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07年考研英语阅读理解精读100篇unit10

2006-7-6 21:39 印建坤 

Unit 10

  Focus on what you do best. This age-old strategy has worked well for RealNetworks, Microsoft's main competitor in multimedia software for the Internet. Now, the smaller Seattle-based firm is trying a novel way to contain the software giant. On October 29th, it released the underlying recipe, or source-code, of its RealPlayer software and will soon do the same for its other programs——giving away a big chunk of its intellectual property.

  This may sound like a desperate echo of 1998, when Netscape, struggling in Microsoft's chokehold, published the source-code of its web browser (an initiative that yielded few real results until this June, when the first serious new version of the open-source browser, Mozilla, was released)。 Yet RealNetworks is not playing defence. It is trying to encourage the creation of a common multimedia software infrastructure for every kind of file format and device, thus thwarting Microsoft's ambitions in this promising market.

  The firm hopes that others in the industry (volunteer programmers, media firms and hardware makers) will take the code, called Helix DNA, improve it and make it run on new devices, such as mobile phones and home stereos, turning RealNetworks' software into an industry standard. Clever licensing terms are supposed to ensure that this standard does not splinter and that the firm still makes money.

  Individual developers, universities and other non-profit organisations can modify the software as they please, and even redistribute it for free, so long as they also publish the source-code for their changes. This is a sort of payment in kind, for RealNetworks is then allowed to use these contributions. Firms, on the other hand, must pay royalty fees if they distribute more than 1m copies of the code. They also have to make sure that their software works with other Helix DNA products. The software's development community already has 2,000 members. And several hardware makers back the effort. But there are risks. Afraid of piracy, media groups are suspicious of anything that might be related to hackers (although they also do not want to depend on, and pay for, technology controlled by Microsoft)。 The self-created competition could also hurt RealNetworks if customers decide its commercial products, which will be based on the open source-code but with extra features, are not worth paying extra for.

  RealNetworks' move is another sign that the software industry is going hybrid. Mixing elements of proprietary software, where the source-code is tightly controlled, with open-source programs enables firms to expand a market, harvest the ideas of others and, they hope, still make money. Even Microsoft is edging this way: it recently announced that partners can now look at——but not modify or re-use——the source-code for Passport, its controversial digital-identity service.

  注(1):本文选自Economist; 11/2/2002, p64-65, 2p;

  注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象2004年真题Text 1;

  1.What is the RealNetworks' new way of stopping Microsoft?

  [A]By selling its intellectual property.

  [B]By doing what it is good at.

  [C]By releasing the free source-code.

  [D]By severe competition with Microsoft.

  2.Which of the following can be a disadvantage of releasing the source-code?

  [A]It can bring about self-created competition.

  [B]It can defeat Microsoft's ambitions in this market.

  [C]It can use the improved software.

  [D]It can get royalty fees from some firms.

  3.The expression “a desperate echo”(Line 1, Paragraph 2) most probably means ________.

  [A]a useless repetition

  [B]a poor resemblance

  [C]a shabby product

  [D]a dangerous copy

  4.What does the move of RealNetworks suggest?

  [A]Microsoft fails to control the software market.

  [B]Software market is becoming a mixed market.

  [C]RealNetworks wants to make more money.

  [D]Software market is not fixed and stable.

  5.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A]Netscape had a sheer failure for its publishing the source-code.

  [B]RealNetworks wants to occupy the source-code market.

  [C]RealNetworks wants to make profits by releasing the free source-code.

  [D]Microsoft has to change its managing strategy.

  答案:CADBC

  篇章剖析

  本文介绍了RealNetworks网络公司如何通过公布RealPlayer播放器软件秘诀(即源码),试图牵制微软公司的做法。第一段指出RealNetworks试图用一种新方法——公布RealPlayer播放器软件秘诀(即源码)来牵制微软这个软件届巨人;第二段指出RealNetworks网络公司主动出击,想要牵制微软的野心;第三段和第四段详细介绍这一方案如何操作、如何实施、以及如何获利;第五段指出软件业的新迹象,以及对微软的影响。

  词汇注释

  chokehold n. 掐脖子

  thwart [WwC:t] vt. 反对; 阻挠, 挫败, 妨碍;成功地抵制, 顶住, 使……希望破灭, 使……企图破产

  splinter vt., vi. (使)裂成碎片, (使)分裂,

  royalty n. 版税,上演税;特许权使用费,专利权使用费,专利权税

  edge vi. 徐徐移动, 侧着移动, 谨慎前进

  难句分析

  This may sound like a desperate echo of 1998, when Netscape, struggling in Microsoft's chokehold, published the source-code of its web browser (an initiative that yielded few real results until this June, when the first serious new version of the open-source browser, Mozilla, was released)。

