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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY42

2006-7-28 01:05  

  Reading comprehension:

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1Almost every day we see something in the papers about the latest exciting developments in the space race. Photographs are regularly flashed to earth from thousands and even millions of miles away. They are printed in our newspapers and shown on our television screens as a visible proof of mans newest achievements. The photographs neatly sum up the results of these massive efforts to “conquer space” and at the same time they expose the absurdity of the undertaking. All we can see is an indistinguishable blob which is supposed to represent a planet seen from several thousand miles away. We are going to end up with a little moondust and a few stones which will be put behind glass in some museum. This is hardly value for money when you think that our own earth can provide countless sights which are infinitely more exciting and spectacular.

  The space race is not simply the objective search for knowledge it is often made out to be. It is just an extension of the race for power on earth. Only the wealthiest nations can compete and they do so in the name of pure scientific research. But in reality, all they are interested in is power and prestige. They want to impress us, their spectators, with a magnificent show of strengthen. Man has played the power game ever since he appeared on earth. Now he is playing it as it has never been played before. The space race is just another aspect of the ageold argument that “might is right”。

  We are often told that technological knowhow, acquired in attempting to get us into orbit, will be utilized to make life better on earth. But what has the space race done to relieve the suffering of the earths starving millions? In what way has it raised the standard of living of any one of us? As far as the layman is concerned, the practical results of all this expenditure of money and effort are negligible. Thanks to space research, we can now see television pictures transmitted live halfway across the globe and the housewife can use nonstick fryingpans in the kitchen. The whole thing becomes utterly absurd when you think that no matter what problems man overcomes, it is unlikely that he will ever be able to travel even to the nearest star.

  Poverty, hunger, disease and war are mans greatest enemies and the world would be an infinitely better place if the powerful nations devoted half as much money and effort to these problems as they do to the space race. For the first time in his history, man has the overwhelming technological resources to combat human suffering, yet he squanders them on meaningless pursuits.

  If a man deprived himself and his family of food in order to buy and run a car, we would consider him mad. Individuals with limited budgets usually get their priorities right: they provide themselves with necessities before trying to obtain luxuries. Why cant great nations act in the same sensible way? Let us put our house in order first and let space look after itself.

  1. The best title for this passage is

  A. space race is just for power on earth.

  B. pure scientific space research.

  C. space race is the worlds biggest money waster.

  D. achievement in space race.

  2. According to the passage, which of the following statement is NOT true?

  A. The ultimate motivation of the wealthiest nations carrying out space race is to compete for the power on earth.

  B. In authors opinion, our earth can provide more exciting and spectacular sights than other planet.

  C. Technology acquired from space race has raised the standard of living.

  D. If the powerful nations devote their efforts to resolve the problems such as poverty, disease, hunger and so on, the life will become better.

  3. In paragraph three, what does the underlined word “negligible” mean?

  A. less important B. negotiate

  C. negligent D. negative

  4. Due to the space research, we can enjoy some benefits EXCEPT that

  A. we can see television picture transmitted live halfway across the globe.

  B. we can use the nonstick fryingpans in the kitchen.

  C. we can see a little moondust and a few stones which are brought from other planet in the museum.

  D. we can travel to the nearest star.

  5. The main purpose of the passage is to

  A. point out poverty, hunger, disease and war as the greatest problems on earth.

  B. praise the technological achievements in the space race.

  C. criticize the money squander in the space race.

  D. encourage wealthy nations to overcome the difficulties in the space research.

  Passage 2In 1996 there were 200 million handguns in the US, and a total of 9,390 Americans (in a population of about 260 million people) were murdered with handguns. If the 27.5 million Canadians, who have tough laws on handgun ownership, shot each other up with the same zest as their southern neighbors, they would have suffered the loss of about 990 souls.

  In reality handguns were used to kill only 106 Canadians that year.

  What accounts for this difference? In cultural terms the average inhabitant of metropolitan Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg or Toronto is about as different from the average inhabitant of Seattle, Denver, Minneapolis or Boston respectively as two peas in a pod. Canada is awash in the very same violent films, TV programs, and video games as the US is.

