers opinion?

  A. White collar men is less likely to suffer CHO than women employed in clerical jobs.

  B. The Type A theory can not be completely denied.

  C. Type A theory has been the predictor of heart disease for a long time.

  D. How to deal with anger is the most critical part in the cause of heart disease.

  Passage 2 There are no neutrals in the Freud wars. Admiration, even downright adulation, is on one side; skepticism, even downright disdain, is on the other. This is not hyperbole. A psychoanalyst who is currently trying to enshrine Freud in the pantheon(万神殿) of cultural heroes must contend with a relentlessly critic who devotes his days to exposing for good or ill, Sigmund Freud, more than any other explorer of the psyche, has shaped the mind of 20th century. The very fierceness and persistence of his detractors are a wry tribute to the staying power of Freuds ideas.

  There is nothing new about such embittered confrontations. They have dogged Freuds footsteps since he developed the cluster of theories he would give the name of psychoanalysis. His fundamental idea — that all humans are endowed with an unconscious in which potent sexual and aggressive drives, and defenses against them, struggle for supremacy, as it were, behind a person s back — has struck many as a romantic, scientifically improvable notion. His contention that the catalog of neurotic ailments to which humans are susceptible is nearly always the work of sexual maladjustments, and that erotic desire starts not in puberty but in infancy, seemed to the respectable nothing less than obscene. His dramatic evocation of a universal Oedipus complex, in which (to put a complicated issue too simple) the little boy loves his mother and hates his father, seems like a literary conceit than a thesis worthy of a scientifically minded psychologist.

  Freud first used the term psychoanalysis in 1896, when he was already 40. He had been driven by ambition from his earliest days and encouraged by his doting parents to think highly of himself. Born in 1856 to an impecunious Jewish family in the Moravian hamlet of Freiberg, he moved with the rest of a rapidly increasing brood to Vienna. He was his mothers first born. In recognition of his brilliance, his parents privileged him over his siblings by giving him a room to himself, to study in peace. He did not disappoint them. After an impressive career in school, he was matriculated in 1873 in the University of Vienna and drifted from one philosophical subject to anther until he hit on medicine. His choice was less that of a dedicated healer than of an inquisitive explorer determined to solve some of natures riddles.

  As he pursued his medical researches, he came to the conclusion that the most intriguing mysteries lay concealed in the complex operations of the mind. By the early 1890s, he was specializing in “neurasthenics” (mainly serve hysterics) ; They taught him much, including the art of patient listening. At the same time he was beginning to write down his dreams, increasingly convinced that they might offer clues to the workings of the unconscious, a notion he borrowed from Romantics. He saw as a scientist taking material both from his patients and form himself through introspection. In the mid1890s, he launched on a fullblown selfanalysis, an enterprise for which he had no guidelines and no predecessors.

  1. As for Freud s contribution to psychology, it is considered that

  A. Freud opened a window on the unconscious and changed the way we view ourselves.

  B. The theory of Freud receives unanimous agreement.

  C. Freud shaped the mind of the 20th century, however, it failed to be popular with scientists now.

  D. His theory is generally reasonable and logical but remains defects and shortcomings.

  2. Which of the following is not Freuds theory?

  A. People are born with the innate nature of unconscious.

  B. Mental disease is the result of sexual maladjustments.

  C. The sexual desire begins in adolescent period rather than in infancy.

  D. The universal Oedipus complex.

  3. The reason why he devoted himself to medical research is

  A. the encouragement of his parents.

  B. his great talent.

  C. to serve the disabled and suffering people.

  D. his curiosity of the mysterious nature.

  4. According to Freuds theory, dream is

  A. absurd fantasies.

  B. the foretelling of the future.

  C. the material used for unconscious study.

  D. accidental events.

  5. Freud thought the intriguing mysteries of psychology lay in

  A. the subconscious activities.

  B. the intricate activities of the mind.

  C. the mysterious operations of human body system.

  D. the confusing operation of nerve system.

  Passage 3 Perhaps one of the most important of all family patterns, and that is found in all culture, is the teaching of appropriate gender roles. Early in life, children learn to differentiate between masculine activities and feminine ones. In fact, studies reveal that “at 24 months children were aware that labels, such as boy, girl, mommy and daddy, applied to certain classes of people.” These perceptions are learned and influence how members of a culture interact with both sexes. In cultures such as the Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, the history of those roles can be traced to the influence of Confucianism(儒教)。 Kim says of Korea:“Confucianism made men alone structurally relevant members of the society and relegated women to social dependence.” In early Confucian families, boys studied the classical and played, while girls were confined to the inner quarters of the house where they received instructions in womanly behavior and tasks, such as domestic duties, embroidery(刺绣), cooking. Even today, in Asian families, males are primarily responsible for task functions, while females attend to social and cultural tasks. Children see the father get served first at meals, get the first bath, and receive nods and deep bows from the rest of the family. What is interesting about gender roles in most Asian cultures is that although the family system perceives men as being superior to women, the duty of care within family falls almost automatically to women, whether be it in times of sickness, injury or sensibility.

