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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY3

2006-7-28 01:03  

  2002年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题(阅读部分)

  Section IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.

  Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, thats God," came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks hes a doctor."

  If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and itll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairmans notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustnt attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the post office or the telephone system.

  If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently offthecuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often its the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a lighthearted remark.

  Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you dont succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.

  41. To make your humor work, you should

  A. take advantage of different kinds of audience.

  B. make fun of the disorganized people.

  C. address different problems to different people.

  D. show sympathy for your listeners.

  42. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are

  A. impolite to new arrivals.B. very conscious of their godlike role.

  C. entitled to some privileges.D. very busy even during lunch hours.

  43. It can be inferred from the text that public services

  A. have benefited many people.B. are the focus of public attention.

  C. are an inappropriate subject for humor.D. have often been the laughing stock.

  44. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered

  A. in wellworded language.B. as awkwardly as possible.

  C. in exaggerated statements.D. as casually as possible.

  45. The best title for the text may be

  A. Use Humor Effectively.B. Various Kinds of Humor.

  C. Add Humor to Speech.D. Different Humor Strategies.

  Text 2

  Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has resulted in robotics - the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.

  As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robodrivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micromechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy - far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.

  But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves - goals that pose a real challenge. "While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error," says Dave Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA, "we cant yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world."

  Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results. Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.

  What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brains roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented and human perception far more complicatedthan previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on earth cant approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still dont know quite how we do it.

  46. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in

  A. the use of machines to produce science fiction.

  B. the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry.

  C. the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work.

  D. the elites cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work.

  47. The word "gizmos" (line 1, paragraph 2) most probably means

  A. programs. B. experts.

  C. devices.  D. creatures.

  48. According to the text, what is beyond mans ability now is to design a robot that can

  A. fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.

  B. interact with human beings verbally.

  C. have a little common sense.

  D. respond independently to a changing world.

  49. Besides reducing human labor, robots can also

  A. make a few decisions for themselves.

  B. deal with some errors with human intervention.

  C. improve factory environments.

  D. cultivate human creativity.

  50. The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are

  A. expected to copy human brain in internal structure.

  B. able to perceive abnormalities immediately.

  C. far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.

  D. best used in a controlled environment.

  Text 3

  Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC agreed to supplycuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than $10 last December. This near tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled, and 197980, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in doubledigit inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time?

  The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports. Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short term.

  Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in the 1970s. In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe, taxes account for up to fourfifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past.

  Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were, and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy, energyintensive industries have reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) rich economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP. That is less than onequarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oilimporting emerging economies - to which heavy industry has shifted - have become more energyintensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed.

  One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodityprice inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic decline. The Economists commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%.

  51. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is .

  A. global inflation.        B. reduction in supply.

  C. fast growth in economy. D. Iraqs suspension of exports.

  52. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if .

  A. price of crude rises. B. commodity prices rise.

  C. consumption rises. D. oil taxes rise.

  53. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries .

  A. heavy industry becomes more energyintensive.

  B. income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices.

  C. manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed.

  D. oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP.

  54. We can draw a conclusion from the text that .

  A. oilprice shocks are less shocking now.

  B. inflation seems irrelevant to oilprice shocks.

  C. energy conservation can keep down the oil prices.

  D.  the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry.

  55. From the text we can see that the writer seems .

  A. optimistic.  B. sensitive.

  C. gloomy. D. scared.

  Text 4

  The Supreme Courts decisions on physicianassisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.

  Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physicianassisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuriesold moral principle holding that an action having two effects - a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen - is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

  Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient.

  Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death".

  George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death. "Its like surgery," he says. "We dont call those deaths homicides because the doctors didnt intend to kill their patients, although they risked their death. If youre a physician, you can risk your patients suicide as long as you dont intend their suicide."

  On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assistedsuicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

  Just three weeks before the Courts ruling on physicianassisted suicide, the National Academy of Science (NAS) released a twovolume report, Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the under treatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of endoflife care.

  The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospices, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospitalbased care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life.

  Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these wellmeaning medical initiatives translate into better care. "Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering," to the extent that it constitutes "systematic patient abuse". He says medical licensing boards "must make it clear……that painful deaths are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension."

  56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that

  A. doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients pain.

  B. it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives.

  C. the Supreme Court strongly opposes physicianassisted suicide.

  D. patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide.

  57. Which of the following statements its true according to the text?

  A. Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients death.

  B. Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery.

