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考研英语范文阅读(十三)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.

  The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-1987 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a “disjunction” between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.

  Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace—all that re-engineering and downsizing—are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.

  Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much “re-engineering” has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability. BBDO's Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re-engineering consultants as mere rubbish ?——“the worst sort of ambulance-chasing”。

  55. According to the author, the American economic situation is ________.

  (A)not as good as it seems

  (B)at its turning point

  (C)much better than it seems

  (D)near to complete recovery

  56. The official statistics on productivity growth ________.

  (A)exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle

  (B)fall short of businessmen's anticipation

  (C)meet the expectation of business people

  (D)fail to reflect the true state of economy

  57. The author raises the question “what about pain without gain?” because ________.

  (A)he questions the truth of “no gain without pain”

  (B)he does not think the productivity revolution works

  (C)he wonders if the official statistics are misleading

  (D)he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses

  58. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

  (A)Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity.

  (B)New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity.

  (C)The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long-term profitability.

  (D)The consultants are a bunch of good-for-nothings.

  答案及试题解析

  ABBA

  55.(A)意为:并不像表面看上去那样好。

  第一段第三、四句指出,美国到处都在谈论所谓公司的振兴(tales of corporate revival),但是,商界自认为正在进行的所谓生产率革命究竟是否名符其实(for real),这一点却很难确定。该句实际上是全文的主旨,从反面提出了下文旨在回答的问题,所谓生产率革命根本不存在,官方的统计数字也并不怎么乐观;该段第四句指出,问题是;最近显示出的增长部分是由商业领域里此时出现的正常的反弹(rebound)造成的,因此,不能将它看作是更深层的(当指生产率)振兴的证据。

  最后一段引用了几个专家的评价,对目前进行的促进生产率发展的措施进行了否定,特别是罗森伯格的评价,在他看来,目前负责调整经济的顾问们所做的工作,多数都是垃圾(没有成效),是典型的“于事无补”(ambulance-chasing)。

  B意为:处于转折阶段。

  C意为:比现状要好得多。

  D意为;几乎要实现全面复苏了。

  56.(B)意为:与商人的预想不符。或:不像商人预想的那样好。

  第二段指出,官方的统计数字也并不怎么乐观,如果将制造业和服务业算在一起(lump…… together),1989年以来生产率平均增长了1.2%,比前十年的平均指数略有增长;1991年后,生产率每年增长约2%,是1978年至 1987年这十年平均指数的一倍多。然而问题是:最近显示出的增长部分是由商业领域里此时出现的正常的反弹造成的,因此,不能将它看作是更深层的(当指生产率)振兴的证据。正如财政部长鲁宾所说的那样,一方面,大量的商业神话似乎表明生产率的激增(leap),另一方面,(官方的)统计数字又是另一番景象,二者之间存在着一个“差距”(disjunction)。

  A意为:排除了商业领域里出现的正常的反弹。

  C意为:与商人预想的一致。

  D意为:没有准确地反映经济的状况。

  57.(B)意为:他认为所谓的生产率革命并未奏效。

  第一段指出,人们常说:不劳则无所获,但是,要是劳而无获呢?美国到处都在谈论所谓公司的振兴,但是,商界自认为正在进行的所谓生产率革命究竟是否名符其实,这一点却很难确定。作者的观点在此其实已表达得很清楚。

  另外,从第三段来看,所谓的生产率革命包括了改组企业(business restructuring, reengineering)等一系列措施,正如第四段所指出的,近年所进行的一些重组措施也许并未奏效,而且,即使有所成效,效果也没有人们想像的那样广泛。在最后一段,作者引用了几个专家的评价,这几位专家对目前进行的促进生产率发展的措施更是持否定态度。作者的引用当然带有很大的倾向性,用以支持自己的观点。

