TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS GRADE EIGHT
TIME LIMIT：［95 MIN.］
PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION［40 min.］
In Sections A， B and C you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response for each question on your Coloured ANSWER SHEET.
SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section.At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now Listen to the talk.
1The speaker is____.
A.the travel guide B.the language professor
C.the school supervisor D.the talkshow host
2What does the word“hip”mean in this talk？
A.It is derived from “hippie”。
B.It means following the social fashion in the 1960s and 1970s.
C.It comes from a more recent usuage.
D.It means“out-of-date slang.”
3The problem with slang and trendy expressions is____.
A.that they are out-of-date. B.that they are difficult.
C.that they change fast. D.that they mean nonsense.
4What does“hinny”mean in NewCastle？
A.The sterile hybrid of a horse and a donkey. B.A common term of cursing.
C.The local form of“hello”。 D.A usual way of affection.
5The speak asks listeners____.
A.to never use slang B.to understand what these slang words mean
C.to take time to use slang often D.to stick with official English
SECTION B CONVERSATION
Questions 6 to l0 are based on Mr.Jones and Engineer.At the end of the conversation you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now Listen to the interview.
6What materials were not used for road surfaces during the last century？
A.gravel B.asphalt C.macadam D.concrete
7Concrete is used in extensive projects because of____.
A.The increase in traffic B.The cost of other materials
C.The change of the climate D.The construction of the roads
8For light traffic，which of the following is not used？
A.Sand clay. B.Macadam. C.Brick. D.Bituminous mixture.
A.Roads. B.Streets. C.Lanes. D.Highways.
10The total width of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is____.
A.100 feet B.78 feet C.68 feet D.88 feet
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
Questions 11 to 12 are based on the following news from the BBC.At the end of the news item，you will be given 30 seconds to answer the two questions.
Now Listen to the news.
11South Korean Law-makers planned for an Asiawide coalition against____.
A. Japan's invasion B.Japan‘s violation of human rights
C.Japan's distortion of history D.Japan‘s cruelty
12Protests in South Korea have not____.
A.escalated into civic campaigns nationwide
B.called for a boycott of Japanese goods
C.postponed joint military exercises with Tokyo
D.established a neutral just body to settle such a dispute
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the following news from the VOA.At the end of the news item，you will be given 45 seconds to answer the three questions.
Now Listen to the news.
13When did George W.Bush present a letter to Congress？
A.Friday B.Thursday C.Tuesday D.Monday
14Last year exports to China was boosted by____.
A.25 percent B.24 percent C.23 percent D.22 percent
15The annual review will continue____.
A. in White House B.in the Pentagon Building
C.in the United Nations D.on the Capital Hill
SECTION D NOTE\|TAKING & GAP\|FILLING［15 min.］
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture.You will hear the lecture once only.While listening to the lecture，take notes on the important points.Your notes will not be marked，but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on Answer Sheet One.Use the blank paper for note-taking.
PART Ⅱ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
PART Ⅲ READING COMPREHENSION ［40 min.］
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION ［30 min.］
In this section there are six reading passages followed by a total of fiften multiple choice questions.Read the passages and them mark your answer on you Coloured ANSWER SHEET.
What Is History？
When does history begin？It is tempting to reply in the beginning's but like many obvious answers，this soon turns out to be unhelpful.As a great Swiss historian once pointed out in another connexion，history is the one subject where you cannot begin at the beginning.If we want to，we can trace the chain of human descent back to the appearance of vertebrates，or even to the photosynthetic cells which lie at the start of life itself.We can go back further still，to almost unimaginable upheavals which formed this planet and even to the origins of the universe.Yet this is not‘history.'
Commonsense helps here：history is the story of mankind，of what it has done，suffered or enjoyed.We all know that dogs and cats do not have histories，while human beings do.Even when historians write about a natural process beyond human control，such as the ups and downs of climate，or the spread of disease，they do so only because it helps us to understand why men and women have lived （and died） in some ways rather than others.