  C. The Court ruled that highdosage painrelieving medication can be prescribed.

  D. A doctors medication is no longer justified by his intentions.

  58. According to the NASs report, one of the problems in endoflife care is

  A. prolonged medical procedures.B. inadequate treatment of pain.

  C. systematic drug abuse.D. insufficient hospital care.

  59. Which of the following best defines the word "aggressive" (line 3, paragraph 7)?

  A. Bold. B. Harmful.

  C. Careless. D.Desperate.

  60. George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they

  A. manage their patients incompetently.

  B. give patients more medicine than needed.

  C. reduce drug dosages for their patients.

  D. prolong the needless suffering of the patients.

  41. 「C」问题是:要使你的幽默有效果,你应该

  文章第二三行指出,你的幽默必须与观众的经历相关 (your humor must be relevant to the audience)。第四行进一步对二三行所述的给以说明,针对不同的人谈论不同的问题(Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different),即选项C所说的内容。选项A,D中的内容文章没有提到;选项B的内容与文章内容不相符。

  42. 「D」问题是:关于医生的那个笑话暗示,在护士的眼里,医生

  在故事中当上帝认为自己是医生的时候,举止很不礼貌,插队、推人、拿了东西就吃,这是一个反讽幽默,比喻医生往往认为他们自己是上帝。在护士眼里医生自以为是,目中无人,所以答案选B.不能选C,因为题干是护士如何认为。医生自认为自己有特权,而护士不这么认为,否则就不会有这则幽默了。

  43. 「D」问题是:由文章可以推断出public services

  文章第三段说到如果你不是听众的一员,千万不要贸然开玩笑。因为这样会引起听众的反感。接着提到"you will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the post office or the telephone system"(如果你拿像邮政或电信这样的作替罪羊,会更安全一些)。"Common sense" 告诉我们 "post office" 和 "telephone system" 都属于 "public services".我们从这里也可以得出 "public services" 也常常被人当成笑柄,即D项内容。选项A,B的内容文中没有提到,选项C与正确答案恰恰相反。

  44. 「D」问题是:要达到最佳的效果,表达幽默时应当

  文章第四段第一句指出,如果你在表达幽默时觉得不自在,你必须多练习使你的表达更自然(if you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural)。可见,表达越自然,幽默效果越好,即D项内容。A,C项内容文中没有提到,B项内容与作者所讲相反。

  45. 「A」问题是:给本文最好的标题可能是

  文章第一段便道明了全文的中心思想,即如何更有效地使用幽默。第二到四段全部都是对第一段的阐明和举例。选项B,C,D的内容都不可以概括全文。

  如果你想在谈话中用幽默来博得人们的笑声,就必须了解如何发现共同的经历和问题。你的幽默感必须和听众联系起来,让他们知道你是他们中的一员,你了解他们的处境,赞同他们的观点。你谈话的对象不同,问题也会不同。如果和一群经理人谈话,你就可以提到他们的秘书做事缺乏条理;相反,如果你在和秘书们聊天,不妨评论一下他们乱糟糟的经理。

  举个例子,我在一次护士大会上听到一个幽默的故事,它之所以成功,正是因为听众对医生都有一致的看法。故事说:一个人来到天堂,圣彼得带他四处参观。他看到了舒适的住所,美丽的花园,晴朗的天气。每个人都很平和、有礼貌,非常友好。但是在排队吃午饭时,新来的人突然被一个穿白大褂的人推到一边,这个穿白大褂的人挤到队伍最前面,抓起食物,"咚咚咚"跑到桌边自顾自地吃了起来。新来的人问圣彼得:"那是谁?"回答是:"噢,那是上帝,但有时候他认为自己是个医生。"

  如果你和你的听众都是一个团体的成员,你就能够知道你们共同的经历和问题,你也可以漫不经心地评论一下餐厅的食物多难吃,或者领导选领带的品味有多差。但是和其他人谈话,你就不能插入这样的幽默,因为他们会反感一个外人对他们的餐厅和领导说这样不恭敬的话。你还是继续拿邮局和电话服务做替罪羊比较保险。

  如果你不善于幽默,那就必须练习一下使它能够更自然。包括准备一些随意的、看上去像是即兴的评论,以便你能够轻松自然地说出来。通常,说话的方式会使听众笑,所以说的时候要不紧不慢,记住:抬抬眉毛或露出难以置信的表情都能使你显得像是在轻松地评论。

  要善于发现幽默,它经常来自让人意想不到的地方。比如改变一下人们熟知的名言警句"如果一开始没能成功,放弃算了",或者用文字和当时的情景开开玩笑。寻找可以夸张或者低调处理的地方,在你的谈话中选出一些词句加以改变,添加上幽默的作料。

  46. 「C」问题是:人类的创造力最初表现在

  文章第一段第一句指出自人类获得创造力以来,人们便不断创造越来越灵巧的工具来对付危险、乏味、繁重甚至肮脏的工作(Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty),即选项C.