  另请参考第55、56题题解。

  A意为:他对“不劳则无所获”的真实性提出质疑。该选择项过于局限于字面意思。

  C意为:他认为官方的统计数宁可能有错。正好相反,他们认为所谓的商业振兴仅仅是假象。

  D意为:他获得了商业振兴的确凿证据。

  58.(A)意为:激进的改革对生产率的提高极其重要。

  这是本文所未提到的,作者只指出促进生产率革命的措施并未奏效,未达到人们想象的效果,而并末提到应该如何才对。

  B意为:用新方法改变工作场所可以提高生产率。第三段第二句指出,重新改变工作场所仅是加快一个国家的国民经济综合生产率水平(overall productivity of an economy)的一种措施,促进生产率发展的因素还有许多,如:设备和机器投资、新技术、教育和培训投资等都会带来生产率的提高。

  C意为:降低成本并不能保证带来长期利润。根据第五段第三句,在比尔看来,许多公司机械地(in a mechanistic fashion)应用改革措施,降低了成本,但对长期盈利却考虑不够。可见,降低成本和长期盈利并非总是成正比。

  D意为:顾问们是一伙饭桶。文章最后一段指出,在罗森伯格看来,目前负责经济调整的顾问们所做的工作,多数都是垃圾(没有成效),是典型的“于事无补”。

  翻译句子

  1、What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.

  [参考译文]更加难以确定的是,商人们自认为是由他们正在主持的生产力革命是不是确有其事。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主语和表语都是从句。主语是what引导的名词性从句,表语是whether引导的状语表语从句。在表语从句中,主语是the productivity revolution,核心句是Whether the productivity revolution is for real,其中productivity revolution后面跟了一个that引导的定语从句,这个从句中的主语是businessmen,谓语是assume,后面跟一个宾语从句,而 that所替代的productivity resolution就是这个宾语从句中over这个介词的宾语。

  [阅读重点]理解这个句子的关键在于要弄清其中环环相套的从句关系,就是revolution后面that引导的定语从句,以及从句中assume后面的宾语从句,这样就找出preside over的宾语其实就是productivity revolution.

  2、There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a “disjunction” between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.

  [参考译文]正如财政部长罗伯特?鲁宾所说,在大量的生产力发生了飞跃的商业传奇与统计数字所反映的情景之间存在着一种“脱节”。

  [结构剖析]理解这个句子先要找出它的核心句:There is a “disjunction” between the mass and the picture,中间的人名及其职位可以当作插入语。between后面的名词带有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰的是business anecdote,that在这个从句中充当的是主语;and后面的名词the picture后面跟的是过去分词reflected,表示的是一种被动关系。

  [阅读重点]找出between和and的宾语(分别是the mass of business anecdote和the picture reflected by the statistics),这个句子就容易理解了。

  补充难句翻译

  1、The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend.

  [参考译文]问题在于,近来发生的经济快速增长部分上是由于商业周期到了这个时候通常就会出现的反弹造成的,因而不应被看作是经济复苏已经是潜在趋势的一个结论性的证据。

  [结构剖析]这个句子有一个很长的表语从句,由that引导。从句中有两个分句,中间用and so连接。第一个分句中又有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰的是rebound,第二个分句的主语与第一个分句的主语一样,都是part of the recent acceleration.这样我们可以得到这个句子的主干部分:The trouble is that part of acceleration is due to rebound, and is not conclusive evidence.[阅读重点]理解这个句子的关键在于要清楚表语从句中第一个分句所套的修饰rebound的定语从句,再者就是第二个分句的主语与第一个分句的主语一致,并注意conclusive的意思。

  2、New ways of organizing the workplace—all that re-engineering and downsizing—are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training.

  [参考译文]企业重组的新方法——所有那些重新设计、缩小规模的做法——只是对一个经济的整体生产力做出了一方面的贡献。这种经济还受许多其他因素的驱动,比如结合设备和机械上的投资、新技术,以及在教育和培训上的投资。

  [结构剖析]这个句子看似庞大,分析之下就简单了。先找出核心句:New ways are one contribution,再来看其它部分:new ways后面of organizing the workplace限定了new ways的内容;破折号之间的部分是进一步说明new ways of organizing the workplace的一些具体内容;contribution后面的to接的是名词宾语,这之后有一个which引导的定语从句,修饰的是前面的名词an economy.在这个定语从句中by后面的宾语是factors,后面的such as跟随的三个名词短语就是列举的内容。

  [阅读重点]找出主干句之后就不会受到长句所造成的混乱影响,关键是要弄清楚contribution to后面的内容,尤其是which引导的定语从句,修饰的是economy.