This suggests that all we have to do is to identify the moment at which the first human beings step out from the shadows of the remost past.It is not quite as simple as that，though.We have to know what we are looking for first and most attempts to define humanity on the basis of observable characteristics prove in the end arbitrary and cramping，as long arguments about'apemen‘and'missing links’have shown.Physiological tests help us to classify data but do not identify what is or is not human.That is a matter of a definition about which disagreement is possible.Some people have suggested that human uniqueness lies in language，yet other primates possess vocal equipment similar to our own；when noises are made with it which are signals，at what point do they become speech？Another famous definition is that man is a tool-maker，but observation has cast doubt on our uniqueness in this respect，too，long after Dr Johnson scoffed at Boswell for quoting it to him.
What is surely and identifiably unique about the human species is not its possession of certain faculties or physical characterstics，but what it has done with them—its achievement，or history，in fact.Humanity's unique achievement is its remarkably intense level of activity and creativity，its cumulative capacity to create change.All animals have ways of living，some complex enough to be called cultures.Human culture alone is progressive：it has been increasingly built by conscious choice and selection within it as well as by accident and natural pressure，by the accumulation of a capital of experience and knowledge which man has exploited.Human history began when the inheritance of genetics and behavior which had until them provided the only way of dominating the environment was first broken through by conscious choice.Of course，human beings have always only been able to make their history within limits.These limits are now very wide indeed，but they were once so narrow that it is impossible to identify the first step which took human evolution away from the determination of nature.We have for a long time only a blurred story，obscure both because the evidence is poor and because we cannot be sure exactly what we are looking for.
16According to the author history is____.
A.in the beginning.
B.the story of mankind，of what it has done，suffered or enjoyed.
C.the progressiveness of human conscious choice and selection which breaks through the inheritance of genetics and behavior.
D.a natural process beyond human control.
17In order to understand what history is the predeterminate thing is to make clear the uniqueness of the human species which lies in____.
A.its possession of certain faculties or physical characteristics.
D.what human beings have done with their certain faculties or physical characteristies.
In politics，in the courts，even on the ubiquitous TV talkshow，it is good form to pick an intellectual fight.People attack each other—hurl insults，even—and it counts as logical argument.I cannot understand it.
It seems that our society favours a kind of ritualised aggression.Everywhere you look，in newspapers and on television，issues are presented using the terminology of war and conflict.We hear of battles，duels and disputes.We see things in terms of winners and losers，victors and victims.
The problem is society's unquestioning belief in the advantages of the debate as a way of solving disagreements，even proving right from wrong.Our brainwashing begins early at school，when the brightest pupils are co-opted onto the debating system.They get there because they can think up a good argument to support their case.Once on the debate team，they learn that they earn bonus points for the skill with which they verbally attack，or insult，the opposing team.They win if they can successfully convince the audience that they are right，even if the case they are arguing is clearly nonsensual.They do this by proving themselves to be stronger，brighter，more outrageous，even.
The training in this adversarial approach continues at our tertiary institutions.The standard way to present an academic paper，for instance，is to take up an opposing argument to something expressed by another academic.The paper must set out to prove the other person wrong.This is not at all the same thing as reading the original paper with an open mind and discovering that you disagress with it.
The reverence for the adversarial approach spills over into all areas of life.Instead of answering their critics，politicians learn to sidestep negative comments and turn the point around to an attack on accusers.Defence lawyers argue the case for their clientseven when they suspect they may be guilty.And ordinary people use the same tactics—just listen to your teenager next time you pull him up for coming home late.You can be sure a stream of abuse will flow about your own time—keeping，your irritating habits，your history of bad parenting.
Unfortunately，the smarter your kid，the better his or her argument against you will be.You'll be upset，but you'll comfort yourself that those teenage monsters of yours will one day turn into mature，though adults who can look after themselves—by which you mean，of course，they will be able to argue their way out of sticky situations.
It's not that you should never use angry words，or take up a position in opposition to someone or something.There are certainly times when one should take a stand，and in such cases strong words are quite appropriate：if you witness injustice，for instance，or feel passionately about arother's folly.Mockery—so cruel when practised on the innocent—can be very useful in such situations.There is no better way to bring down a tyrant than to mock him mercilessly.