  47. 「C」问题是:"gizmos" (文中第二段第一行)这个词的意思可能是

  文章第二段第一句和第一段第二句他们之间是因果关系,而第一段第二句和第一段第一句又是一个因果关系。仔细阅读这三句话,我们发现句中的 "intelligent gizmos" 正是第一段第二句中的 "robotics",而 "robotics"又是同段第一句所提到的"cunning tools"."gizmos" (或gadget)的意思是小装置、小玩意。许多人对这个词可能还很陌生,但大多数都知道"tool"这个词,而选项C的内容与 "tool"最接近,故选C.

  48. 「D」问题是:根据本文,目前超出人类能力约束的是设计一个机器人

  文中第三段Dave Lavery 的话回答这个问题,他讲到:"虽然我们知道如何让机器人处理某个错误,但我们还不能给予他们足够的常识使它们安全可靠地与这样一个动态的世界互动(while we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error,  we cant yet give a robot enough 'common' sense to reliably interact with a dynamic world )。"这就是选项D的内容。A,B与文中内容不相符;C项不可选,因为Lavery提到现在的机器人有一定的常识(enough common sense)。

  49. 「B」问题是:除了帮助减少劳力,机器人还可以

  文章第五段第三行作者讲到他们还制造了可以识别错误的机器人(they have built robots that can recognize the error)即B项内容。文章第三段第一句否定了A项,C项与本文内容不相关,Lavery 的话否定了D.

  50. 「C」问题是:作者借用猴子的例子来证明机器人

  文章第五段4至7行作者举出猴例,阐明人脑识别力的精确性。"但是,大脑能通过扫一眼快速变化的场景,排除不相关的98%的信息,即刻将注意力集中到位于蜿蜒的森林小径边的一只猴子,或者在一大群人中识别出某个可疑的面孔。"紧接着下一句作者指出:"连世界上最先进的计算机系统也没有这种能力,神经科学家尚不知道人类是怎样做到这一点的。" 很明显,根据上下文,可以得出,作者举例的意图是证明人脑较机器人的优越性,对照的双方是人脑跟机器脑,而不是人脑跟猴脑,即选项C.

  自从人类开始发现自己的创造力以来,人们设计出越来越聪明的工具来应付那些危险的、乏味的、繁重的,甚至仅仅是脏一些的工作。这种发明的冲动最终导致了机器人技术的出现——就是将各种人类的能力赋予机器的技术。科学家已经开始接近创造出机械版的科学幻想小说了。

  结果是,越来越多聪明的小玩意儿成为现代社会的居民,人们几乎没有注意到它们,但它们的普遍存在节约了大量的劳力。我们的工厂伴随着机械装配手臂的节奏嗡嗡作响。银行自动出纳终端为我们办理银行业务,并用机械的声音礼貌地感谢我们的交易。我们的地铁由不知疲倦的机器人司机操纵。由于微电子技术和微型机械学的不断发展,已经出现了能够进行各种脑部和骨科手术的机器人系统,它们的精确程度能达到亚毫米的级别,再高明的医生仅靠双手也远远无法达到这种精确程度。

  但是如果机器人想要进一步实现节省劳力的作用,它们就得减少对人类监督的依赖,至少有些决定得由自己来做——这一目标是一个真正的挑战。NASA负责机器人程序技术的Dave Lavery 说:"尽管我们已经知道如何让机器人处理某个特定的错误,我们还无法让机器人有足够的'常识',来与这个动态的世界进行可靠的互动。"

  的确,对真正的人工智能的探索产生了喜忧参半的结果。20世纪60年代和70年代尽管曾有一段最初的乐观时期,人们认为到2010年,晶体管电路和微处理器似乎就能够复制人类大脑的活动。最近,研究者已经开始把这个期限向后推迟几十年、甚至几个世纪。