  Lets compare the Americans with another closely related nation. This time one that has demonstrated beyond question its less than angelic character in the 20th century, and one that today suffers from acute social tension: Germany. Here is a society with a high rate of longterm unemployment, a large body of unassimilated and unpopular workingclass immigrants, and plenty of political extremists and skinhead hooligans(流氓)。 In Germany it hard to get guns, so theres no point in passing laws to restrict ownership of these weapons.

  So it goes. Compare America with any nation similar to it culturally and economically, and the result is always the same: Americans own many more handguns, and vastly more murders are committed with the guns, even though Americans are by and large just as lawabiding as their European, Australian, or North American cousins.

  A Chinese trying to understand the US should remember that most Americans do not own a handgun, owners of one handgun often own several. Hence the figure of gun is 200 million. Also, most Americans especially the older middleclass ones most inclined to vote in state and federal elections live in lowcrime areas little affected by gunrelated mayhem. This is one reason why the shootings in Littleton, Colorado, have caused such a stir-the perpetrators were relatively intelligent kids in a prosperous middle — class/uppermiddleclass suburb, going to a reputable public high school, in other words exactly sort the of setting where handgun crime seldom takes place. In the broad range of issues that most American voters consider when they go to the polls gun control seldom looms large.

  Except in the case of one group: the gunowners themselves, especially the ones who belong to the National Rifle Association (NRA), and these people are passionately opposed to any attempt to take their weapons away. Against all logic, they refuse to listen to arguments based on the experience of other countries and they have their own social circles and publications in which they egg one another on to punish politicians who advocate gun control. Much of their influence comes from their willingness to turn out for primary elections, which tend to attract many fewer voters than regular elections. Let a Republican candidate say something negative about and these zealots will be at the polls on Election Day to vote against him. For many NRA members, if gun control comes up in an election campaign it automatically becomes the “issue”。 Gun fanatics are perfect examples of “singleissue voters” who can seriously distort lawmaking in a society where other citizens are too distracted or too lazy to vote.

  1. What is the text mainly talking about?

  A. America, Canada, German and other countries are counties with a high murder rates.

  B. The number of people who were murdered with handguns in America is much larger than many countries, so gun control by law is essential for Americans.

  C. Gun control should be a hot issue in every election campaign in America because there are still gun fanatics.

  D. The difference between America and Canada is the murder rates in US are much higher than that of Canada.

  2. What does the word “egg” in the last paragraph probably mean?

  A. instigateB. persuade

  C. uniteD. explain

  3. Which of the following is true about America?

  A. Americans own many more handguns, and vastly more murders are committed.

  B. No one in America should be allowed to own more than one gun.

  C. All Americans advocate gun control except some social misfit.

  D. The members of the National Rifle Association want to turn out for general elections.

  4. Which of the following is not true about Germany?

  A. There is strong social tension in Germany.

  B. The unemployment rate of Germany is very high.

  C. There are many working class immigrants in Germany.

  D. Germans can easily find ways to get guns.

  5. What can be implied in the last two paragraphs?

  A. Generally speaking, American voters do not regard gun control problem to be so severe.

  B. The people who commit crimes have caused some social tensions.

  C. All of the middle — class ones prefer to live in lowcrime areas.

  D. Gun fanatics have made great efforts to distract other citizens.

  Passage 3One of the oldest seafaring ships in the world has been reconstructed after seven years patient archaeological work. The ship, a 60foot sailing vessel, sank off the coast of Cyprus in the days of Alexander the Great around the year 300 B. C. Its discovery and restoration have now thrown new light on the ancient trade routes and shipbuilding techniques.

  What makes the Cyprus ship so informative is the remarkable state of preservationmainly due to an unusual feature of its design. The hull was sheathed on the outside with lead that was fixed to the timber with bronze tackles which helped the wooden frame survive 2000 years under the sea.

  The first clue to the Wrecks existence came in 1964 when a sponge diver from the presentday resort of Kyrenia came across a pile of amphorae (ancient storage jugs)。 Unfortunately his diving air supply ran out just at that moment, so that he had no time to mark the spot. It took him three more years and hundreds of dives before he chanced upon them again.