What I dislike is the automatic assumption most people have when it comes to disagreements：they should attack，abuse，preferably overpower their opponent，at whatever the cost.The approach is to so ingrained that“compromise”has become a dirty word.We feel quilty if we are conciliatory rather than confrontational.We have trained ourselves，or been brainwashed into believing，that to be pleasant is a sign of weakness.
But just think how easy it can be to persuade a “difficult”person to be considerate of you or your wished when you are pleasant to them，and unthreatening.Give them a way out of a potentially agressive situation without losing face，and they will oblige you willingly.
Discuss a subject without taking an adversarial position and you will find the other person happy to explore the possibilities with you.I'm prepared to bet on it.You'll get closer to the truth of the matter than you would by going to each other hammer and tongs.
18The style of this text is____.
A.descriptive B.narrative C.expositive D.argumentative
19At the end of the text“going at each other hammer and tongs”means____.
A.compromising or consulting with a hammer B.mocking or scoffing with tongs
C.attacking or abusing stealthily D.quarrelling or fighting noisily
Feels like Spring
I stop at the corner drugstore for a breakfast of doughnuts and coffee，and then I race to the subway station and gallop down the steps to catch my usual train.I hold on to the strap and make believe I'm reading my newspaper，but I keep glancing at the people crowded in around me.I listen to them talk about their troubles and their friends，and I wish I had someone to talk to，someone to break the monotony，of the long subway ride.
As we approach the 175th Street station，I begin to get tense again.She usually gets into the train at that station.She slips in gracefully，not pushing or shoving like the rest，and she squeezes into a little space，clinging to the people and holding on to an office envelop that probably contains her lunch.She never carries a newspaper or a book；I guess there isn't much sense in trying to read when you're smashed in like that.
There's a fresh outdoor look about her and I figure she must live in New Jersey.The Jersey crowd gets in at that stop.She has a sweet face with that scrubbed look that doesn't need powder or rouge.She never wears make-up except for lipstick.And her wavy hair is natural，just a nice light brown.And all she does is hold on to the pole and think her own thoughts，her eyes clear-blue and warm.
I always like to watch her，but I have to be careful.I'm afraid she'd get angry and move away if she catches me at it，and then I won't have anyone，because she's my only real friend，even if she doesn't know it.I'm all alone in New York City and I guess I'm kind of shy and don't make friends easily.The fellows in the bank are all right but they have their own lives to lead，and besides，I can't ask anyone to come up to a furnished room；so they go their way and I go mine.
The city is getting me.It's too big and noisy—too many people for a fellow who's all by himself.I can't seem to get used to it.I'm used to the quiet of a small New Hampshire farm but there isn't any future on a New Hampshire farm any more：so after I was discharged from the Navy，I got it.I suppose it's a good break but I'm kind of lonesome.
As I ride along，awaying to the motion of the car，I like to imagine that I'm friends with her.Sometimes I'm even tempted to smile at her，and say something like“Nice morning，isn't it？”But I'm scared.She might think I'm one of those wise guys and she'd freeze up and look right through me as if I didn't exist，and then the next morning she wouldn't be there any more and I'd have no one to think about.I keep dreaming that maybe some day I'll get to know her.You know，in a casual way.
Like maybe she'd be coming through the door and someone pushes her and she brushes against me and she'd say quickly，“Oh，I beg your pardon，”and I'd lift my hat politely and answer，“That's perfectly all right，”and I'd smile to show her I meant it，and then she'd smile back at me and say，“Nice day，isn't it？”and I'd say，“Feels like spring.”And we wouldn't say anything more，but when she'd be ready to get off at 34th Street，she'd wave her fingers a little at me and say，“Good-by”，and I'd tip my hat again.
The next morning when she'd come in，she'd see me and say“Hello，”or maybe，“Good morning，”and I'd answer and add something to show her I really knew a little about spring.No wise cracks because I wouldn't want her to think that I was one of those smooth-talking guys who pick up girls in the subway.
