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2006-7-6 21:39 印建坤 


  Some of the concerns surrounding Turkey's application to join the European Union, to be voted on by the EU's Council of Ministers on December 17th, are economic-in particular, the country's relative poverty. Its GDP per head is less than a third of the average for the 15 pre-2004 members of the EU. But it is not far off that of one of the ten new members which joined on May 1st 2004 (Latvia), and it is much the same as those of two countries, Bulgaria and Romania, which this week concluded accession talks with the EU that could make them full members on January 1st 2007.

  Furthermore, the country's recent economic progress has been, according to Donald Johnston, the secretary-general of the OECD, “stunning”。 GDP in the second quarter of the year was 13.4% higher than a year earlier, a rate of growth that no EU country comes close to matching. Turkey's inflation rate has just fallen into single figures for the first time since 1972, and this week the country reached agreement with the IMF on a new three-year, $10 billion economic programme that will, according to the IMF's managing director, Rodrigo Rato, “help Turkey…… reduce inflation toward European levels, and enhance the economys resilience”。

  Resilience has not historically been the country's economic strong point. As recently as 2001, GDP fell by over 7%. It fell by more than 5% in 1994, and by just under 5% in 1999. Indeed, throughout the 1990s growth oscillated like an electrocardiogram recording a violent heart attack. This irregularity has been one of the main reasons (along with red tape and corruption) why the country has failed dismally to attract much-needed foreign direct investment. Its stock of such investment (as a percentage of GDP) is lower now than it was in the 1980s, and annual inflows have scarcely ever reached $1 billion (whereas Ireland attracted over $25 billion in 2003, as did Brazil in every year from 1998 to 2000)。

  One deterrent to foreign investors is due to disappear on January 1st 2005. On that day, Turkey will take away the right of virtually every one of its citizens to call themselves a millionaire. Six noughts will be removed from the face value of the lira; one unit of the local currency will henceforth be worth what 1m are now-ie, about 0.53 ($0.70)。 Goods will have to be priced in both the new and old lira for the whole of the year, but foreign bankers and investors can begin to look forward to a time in Turkey when they will no longer have to juggle mentally with indeterminate strings of zeros.

  注(1):本文选自Economist;12/18/2004, p115-115, 2/5p;

  注(2):本文习题命题模仿2004年真题text 1第1题和第3题(1,3),2001年真题text 1第2题(2),1999年真题text 2第2题(4)和2002年真题text 3第4题(5);

  1. What is Turkey's economic situation now?

  [A] Its GDP per head is far lagging behind that of the EU members.

  [B] Its inflation rate is still rising.

  [C] Its economy grows faster than any EU member.

  [D] Its economic resilience is very strong.

  2. We can infer from the second paragraph that__________.

  [A] Turkey will soon catch the average GDP level of the 15 pre-2004 EU members

  [B] inflation rate in Turkey used to be very high

  [C] Turkey's economy will keep growing at present rate

  [D] IMF's economic program will help Turkey join the EU

  3. The word “oscillated” (Line 3, Paragraph 3) most probably means_________.

  [A] fell

  [B] climbed

  [C] developed

  [D] swang

  4. Speaking of Turkey's foreign direct investment, the author implies that_________.

  [A] it's stock is far less than that of other countries

  [B] it does not have much influence on Turkey's economic progress

  [C] steady GDP growth will help Turkey attract more foreign direct investment

  [D] Turkey's economic resilience relies on foreign direct investment

  5. We can draw a conclusion from the text that__________.

  [A] foreign investment environment in Turkey will become better

  [B] Turkey's citizens will suffer heavy loss due to the change of the face value of the lira

  [C] the local currency will depreciate with the removal of six noughts from the face value

  [D] prices of goods will go up

  答案:C B D C A




  GDP: 国内生产总值(gross domestic product)

  accession: [Ak5seFEn] n. 添加, 增加

  OECD: 经合,经济合作与发展组织 (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)

  resilience: [rI5zIlIEns] n. 弹回, 有弹力, 恢复力,

  oscillate: [5Csileit]v. 振荡

  electrocardiogram: [IlektrEJ5kB:dIEJ^rAm] n. .[医]心电图, 心动电流图(略作ECG)

  inflow: [5inflEu] n. 流入, 流入物

  deterrent: [di5tE:rEnt] n. 阻碍物

  nought: [nC:t] n. 无, 零

  lira: [5liErE] n. 里拉

  juggle: [5dVQ^l] v. (常与with连用)耍杂耍

  indeterminate: [7indi5tE:minit] adj. 在程度、体积、性质或数量上没有准确确定的


  But it is not far off that of one of the ten new members which joined on May 1st 2004 (Latvia), and it is much the same as those of two countries, Bulgaria and Romania, which this week concluded accession talks with the EU that could make them full members on January 1st 2007.

  主体句式:it is not far off that…and it is much the same as……

  结构分析:这是一个复杂句,句子主体结构是一个并列句,在第一个并列分句里有一个which引导的定语从句修饰new members,在第二个并列分句里有一个which引导的非限定性定语从句修饰Bulgaria and Romania,还有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰accession talks.



  1. 答案为C,属事实细节题。根据文章第二段,土耳其的经济发展“十分惊人”。接着载第二行,作者以数据说明土耳其本年度第二季度的GDP增长“no EU country comes close to matching”,可见其经济发展速度超过任何欧盟成员。

  2. 答案为B,属推理判断题。根据文章第二段“土耳其得通货膨胀率自1972年以来首次跌进各位数”可知,以前的通货膨胀率都在两位数甚至更多,是非常高的数字。

  3. 答案为D,属猜词题。这个词的意思可以根据文中第三段所用的明喻判断出来。文中说,整个1990年代,土耳其的GDP增长就好像“遭受了猛烈的心脏病发作时的心电图一样”,可见GDP增长时高时低,峰谷之间的差异较大,所以oscillated最有可能的意思就是“摆动,震荡”,只有A中的swang意思与之相符。

  4. 答案为C,属推理判断题。根据文章第三段,GDP的不规律性是导致土耳其难以吸引外国直接投资的主要原因,可见稳定的GDP增长有助于土耳其吸引更多的外国直接投资。

  5. 答案为A,属推理判断题。文章在第一段和第二段介绍土耳其快速的经济增长。第三段分析了过去不能吸引急需的外国直接投资的主要原因之一:经济发展不规律性。文章最后一段介绍了将取消妨碍外国投资者的一个因素。并在文章最末提到:“外国银行家和投资人现在可以期待今后在土耳其再不用快速心算一串串数不清的零了”。由此可见,土耳其的外国投资环境将变得更好。