  He reported his find to an underwater archaeological team from the University of Pennsylvania, which was surveying the Cypriot coasts for wrecks. After checking his description, the team decided to concentrate their resources on the Kyrenia ship, and over the next two years a team of no fewer than 50 archaeologists and divers took part in the excavation.

  With the help of a metal detector, the team discovered that wreckage lay scattered over a 2000squarefeet area, often buried beneath sand and seaweed. Each item was carefully photographed in its place. And a system of plastic grids stretched over the whole site so that it could be accurately mapped.

  More than 400 amphorae lay buried in the sand. The ship had been carrying a cargo of wine and almonds. More than 9000 of these were found in or nearby the amphorae, their outer shells still perfectly preserved. As well as these, there were 29 stone grain mills, being carried both as cargo and as ballast.

  As well as the main cargo, there were other small finds. Four wooden spoons, four oil jugs, four salt dishes and four drinking cups suggested the number of crew on the ships last voyage. There was an axe, and near the intricately carved mast lay a wooden pulley, used to raise and lower the yeard. A bronze cauldron, used perhaps to prepare the crews meals, was also lying in the wreck.

  Raising the delicate timbers of the ship presented grave problems. The archaeologists decided that trying to lift them out in one piece would be too risky. Instead the hull was cut into sections on the site by an electric underwater saw. Then each carefully labeled piece was raised to the surface by a lifting balloon. Once out in the air again, each timber section was treated with a preservative called polyethylene glycol(聚乙二醇), this replaces the water in the weakened wood so that the timbers do not disintegrate when they dry.

  Until the discovery of the ship, little was known of the Eastern Mediterranean trading vessels, their routes or their cargoes. Thanks to the different shaped amphorae, the Kyrenia ships last voyage can be traced. She had been treading her way southwards along the coast of Anatolia, stopping at the islands of Samos, Kos and Rhodes, before continuing eastwards to the north coast of Cyprus.

  1. What is the main idea of the text?

  A. Archaeologists were able to learn a lot about the ancient trade routes and shipbuilding techniques.

  B. An archaeological team has made great scientific success through the salvage, reconstruction and archaeological study of an old seafaring ship sank off the coast of Cyprus around the year 300 B.C.

  C. The approximate date of the shipwreck could be decided from the analysis of the almond cargo.

  D. A ship was discovered only a short distance from land.

  2. Which of the following items of information is true?

  A. A considerable amount of the cargo remained on board.

  B. In 1964 the archaeological team began to survey the Cypriot coast for wrecks.

  C. Polyethylene glycol replaces the water in the weakened wood to keep the timbers from disintegrating any time.

  D. No member of the crew was drowned as a result of the wreck

  3. Which of the following items could be related to ballast?

  A. a kind of ancient container.

  B. something heavy enough to be put into another object in order to make the other object heavier.

  C. something with a balllike shape.

  D. a present for foreign countries.

  4. Which cannot be implied in the last paragraph?

  A. The discovery of the Cyprus ship threw new light on the ancient routes and shipbuilding techniques.

  B. Before the discovery of the Cyprus no one did knew the Kynenia ships last voyage.

  C. The ship had passed several islands near the coast of Cyprus.

  D. Remained amphorae can be represented as a sign to trace seafaring routes.

  5. The best title for the passage could be

  A. ship and history.

  B. archaeological work and history.

  C. scientific accomplishment on the discovery of the ship Cyprus.

  D. Cyprus ships.

  Passage 4Another example of the exercise of power by Congress was the action it took during the Reconstruction Period after the Civil War. For half a century after the Civil War, the United States continued to witness great changes and development in almost every field. The victory of the North in the Civil War protected the integrity of the United States as an indivisible nation. But the second goal of the war, the abolition of slavery and equal chance for everyone were not perfectly achieved. The frustration of the Confederates attempt to split the nation did mean the end of all disputes. The constitutional abolition of slavery failed to press forward with its program of “Reconstruction” or the reform, of the Southern States that had been economically destroyed and culturally devastated by the Civil War. Most southern whites bitterly resented the Reconstruction program because, in their words, it violated their interest. They refused to cooperate with officials sent by the Federal Government. It has already been noted that President Johnson favored a lenient policy toward the South and attempted to carry out Lincolns “10 per cent plan”。 He pardoned most of the Southern leaders and permitted them to restore their state governments. They were permitted to elect Senators and Representatives.