  主体句式:This may sound like a desperate echo of 1998 …

  结构分析:本句句形结构并不复杂,关键是理解个别词的含义。“desperate echo”的含义是“危险的仿效”:“when”并列连词,相当于“and just at that time”,意思是“在那时”:“struggling in Microsoft's chokehold”做伴随状语来修饰“Netscape”,其中“chokehold”的意思是“掐脖子”:“web browser”的意思是“网络浏览器”;括号里的句子做进一步的补充说明,其中an initiative之前省去了“which was”:“that”引导定语从句来修饰“an initiative”;定语从句中“when”还是并列连词,“Mozilla”是“open-source browser”的同位语。

  句子译文:这听起来似乎像是1998年的一次危险的仿效。那年,因被微软“掐着脖子”而做生死挣扎的Netscape公司发表了其网络浏览器的源码(在今年6月它推出了真正意义上的最新版开放原码浏览器——Mozilla——之前,这种主动出击几乎没有给它带来任何实际效果)。

  题目分析

  1.答案为C,属事实细节题。文章在开头提到“集中注意力做你最拿手的事”这一古老的策略对微软公司在因特网多媒体软件领域的主要竞争对手RealNetworks网络公司十分奏效。现在,RealNetworks网络公司要使用一种新办法,那就是“it released the underlying recipe, or source-code, of its RealPlayer software and will soon do the same for its other programs——giving away a big chunk of its intellectual property.”。

  2.答案为A,属事实细节题。原文对应信息是:“The self-created competition could also hurt RealNetworks if customers decide its commercial products, which will be based on the open source-code but with extra features, are not worth paying extra for.”

  3.答案为D ,属猜词题。从文中“when Netscape, struggling in Microsoft's chokehold, published the source-code of its web browser”我们可判断RealNetworks网络公司和Netscape公司的做法一样;从句子“an initiative that yielded few real results until this June, when the first serious new version of the open-source browser, Mozilla, was released.”我们可判断Netscape公司的做法是极不成功的,危险的。

  4.答案为B,属事实细节题。原文对应信息是:“RealNetworks' move is another sign that the software industry is going hybrid.”,理解这句话的关键是要知道什么是“hybrid”。接下来的句子做出了解释“Mixing elements of proprietary software, where the source-code is tightly controlled, with open-source programs enables firms to expand a market”,在这句话中注意词组“mix … with”。

  5.答案为C,属事实细节题。文章两次提到了“make money”,一句是“Clever licensing terms are supposed to ensure that this standard does not splinter and that the firm still makes money.”,另一句是“they hope, still make money.”。从这些句子我们可看出“赚钱”是RealNetworks网络公司实施这一新举措的目的。

  参考译文

  “集中注意力做你最拿手的事”这一古老的策略对微软公司在因特网多媒体软件领域的主要竞争对手RealNetworks网络公司十分奏效。目前,这家位于西雅图的公司正试图用一种新方法来牵制微软这个软件届巨人。10月29日,这家公司发布了取得领先地位的RealPlayer播放器软件秘诀,即源码,并将很快对其它程序采取同样的行动——出售其知识产权的一大部分。

  这听起来似乎像是1998年的一次危险的仿效。那年,因被微软“掐着脖子”而做生死挣扎的Netscape公司发表了其网络浏览器的源码(在今年6月它推出了真正意义上的最新版开放原码浏览器——Mozilla——之前,这种主动出击几乎没有给它带来任何实际效果)。但RealNetworks网络公司并不是在打防御战。它正大力创建一个对每一种文件格式和装置都适用的公共多媒体软件基础结构,这样,它就在这个很使人看好的市场上有力地牵制住了微软的野心。

  该公司希望业内其它公司(志愿参加的程序设计公司、传媒公司和硬件制造公司)将采用这种被称作Helix DNA的代码,对它加以改进,并在其新装置(如移动电话和家用音响等装置)上运行,最终把RealNetworks公司的软件变成一种行业标准。精明的许可证发放条款应保证这一标准不被像切蛋糕似的分成碎块,保证公司仍有钱可赚。

  个体开发商、大学和其它非盈利性组织,只要他们也能把其更改后程序的源码公布于众,可根据他们的意愿对该软件进行修改,甚至可以免费发放。这实际上是一种实物支付方式,因为到了那个时候,RealNetworks公司也可使用这些改进的软件成果。另一方面,如果其它公司能销售1百万以上的源码,他们须支付特许权使用费。他们还要保证他们的软件与Helix DNA产品兼容。软件开发业已拥有2000余名成员。一些硬件制造商也支持这一举动。但存在风险。由于担心被盗版,传媒组织对一切与黑客有关的举动都表示怀疑(尽管他们也不想依赖微软、向它支付技术使用费或在技术上受控于微软)。其商业产品以开放源码为基础,但具有极佳的特点。如果客户认为这些产品不值得他们额外付钱的话,那么,自我制造的竞争也可能会伤害RealNetworks公司。

  RealNetworks公司的举动表明了另一种迹象,即软件业正在成为混合模式。把那些源码受严格控制的专有软件成分(组件)与开放源码程序加以混合就能使公司拓展市场,集思广益,并且——他们希望——仍可赚钱。连微软公司也正以这种方式小心翼翼地行事:最近微软公司发出公告,说合伙人现在可以查看——但不能更改或重复使用——Passport(微软有争议的数字验证服务)的源码。

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