  3、His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability.

  [参考译文]他的同事迈克尔?比尔说,有太多的公司已经用一种机械的方式实行公司内部的重新设计,在没有充分考虑长期赢利的能力下削减了成本。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主要部分在于谓语says后面的宾语从句,从句中的重要成分是在状语短语部分,即in a mechanistic fashion,因为后面跟的一个现在分词短语chopping out costs是进一步说明fashion的内容,without后面的动名词短语是补充成分,表示的是一种伴随状态。

  [阅读重点]关键在于chopping out costs这个现在分词短语的理解,要明白这是in a mechanistic fashion的进一步说明。

  语言点详解

  1.corporate公司的[大纲词汇]corporation n.公司,企业,团体[衍生词汇]corporate a.公司的,法人的[经典例句] The chairman of the directors proposed to reorganize the corporate structure.

  2.revival复兴[大纲词汇]revive v.恢复;(使)复苏[衍生词汇]revival n.恢复,复苏,复兴[经典例句]The economic revival of the country didn't last long.

  3.preside over主持[大纲词汇]preside v.(at,over)主持[经典例句] He has presided over a seminar for social psychologists.

  4.for real真正的[大纲词汇」real a.真的,真实的;实际的,现实的realistic a.现实(主义)的reality n.现实,实际;真实[扩充词汇]for real真正的,确实的[经典例句]We will see whether the “save our city” campaign is for real.

  5.statistics统计[大纲词汇]statistics n统计(学)statistical a.统计的,统计学的[经典例句]The economic growth slows down according to statistics.

  6.lump把…归并在一起[大纲词汇]lump n.团,块; v.(使)成团,(使)成块[扩充词义]lump v.把…归并在一起[经典例句]He lumped the whole problem under the label of bureaucracy.

  7.on average平均[大纲词汇]average n.平均(数);a.平均的;通常的,一般的; v.平均,均分on(the/an)average平均,一般说来[经典例句]He works ten hours a day on average.

  8.acceleration加速[大纲词汇]acceleration n.加速(度)accelerate v.加速,促进[经典例句]acceleration of tooth decay is caused by lack of care.

  9.rebound回升[扩充词汇] rebound n.弹回,跳回;回升,回复;v.跳回;回升[经典例句]Crude oil had a sharp rebound in price in the past three days.

  10.conclusive有说服力的[大纲词汇]conclude v.结束,终止;断定;缔结,议定[衍生词汇]conclusive a.决定性的,有说服力的[经典例句]The evidence is interesting, but cannot be considered conclusive.

  11.underlying潜在的[大纲词汇]underlying a.含蓄的,潜在的;在下面的[经典例句]She was still not aware of the underlying danger.

  12.disjunction分离[扩充词汇]disjunction n.分离,分裂[经典例句]It is a distinct disjunction between theory and practice.

  13.anecdote轶事[扩充词汇]anecdote n.轶事,趣闻[经典例句]He told me an amusing anecdote of his father.

  14.point to表明[大纲词汇]point to(at,to)指,指向,表明[经典例句]The growth of unemployment rate pointed to an economic slow-down.

  15.re-engineer重新建造[扩充词汇]re-engineer v.再设计,重新建造,重新策划[经典例句]The company tried to reengineer its image.

  16.downsize缩小规模[扩充词汇]downsize v.以较小尺寸设计或建造,缩小规模[经典例句]The only solution to the problem is to downsize the project.

  17.switch to转换[大纲词汇]switch v.转换;(off)关断;(on)接通; n.开关,电闸;转换;枝条,鞭子[经典例句]After several failures, he decided to switch to a new method.

