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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY34

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Directions:Do the word recognition drill below.Note the word on the left,then underline it every time it appears in the same form to the right.No regression,no vocalization.Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. commandercommand commend comment commander commit

  2. desertdeserve deserved deserted desert dessert

  3. expensiveexpense expension expend expensive expanse

  4. intenseintention intensive intensity intend intense

  5. protectprotract project pretest protect product

  6. somewhatsomewhere somehow somewhat somebody sometime

  7. plasticplastics plaster plastic politic platonic

  8. similarsimilarity similarly similar simple simply

  9. withstandwithdraw understand withhold withstand stand

  10. collectcorrect collect collection contest contact

  Finishing Time: Total Time:

  Errors: Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  Space Shuttle Is Ready for BIG BLASTThis month,if all goes according to plan,a combination spaceship airplane, called a space shuttle,will lift from its launch pad in Cape Canaveral,Fla. With a thunderous roar,the shuttle named Columbia will go into orbit over 160 kilometers (100 miles)above the Earth's surface. Inside will be two astronauts, John W. Young,the commander,and Robert L. Crippen,the pilot.

  Columbia,now called an orbiter,will remain in orbit for three days and circle the Earth 36 times. At the end of its last orbit,Columbia will glide back to Earth and touch down like an airplane in the desert near Edwards Air Force Base in California.

  This first orbital flight is critical because it will test Columbia's ability to perform both within the Earth's atmosphere and far above it. If all goes well,such flights will become commonplace by the late 1980's. Shuttles will be used to carry satellites into orbit and back to Earth for repair. They will also carry materials into space to construct space stations.

  Most importantly,the shuttle can be used over and over again. Before the age of the space shuttle,all spacecraft and rockets launched into space were used only once. That made the U.S. space program very expensive.

  Many Difficulties OvercomeGetting the shuttle ready for its maiden voyage has not been easy. Many difficulties had to be overcome. One of the biggest problems was to find a way to keep the orbiter from burning up when it reentered the Earth's atmosphere.

  When an object enters the atmosphere,gas molecules that are in the atmosphere strike the object's surface. The faster the object travels,the greater the number of strikes each second. The friction between the air and the object generates much heat. The heat may become so intense that the object burns up. Such friction causes meteors to glow and disintegrate when they fall to Earth from outer space.

  Engineers say the same thing would happen to the orbiter if it were not protected. When the Columbia enters the Earth's atmosphere,some surfaces of the craft will reach temperatures of   1,427℃ (2,600 )。

  Heat Shield DesignedTo protect the crew and craft,a specially designed heat shield had to be constructed. The shield is composed of heat resistant tiles made of silica fibers. The tiles feel somewhat like plastic foam. They consist of 90 percent air and 10 percent silica fibers. A thin coating of borosilicate glass,which will absorb 95 percent of the heat generated during reentry,covers each tile.

  More than 31,000 tiles had to be handcrafted and fitted separately on the orbiter's aluminum skin. It was tedious work with many delays.

  One big problem was to find a substance that would make the tiles stick. The glue had to withstand intense heat and the bending and flexing of the craft that will be produced by the high speeds. Engineers ended up using a silicon rubber glue, similar to common bathtub caulk.

  Other problems also arose during the development of the new type of engines that will be used in the shuttle. Faulty engine welds were discovered during tests of the separate engines. However,these problems were corrected.

  Shuttle Passes Big TestFinally,on February 20,one of the most exciting moments in the much delayed history of the space shuttle occurred on the launch pads at Cape Canaveral. For the first time all three main engines were fired together while Columbia was poised piggyback on its rockets and large fuel tank. To the approving roars and cheers of engineers, blasts of orange flames spewed from the three engines for 20 seconds. Then the engines were shut down.

  Space shuttle Columbia seems ready for its historic lift off the week of April 5.

  ——from Current Science,April 1,1981

  Time: 639words=wpm

  Minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. According to paragraph 2,the space shuttle Columbia will return back to Earth   .