  在试图模仿人工思维的过程中,研究者发现,人类大脑的大约一千亿个神经细胞比以前想象的更聪明,人类的知觉活动也更复杂。科学家已经造出了在受控制的环境下能够识别极小误差的机器人。但是人类的头脑能对一个迅速改变的场景在一瞥之下,迅速抛弃其中98%的无关信息,瞬间定位在蜿蜒的林间小路旁的那只猴子或人群中那张可疑的面孔上。世界上最先进的电脑系统也无法达到这种能力,而神经系统科学家目前还不知道人类是怎样做到这一点的。

  51. 「B」问题是:最近油价上涨的主要原因是

  文章第一段1、2行指出,自从3月OPEC达成协议减少原油供应,原油价从去年12月不到10美元一桶,上升至约26美元一桶 (Since OPEC agreed to supplycuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than $10 last December)。句中"supplycuts" 与B项内容 "reduction in supply" 同义,故选B.A、C项内容本文未提。D项内容与第二段第一句相符,即推动油价上涨的另外因素是这个星期伊拉克停止原油出口,显然这不够成为油价上升三倍的主要(main)原因。

  52. 「D」问题是:根据文中内容可以推断出汽油零售价将会大幅度增长,如果

  第三段提到,有足够的理由相信,(石油供应量的减少)对经济产生的影响比70年代要轻。与70年代相比,在多数国家,原油价格现在只占汽油价格的一小部分。在欧洲,税占零售价格的的4/5,所以,即使原油价格大幅度增长,与过去相比对汽油价格(pump prices指出现在加油站计量器上的价格,此处当然指汽油价格)的影响要小。本题是一个推理题,由以上的陈述做出推理,汽油价格高主要是税造成的,增加税则价格就高,减少税则会降低价格。这是本文作者论述的重要论据之一。

  53. 「D」问题是:"Economic outlook"的预测表明了在富有国家里

  文章第四段5至8行 "Economic outlook"的预测,是为进一步说明本段第一句的内容(富有国家的经济不大受油价浮动的影响),即D项内容。A,C 项内容是发展中国家存在的问题;B项内容文中没有提到。GDP-gross domestic product(国民生产总值)是一个国家经济的晴雨表。

  54. 「A」问题是:从本文我们可以得出的结论是

  文中第一二段以原油价大幅度上涨作开场白,第三段第一句道出本文旨在说明的观点,其关键词在句首,即 "yet", 转折了一二段所述的内容,然后分别在3至5段展开论证,为什么"there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe",作者主要的意图是证明石油价格的冲击不是想像中那么可怕,即A项内容。55. 「A」问题是:根据文章内容,作者的态度是

  参阅54题解。optimistic意为"乐观的".

  曾经发生过的经济衰退的一幕会重新上演吗?自从三月份石油输出国组织同意削减供应以来,原油价格已经从去年12月份的不到10美元一桶上涨到几乎要26美元一桶,几乎是原来的三倍。这使人想起1973年那场可怕的石油恐慌,当时油价涨到四倍,还有1979-1980年度,油价也几乎涨到了三倍。这两次油荒都导致了两位数的通货膨胀率以及全球经济衰退。那么这一次危机的警告讯号在哪里呢?

  本周伊拉克暂停了石油出口,这又把油价向上推了一把。同时,稳定的经济增长,北半球进入冬季,这些因素会在短期内导致石油价格的进一步上涨。

  但是,我们有理由期盼这次的结果不会像70年代那么严重。和70年代相比,现在在大多数国家里,原油价格在汽油价格中只占一小部分。在欧洲,油税能占到零售价格的五分之四,所以即使原油价格出现了比较大的变化,它对销售价格的影响也比过去要弱。

  同时,富裕国家现在对石油的依赖也比以前要小,所以它们对油价的摇摆也不像以前那样敏感了。节约能源,转向其他燃料,以及重工业、能源密集型工业的重要性下降,这些都减少了石油的消耗。与钢铁和汽车生产相比,软件业、咨询业以及移动电话产业需要的石油要少得多。(按一般价格计算)富裕国家现在每生产一美元的GDP所需要的石油比1973年时减少了50%.国际经合组织在最近的经济前景展望中表示,如果22美元一桶的平均油持续一年,那么和1998年的13 美元一桶相比,富裕国家用于石油进口的费用大约只会增加国民生产总值的0.25%到0.5%.这个数字还不到1974年或1980年收入损失的四分之一。另一方面,那些靠石油进口的新兴国家——重工业也已经转向这些国家了——对能源的需求越大,因此它们的压力会更大。

  我们不必对这次的油价上涨过分担心的另一个原因是,和70年代的油价上涨不同,这次并没有普遍的物价上涨和全球需求过度作背景。世界上相当大一部分国家刚刚摆脱经济衰退。《经济学家》杂志的物价指数统计和一年以前并没有太大改变,而1973年商品价格上涨了70%,1979年也上涨了30%.