  Congress, however, led by the Radical Republican Thaddeus Stevens, had other ideas about the handling of the defeated Confederacy. Congress favored punitive policies. The south should be treated as conquered territory, and its readmission should be handled by Congress rather than the President. Congress opposed the Johnson Governments and the “Black Codes” passed by Southern states which virtually restored former slaves to their masters. Accordingly, it passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867. This measure divided the South into five military districts and provided that a seceded state would be readmitted in the Union only after it had ratified the 14th Amendment which provided that all persons born or naturalized in the United States should be citizens of the United States and of the states in which they resided; granted equality before the law to all persons; and prohibited a state from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Congress also barred rebel leaders from federal office, repudiated the Confederate debt, and reduced the representation of states which barred qualified persons from voting, Later it adopted the 15th Amendment guaranteeing the Negroes the right to vote. Despite the constitution guarantees of equality, the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1896 that the Constitution permitted separate families and services for two races under some conditions.

  Johnson vigorously opposed these measures. He vetoed the Reconstruction Act and others, only to see Congress repass them over his veto. After such passage of the Tenure of Office Act, Johnson, believing it unconstitutional, violated it and removed a member of his Cabinet without consulting Congress. The House of Representatives proceeded to impeach Johnson. The Senate, however, failed to reach the twothirds majority necessary for his removal in the vote.

  1. The passage can best be titled as

  A. the reconstruction period.

  B. conflict between president Johnson and congress.

  C. the exercise of power.

  D. president and congress.

  2. What does the word “punitive” probably mean?

  A. oppositeB. brutal

  C. strictD. giving punishment or suffering

  3. It is not implied in the passage that

  A. Johnson failed to consult congress about the removal of one of his Cabinet members.

  B. the contradictory point of the two parts is how to deal with the south.

  C. if a state in the south were separated from the union, it would not join the union unless it had ratified the 14th Amendment.

  D. Johnson eventually did not receive the impeachment.

  4. Which of the following items of information is not true according to the text?

  A. In the United States, the power of President and Congress is mutually checked and balanced. Neither of them can exercise the power without consulting each other.

  B. The Civil War was declared with two purposes: one was to protect the integrity of the United States, and the other was to abolish the slavery.

  C. Because of the Reconstruction program the southern people had gained much benefit.

  D. There was something in common between the policy of Lincoln and Johnson.

  5. Which of the following one did President Johnson approve of?

  A. the Reconstruction Act of 1867B. Black Codes

  C. The 15th AmendmentD. Tenure of Office Act

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1

  太空竞争的目的不单单是客观地探索知识,实际是对权力和威望的向往,它耗费了太多的金钱和努力,是无意义的追求。作者在此批评了太空竞争是世界上最大的资金浪费。

  1. All we can see is an indistinguishable blob which is supposed to represent a planet seen from several thousand miles away. 我们所看到的只是一个模糊不清的小圆块,据说那便是一个从几千英里以外看到的星球。

  2. Thanks to space research, we can now see television pictures transmitted live halfway across the globe and the housewife can use nonstick fryingpans in the kitchen. 借助太空研究,我们现在得以看到越过全球现场直播的电视画面,厨房里的家庭主妇也用上了不粘锅。

  1. 「C」参考主旨。

  2. 「C」第三段作者质疑在太空研究方面所获得的技术在哪一方面提高了我们的生活水平。所以我们的生活水平没有因此提高。

  3. 「A」“negligible”意为微不足道,可忽略。B是谈判,C是玩忽的,D是负面的,消极的

  4. 「D」第四段说不管人类征服了多少困难,他也不可能去最近的星球上旅行。

  5. 「C」作者认为强国把他们用于太空竞争的金钱和努力的一半来解决贫穷、饥饿、疾病和战争,我们的生活会更好,而不是把金钱用在无意义的追求上。

  Passage 2

  本文围绕美国的枪支控制这一问题阐述观点。与别的国家相比,其问题就在于没有法律控制手枪的拥有。

  1. Against all logic, they refuse to listen to arguments based on the experience of other countries and they have their own social circles and publications in which they egg one another on to punish politicians who advocate gun control. 他们不讲逻辑,拒绝听取基于别国经验的观点,而且他们拥有自己的社会活动圈子和公开发表物,在其中他们互相怂恿去惩处那些拥护枪支控制的政治家。