  The Mexican culture also places the father in the dominant role and the mother in the domestic role. Children in Mexican homes soon learn that “within the family unit the father is the undisputed authoritative figure. All major decisions are made by him, and he sets the disciplinary standards. His word is final and the rest of the family looks to him for guidance and strength.”

  In India, males are also considered the superior sex. Male children are thought to be entrusted to parents by the gods. As Nanda points out, “Men make most of the important decisions, inheritance is through the male line, and a woman lives in her husbands village after she marries.” Very early in life, children begin to see how this belief is acted out: boys are given much more freedom of expression than are girls; boys are encouraged to take part in the religious festivals and activities as a means of introducing them to the spiritual world; and girls are asked to help with the chores that keep the family functioning

  Perhaps the earliest and clearest delineation of gender roles can be found in the Arab culture, which also treats males as the preferred sex. Family desire for a male is so strong that, on the wedding day, friends and relatives of the newlyweds wish them many sons. An Arab proverb states,“Your wealth brings you respect, your sons bring you delight.”Through these and other practices, roles begin to evolve, and women learn to the subservient to men.

  1. In cultures, like Japanese, Chinese and Korean, the perception of gender roles is influenced by

  A. the history.B. the traditions.

  C. the social regulations.D. the Confucianism.

  2. Which of the following is not supposed to the task for women in terms of traditional values?

  A. CookingB. Studying classics

  C. EmbroideryD. Taking care of the children

  3. A Mexican child will probably

  A. adopt his mothers advice rather than his fathers.

  B. defiance his father in public.

  C. dare not challenge his fathers authority.

  D. agree with every word of his father.

  4. In India, the girls are discriminated in

  A. their freedom of free speech. B. their freedom in religion.

  C. their choice of domestic jobs.D. their freedom of receiving education.

  5. We can infer from this article that

  A. Men are universally considered as superior than women.

  B. The misery condition of women is scarcely improved.

  C. Women are confined by the stereotype perceptions about gender roles.

  D. The discrimination against women is owed to Confucianism.

  Passage 4Despite strong economic growth for nearly two decades, Americas pessimists argues that calamity lies just over the horizon for todays youth. Our young people, they say, are condemned to being the first generation in U.S. history not to live as well as their parents.

  Dont buy it.

  When it comes to material goods, todays kids are better off than any previous generation. In fact, despite economic ups and downs, each generation of Americans has been better off than the one before it.

  Our growing prosperity is right before our eyes. Indeed, young Americans enjoy a consumer paradise well beyond their parents and grandparents.

  Consider the summer job, a familiar rite of passage. Working at just the minimum wage, todays students can easily pocket $20003000,enough to fill a dorm room with all kinds of gadgets and gizmos.

  The shopping list might include a Compaq computer with monitor, modern and color printer for $509, a $70 stereo system, a $100 cappuccino maker and a small refrigerator for $89. The rest of the buying spree ranges from the prosaica table lamp, to high tech — a digital camera.

  The total bill: $1990.

  Previous generations didnt have it as good. Working at the minimum wage in 1970, a student would earn $618. The money would be exhausted in buying a $99 adding machine, a $59 used typewriter and $20 clock radio.

  In 1950 the material reward were even less. With $290 from a mini mumwage summer job, a young worker could purchase a $180 TV a $37 record player, a $37 portable radio and a $28 Brownie camera. Thats about it.

  The earning from todays summer job goes as far as they do largely because of a hidden bonus from the freeenterprise system. Over time, wages tend to rise faster than the price, so the cost of what we buy in terms of hours worked becomes cheaper. In the early 1970s it took a month of work at the average hourly wage to afford a color television. Now its just three days. A dorm room full of consumer goods, of course, doesnt necessarily translate into a lifetime of improving living standards. The promise of future prosperity lies in the U.S. economys proven ability to deliver the goods and the services too.

  Our 21stcentury growth will come from the same catalyst that shaped most of American historyinvention and innovation. The country now sits on a mother lode of technology that dwarfs anything weve known in the past.

  The strength of Americas economic is its unmatched ability to put technology to work quickly and efficiently. Free enterprise not only encourages innovation, but it rewards risktaking and gives individuals the freedom to pursue their own destinies. This is what sours progress and improves living standards.

  When it comes to their economic prospects, todays young Americans are the luckiest generation in history — at lest until their children grow up and forge an even luckier one.