  56. 「B」问题是:从文中前三段我们得出

  文章第二段第一行便提到宪法没有给医生帮助病人结束生命的权力(it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physicianassisted suicide),即B项内容。"common sense"告诉我们凡没有 "constitutional right" 的便是 "illegal".

  57. 「C」问题是:根据文章内容,以下哪一项是正确的?

  根据全文,文章第二段指出最高法院的裁决对于带有双重效果的医疗原则给予肯定。第三段又讲到近几年来医生一直遵循此项原则行医,而他们可以合法遵守此项原则的原因正是法院裁决的结果,即C项内容。

  58. 「B」问题是:根据NAS的报告,垂死病人护理中出现问题之一是

  文中第7段第3至4行NAS报道给出了"endoflife"护理中出现的问题,即 "under treatment of pain"(对疼痛处理不当)和 "aggressive use of ineffectual of forced medical procedures"(过分使用无效、强制性的医疗手段)。B项内容正是这两个问题中的第一个,即对疼痛不当处理。

  59. 「A」问题是:以下哪一个词可以替换第7段3行中的 "aggressive"?

  参阅58题解。

  60. 「D」问题是:George Annas认为,医生应受到惩罚,如果他们

  George Annas 的话在文章最后一段,他所关心的显然是,那些病人本来就没有必要遭受可以避免的痛苦(needless predictable suffering)。而造成这些痛苦的正是那些漠不关心的医生们 (physicians who seem unconcerned)。在句尾,George又提到吊销行医执照,作为对这些没必要地延长病人痛苦的医生的惩罚,即D项内容。

  最高法院对医生协助安乐死这一事件的决定,对医学界应该怎样帮助垂死的病人减轻痛苦有很重要的意义。

  尽管法院裁定宪法并没有规定医生有帮助病人自杀的权力,但是它实际上支持了一条医学界古老的道德准则——"双重效果"原则,即:一个行为有两重效果,一个是想要达到的好的结果,一个是可以预见的坏的结果。只要采取这个行为的人的本意是为了达到好的结果,那么这个行为就是允许的。

  近年来,医生们已经在用这个原则来为自己使用大剂量的吗啡控制晚期病人的疼痛开脱了,即使增大剂量会最终导致病人的死亡。

  Montefiore 医疗中心的院长Nancy Dubler 称,这条原则能保护那些直到现在仍强烈坚持如果大剂量药物会加速死亡,那么他们就无法给病人足够的药来控制疼痛的医生。

  波士顿大学卫生法系的主任George Annas 主张,只要一个医生开的药是为了合法的医疗目的,那么他就没做任何非法的事情,即使病人用他开的药来加速自己的死亡。他说:"这就像动手术一样。我们不把手术中的死亡叫做谋杀,因为医生并不想杀死自己的病人,尽管他们冒着病人死亡的危险。如果你是个医生,你也可以冒病人自杀的危险,只要你并不想造成他们的自杀。"

  另一方面,医学界许多人士承认激起这一场关于医生协助自杀的讨论的部分原因是病人的绝望情绪。对他们来说,现代医学只是延长了他们等待死亡、忍受肉体疼痛的时间而已。

  在法院对医生协助自杀做出判决的三个星期之前,国家科学院(NAS)公布了一份两卷本的报告《临近死亡:改善临终关怀的质量》。报告认为临终关怀的两个重要问题是:对疼痛的治疗不够和过分使用"强制的、无效的医疗手段来延长、甚至玷辱死亡的过程".

  医学界正在采取措施,要求年轻医生在收容所里面实习,来考验他们用大胆的方法来治疗疼痛的知识,在医院中开展临终关怀制定医疗保险制度的收费原则,以及建立新的准则来评定和治疗临终前的疼痛。

  Annas 说在坚持使这些医学界自发的、本意很好的举动转变成对临终病人更好的关怀方面,律师可以起到很重要的作用。"很多医生对他们的病人所遭受的可以想象的巨大痛苦无动于衷",甚至到了"有系统地虐待病人"的程度。他说行医执照的管理部门"必须明确……痛苦的死亡是治疗不得力造成的,应该暂停医生的行医执照。"

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