  2. Compare America with any nation similar to it culturally and economically, and the result is always the same: Americans own many more handguns, and vastly more murders are committed with the guns, even though Americans are by and large just as lawabiding as their European, Australian, or North American cousins. 拿美国与在经济文化上类似的国家相比,结果总是一致的:美国拥有更多的手枪,更多的枪支犯罪事件,甚至总体上来说,美国和欧洲,澳大利亚或者北美一样遵守法律。

  1. 「B」本文主要围绕美国的枪支控制这一问题阐述观点。

  2. 「A」“煽动,怂恿”

  文中相关一句的意思是,他们有他们自己的社会活动圈子和公开发表物,在其中他们相互怂恿去惩处那些拥护枪支控制的政治家。B“劝服”C“团结”D“解说”都不正确。

  3. 「A」由第五段第二句可找到有关A的信息。B在文中找不到相关信息。C中“与社会不相容的人”概念不太清晰。D与最后一段中“primary elections”违背。

  4. 「D」由第四段可知德国是一个社会紧张、失业率高、劳动阶级的移民很多的国家,与美国相比,德国的总体犯罪较低,德国人很难获得手枪。

  5. 「A」倒数第二段最后一句关键词是“seldom looms large”。

  Passage 3

  这是一篇有关沉船打捞研究工作的历史性文章。塞浦路斯沉船的发现和恢复对历史现象的认识提供了条件。

  1. Once out in the air again, each timber section was treated with a preservative called polyethylene glycol, this replaces the water in the weakened wood so that the timbers do not disintegrate when they dry. 一旦暴露在空气中,每根船骨就被涂上了聚乙醇防腐剂,这就代替了渐渐软化的木头中的水,以便于船骨干燥时不会断裂。

  1. 「B」见文章大意讲解。

  2. 「A」A可以从第六段中找出,B与第三段相斥,C可在第九段最后一句中找到有关信息。D在文中没有对应信息。

  3. 「B」“一种放进去能使别的东西变沉的重东西”

  原文中可通过石墨与船的关系猜测词义。A,C ,D 这几种猜测与上下文联系不大。

  4. 「C」通过最后一段最后一句话我们不能推断那三个岛屿就在塞浦路斯海岸附近。

  5. 「C」A,B都太空泛,文章不是主要讲关于关系这些一般概念,而是叙述一次沉船打捞的具体过程。D则不是全文内容的对应标题。

  Passage 4

  本文是一篇介绍美国总统约翰逊与国会发生分歧的一段历史。总统反对国会的一些法案和措施。

  1. The constitutional abolition of slavery failed to press forward with its program of “Reconstruction”,or the reform, of the Southern States which had been economically destroyed and culturally devastated by the Civil War. 宪法规定的废除奴隶制度没有能继续对经济上、文化上都由于内战而遭受损害的南部实行重建方案或者改革计划。

  2. This measure divided the South into five military districts and provided that a seceded state would be readmitted in the Union only after it had ratified the 14th Amendment which provided that all persons born or naturalized in the United States should be citizens of the United States and of the states in which they resided. 这项举措使南部分成了五个军事区,而且规定任何一个脱离了联邦的南方政府,只有在同意认可第14修正案的前提下才能被联邦重新承认。第14修正案规定所有在美国出生或是拥有美国国籍的人应该是美国的并且也是居住州的公民。

  1. 「B」见文章大意讲解。

  2. 「D」根据前文和此词构成推断这个词的大意,通过意思判断A,B,C都与前面仁慈的对待南方的政策形成对比,但通过punitive的构成可联想到punish.

  3. 「D」A可从第三段找到信息,B很容易从文中得知,C与第二段意思相符。D与第三段相违背。

  4. 「C」由第一段可知南方人民对此法案不满,因为它触犯了他们的利益。

  5. 「B」原文第二段国会通过了1867重建法案和第14,15修正案,第三段指出约翰逊强烈反对这些法案,并且认为任职法案也是不符合宪法的,因此通过排除法选B.

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