  A. from the earth's lowest orbitB. after it circles the last orbit of the earth

  C. when it completes its final roundD. when it reaches the end of the earth's last orbit

  2. According to the information of the passage,which of the following statements is true?Shuttles will not be used to .

  A. send satellites into orbitB. carry satellites back to Earth for repair

  C. transport materials into space for the construction of space stations

  D. clear away the space garbage

  3. In what way does the space shuttle have an advantage over other sorts of spacecrafts?

  A. It costs less to build a space shuttle.

  B. Less fuel is consumed to send a space shuttle off into orbit.

  C. The space shuttle is reusable.D. A space shuttle is lighter in weight.

  4. The space shuttle is shielded with heat resistant tiles in case the extreme heat produced by the  during reentry causes the shuttle to burn up.

  A. friction between meteors and the shuttleB. friction between the air and the shuttle

  C. friction between meteors and gas molecules in the atmosphere

  D. shuttle's main engines

  5. The tiles are  ,for they .

  A. smooth……are made of borosilicate glass

  B. heavy……are coated with borosilicate glass

  C. hot……absorb 95% of the heat produced by the friction

  D. soft……consist of 90% air and 10% silica fibers

  6. What merits does the silicon rubber glue have?

  A. It can resist intense heat.

  B. It can withstand the bending and flexing of the shuttle produced by the high speeds.

  C. It can keep all the tiles from peeling off the shuttle for years.

  D. Both A and B.

  7. According to the passage,the space shuttle Columbia .

  A. started its maiden voyage on Feb. 20,1981

  B. will blast off from Cape Canaveral on April 5,1981

  C. has had an amazing success in its first orbital flight

  D. will not begin its first mission until April 51981 owing to the three defective engines

  8. Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  A. The first flight of the shuttle will be a manned flight.

  B. The purpose of the first flight is to test the shuttle's performance both up in the sky and down on the runway.

  C. At the end of its flight,the shuttle will land on the runway at Cape Canaveral.

  D. The shuttle is powered by solar energy.

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of each word in italics using the context given and wordbuilding skills.

  Space Flight

  NASA's space flight program is a highly visible symbol of America's leadership in aerospace science and technology. In the late 1970s our space flight scientists and engineers undertook the challenge of building a reusable launch system that would take the "astronomical costs out of astronautics," and would give the country routine access to space.

  Now in its operational phase,the space shuttle carries satellites,experiments,and flight crews into space for missions lasting up to a week. Our space flight scientists and engineers are demonstrating currently the versatility of the system by using the shuttle as an in orbit launch pad to boost communications satellites into higher orbits,to transport the spacelab and its invaluable experiments,and to engage in dramatic rescues and repairs of disabled satellites,such as the Solar Maximum Satellite rescue in April,1984.

  Engineers and scientists joining our space flight program will continue to improve the efficiency and reliability of all phases of the shuttle system from pre launch through post flight operations. They will also work to further develop the shuttle's role in transporting the personnel and equipment necessary to build and maintain a permanent in orbit space station.

  As envisioned by NASA,the space station would not be a single facility,but several,including a manned base with a crew of eight persons,two or more unmanned platforms,and a large and small space transport vehicle to get to nearby satellites and to geostationary orbit and back.

  ——from Improving Reading Skills B.II,1989,p. 41

  Ⅳ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Shuttle Boosts Drug Research into Space

  Upcoming experiments on the space shuttle may lead to production of a new generation of drugs for treating cancer and high blood pressure and preventing rejection of transplanted organs. The drugs could be   1  billions of dollars     2     the pharmaceutical (药用的) industry.

  Traditionally,large     3     of existing substances     4     tested until one is found     5     will produce a desired     6. Since disease involves the action     7     proteins, scientists are hoping   8    bioengineer (用生物工程的方法合成) drugs     9     specific molecular structures, tailoring (使…适用于) them to   10   promote or inhibit the effects of proteins   11   the body. But first they must study the atomic    12   of about 250000 target proteins,   13   to do this, protein crystals   14   be grown. If    15   in the microgravity(微小的地心引力)of orbit,they are    16   and contain more protein molecules   17   those grown on Earth,where gravity inhibits   18   growth. Previous space shuttle  19  have already yielded crystals 1,000     20     larger than Earth grown ones. NASA has scheduled three years of more extensive experiments,funded by universities and large pharmaceutical firms.

  ——from Science Digest,July 1985

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