  15.speculative推测性的[大纲词汇]speculate v.(about,on)推测,推断;投机[衍生词汇]speculative a.深思熟虑的;推测的,推测性的[经典例句]Government's estimate of economic growth is speculative.

  19.restructuring调整[扩充词汇]restructure v.重建,改组,调整restructuring n.重建,改组,调整[经典例句]The company was revitalized through restructuring.

  20.ineptly不恰当地[扩充词汇]inept a.不合适的,不恰当的;不理智的,愚蠢的;无能的[经典例句]She doesn't seem annoyed although he said something ineptly.

  21.revenue收人[大纲词汇]revenue n.财政收入,税收[经典例句]The revenue did not meet the estimation this year.

  22.in a mechanistic fashion以机械的方式[大纲词汇]fashion n.流行式样,风尚,风气;样子,方式[扩充词汇]mechanistic a.机械的[经典例句]The millionaire lives in an expensive fashion.

  23.chop out削减[大纲词汇]chop v.砍,劈,斩; n.排骨,肉块[经典例句]The company chopped out salary of its employees under the pressure of great losses recently.

  24.sufficient充分的[大纲词汇]sufficient a.(for)足够的,充分的[经典例句]Plants don't grow well without sufficient sunshine.

  25.blunt直率的[大纲词汇]blunt a.直率的;钝的;: v.(使)钝;(使)迟钝[经典例句]His blunt answer surprised all of us.

  26.dismiss不接受[大纲词汇]dismiss v.免职,解雇,开除,解散[扩充词义]dismiss v.不考虑,拒绝接受[经典例句]The manager dismissed his suggestion as inappropriate.

  27.ambulance-chasing怂恿事故受伤者起诉的[扩充词汇]ambulancechaser怂恿事故受伤者起诉的律师ambulance-chasing a.怂恿事故受伤者起诉的

  28.fall short of达不到[扩充词汇]fall short of达不到,不符合;不履行[经典例句]Supply fell short of demand.

  29.good-for-nothing没用的人[扩充词汇]good-for-nothing a.没有用处的;n.没用的人或物

  全文翻译

  人们说,不劳就无获。但是,如果有劳却无获又会怎样呢?在美国,无论你走到哪里都会听到企业复苏的故事。商人们自认为的他们所领导的生产力革命是否确有其事,这一点更加难以确定。

  官方的统计数字却有点不让人乐观。这些数据表明,如果把制造业和服务业合起来算,1987年以来生产力平均增长1.2%。这比前10年的平均增长速度略快。自1991年来,生产力每年约增长2%。这比1978年—1987年的平均增长速度高两倍以上。问题在于,近年发生的生产力快速增长部分是由于商业周期通常到了这时候就会出现的反弹造成的,因而它不是经济复苏已经是潜在趋势的结论性证据。正如财政部长罗伯特·鲁宾所说的,生产力发生飞跃的商业传奇与统计数字所反映的情况之间存在着一种“脱节”。

  这其中的一些原因很容易解释。企业重组的新方法——所有那些重新设计和缩小规模的做法 ——只是对一个经济的整体生产力做出了一方面的贡献,而这种经济的发展还收到许多其他因素的驱动,如设备、机械上的联合投资,新技术,以及教育和培训上的投资。另外,公司的大部分改革是为了赢利,而达到赢利的目的不一定非要提高生产力:转入新的市场或改善产品质量也会有同样的功效。

  其他两种解释带有很大的猜测性。一种解释是近年来所进行的公司重组也许并未奏效。另一种则说,即使有所成效,效果也不像人们所设想的那样广泛。

  哈佛学者,快速增长的面包连锁店Au Bon Pain的前任总裁莱昂纳多·施莱辛格说,许多“重组”是粗糙的。他认为很多情况下,企业收益的损失超出了成本的降低。他的同事迈克·比尔说,太多的公司已用机械的方式进行重组,在没有充分考虑到长期赢利能力的情况下降低了成本。BBDO的艾尔?罗森夏恩更加直率。他把许多重组咨询专家所做的工作视为垃圾 ——“典型的劳而无获”。

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