  1. The passage is mainly about

  A. the development of economy of America.

  B. the situation of childrens ability to buy things with their pin money.

  C. the parents view of pin money for children.

  D. the goods consumed by children.

  2. According to the passage, what does the author mean by saying “better off”?

  A. Have a better life.B. Do something easier.

  C. Have better vehicle to leave.D. Eat better.

  3. From the passage we can infer that the author of the passage would most likely imply

  A. The parents give too much money to the children.

  B. Nowadays the children can do better job than before.

  C. The money in America depreciated.

  D. The economy of America developed very fast.

  4. Whats the meaning of “gadgets and gizmos”?

  A. little toys B. sock

  C. clothing D. pin money

  5. The tone of the whole passage is

  A. satirical. B. informal.

  C. praising. D. confident.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1

  文章是对传统观点A血型容易引起心脏病的质疑和否定,指出如何对待怒气才是关键。

  1. There is undoubtedly some validity to it but trying to piece together exactly what constitutes the virulence of Type A and for what people, that the rub. 毫无疑问,这个理论有一定的合理性,但是如何把构成A血型的有害性的因素和A血型对什么类型的人有害联系起来,这才是困难所在。

  2. “There is no epidemiologist evidence that on hostility alone, but anger has been linked to CHO (Coronary Heart Disease) events, weakly for white collar men and more strongly for women in clerical jobs.” she said last week. 她上星期说:“并没有流行病学证据表明只有敌意会引起心脏病,怒气也会引发心脏病,而且怒气对女职员的影响要比男职员大。”

  1. 「B」前文指出错误的理论提出了一些与血型有关的引起心脏病的问题,后文对此进行批判,说明这些错误的理论难以立足的困难所在。

  2. 「C」第三段第一句破折号之间的内容即是答案。

  3. 「B」第四段最后一句明确指出了这个理论不能证明的问题。

  4. 「A」由文章大意可知,作者就是在努力说明血型与心脏病之间没有直接联系。

  5. 「A」B,C两项见最后一段第一句,D见最后一段第二句。A与倒数第二段矛盾。

  Passage 2

  文章是对弗洛伊德的生平的简介。并对他的思想和理论进行阐述,以及他的思想的深远影响。

  1. A psychoanalyst who is currently trying to enshrine Freud in the pantheon of cultural heroes must contend with a relentlessly critic who devotes his days to exposing for good or ill. 一个想要将弗洛伊德奉为神明的心理分析学家一定会碰上一个致力于批判弗洛伊德的学者。

  2. His fundamental idea — that all humans are endowed with an unconscious in which potent sexual and aggressive drives, and defenses against them, struggle for supremacy, as it were, behind a person s back — has struck many as a romantic, scientifically improvable notion. 他的主要思想——所有的人类都被潜在的性冲动、抵抗这种冲动的力量以及争权夺利的野心所驱使——作为一种从科学意义上来说可改进的设想强烈地冲击着人们。

  1. 「A」文章最后一句话点明了这一点。

  2. 「C」第二段第三、四句说明了人的性欲是从婴儿时代开始的。

  3. 「D」见第三段最后一句。

  4. 「C」参见最后一段第四句。

  5. 「B」参见最后一段第一句。

  Passage 3

  文章主要阐述的是文化赋予不同性别不同的含义,男性普遍被认为是主导者。而女性则被定位在弱势群体的地位。

  1. In early Confucian families, boys studied the classical and played, while girls were confined to the inner quarters of the house where they received instructions in womanly behavior and tasks, such as domestic duties, embroidery, cooking. 在早期的受儒家思想影响的家庭里,男孩子学习儒家经典作品和游戏,而女孩子则被困在闺房里,接受女孩子的礼仪教育。例如,做家务、刺绣、厨艺。

  2. The duty of care within family falls almost automatically to women, whether be it in times of sickness, injury or sensibility. 家庭内部的关怀总是落在女人身上,不管是生病、受伤还是感情的慰藉。

  1. 「D」参见第一段第五句。

  2. 「B」参见第一段第七句。

  3. 「C」参见第二段。

  4. 「A」由第三段最后一句可以知道男孩子在言论自由上享有更多权利。

  5. 「C」A过于绝对,它并不是一个全世界普遍的现象。B是错误的,可以看出妇女只是在某些方面还受一定压抑。D项只局限于中国、日本等东亚国家。

  通读全文可以得出C 的结论是正确的。

  Passage 4

  用从前美国的学生通过打工而得的零花钱的实际购买力和现在的学生相比较,反映了美国经济的飞速发展。

  1. In fact, despite economic ups and downs, each generation of Americans has been better off than the one before it. 尽管美国的经济跌宕起伏,但每一代美国人都比上一代过着优越得多的生活。

  2. Free enterprise not only encourages innovation, but it rewards risktaking and gives individuals the freedom to pursue their own destinies. 开放的企业制度不仅鼓励了社会的变革,更使人从事着商业冒险活动,让人们只有的去追逐属于他们自己的命运和机遇。

  1. 「B」文章主要是介绍了美国儿童在所得零花钱的购买力上生活过的好。

  2. 「A」文章是通过美国儿童的零花钱来说明美国经济的飞速发展。

  3. 「D」文章的主旨是表达经济的发展,别的都是其表现。

  4. 「A」在房间里装满了小玩具。

  5. 「D」作者主要是表现美国的发展之快是很令人对以后的生活充满信心的。

栏目相关课程表