The train is slowing down and the people are bracing themselves automatically for the stop.It's the 175th Street station.There's a big crowd waiting to get in.I look out anxiously for her but I don't see her anywhere and my heart sinks，and just then I catch a glimpse of her，way over at the other side.She's wearing a new hat with little flowers on it.
The door opens and the people start pushing in.She'd caught in the rush and there's nothing she can do about it.She bangs into me and she grabs the strap I'm holding and hangs on it for dear life.
“I beg your pardon，”she gasps.
My hands are pinned down and I can't tip my hat but I answer politely，“That's all right.”
The doors close and the train begins to move.She has to hold on to my strap；there isn't any other place for her.
“Nice day，isn't it？”she says.
The train swings around a turn and the wheels squealing on the rails sound like the birds singing in New Hampshire.My heart is pounding like mad.
“Feels like spring，”I say.
20The female the author is narrating in this text.
A.lives in New Jersey B.gets off at the 175th street station
C.says to him，“Nice day，isn't it？” D.carries a newspaper or a book on the way
21The author dreams of making friends with this female not beause____.
A.she has a sweet face，a natural way and behaves gracefully.
B.the author himself is kind of shy and doesn't make friends easily.
C.She offers to talk with the author and smiles at him pleasanty.
D.the author is deeply attracted by her graceful manners and sweet appearance.
The Rise and Rise of the Sundial
As we hurtle towards the new millennium，what better symbol of the relentless passage of time than the ancient sundial？Sundials come in many forms，but horizontal ones are by far the most common.Usually set on a pedestal，they consist of a flat dial face and a gnomon—the slanting piece of metal that casts the shadow.Believe it or not，interest in sundials is increasing in the west.A quick glance at the Internet reveals burgeoning sundial societies all over the world for the scientifically inclined，and even detailed sundial trials for those who want to check out the dials in gardens in the United States，France or Britain.This is time travel with a difference.
Quotes or mottoes have traditionally been inscribed on sundials to promote reflection and thought，and these sayings are repeated on the modern versions of the old timepiece.The philosophical sayings add to the image of the timelessness of sundials，but are also reminders in the great poetic traditions of the trarsient nature of human life.
“Time began in a garden”is a quotation referring to the Christian Bible legend of the Garden of Eden where，Christian belief says，human life began at the dawn of Creation，and from having been eternal，humans became subject to the decay of time.
“I am a shadow.So are you”reminds the observer that a passing life can be as swift and transitory as the shadow that drifts over the face of a sundial，while the enigmatic“I make time—Dost thou？”plays on the double meaning of the English words for marking or keeping time，like a clock，and marking time by failing to make progress.
Sundials have long been beautifully crafted but now some innovative Western Sculptors are creating dramatic new varitions on the theme，such as a vertical or wall dial from a modern courtyard setting.Bold colorful sun designs or simple minimalist wall plaques are available，and there is even a water fountain dial where the water jet replaces the gnomon （finger） as marker of time.Clever designs playing with the sun and resulting shadow forms also use stark hunks of rough-hewn stone，taking us back to those pointers of old，or employ reflective materials like glass.
The earliest sundials are recorded in use around 300BC.They come from the stage in ancient times when men and women began to use simple sticks and markers to show the time of day as the shadows progressed.Such devices grew steadily more complex until by Roman times no fewer than 12 types of sundial were recorded，including a sophisticated portable version.More than mere markers of time，such dials served for centuries to indicate mankind's understanding of the complexities of the heavens.
Somewhere along the line，someone realised that a slanting object would cast a more accurate shadow that a vertical one for the purposes of keeping time.The problem of seasonal changes was removed by placing the slanting object parallel to the Earth's axis.Even after clocks and watches were invented，their reliability was questionable and sundials still had to be used to check their accuracy.
But eventually，as the 18th and 19th centuries progressed，and coinciding with the era of“pitcuresque”or idealised landscape gardening in Britain and Europe，sundials became garden ornaments first and timekeepers second.Their value in this area has never been questioned，as successful gardens often rely on such focal points for impact.
With their inherent dignity and image of scientific order triumphing over chaos，sundials provide the perfect centerpiece for herb gardens historic gardens hospitals schools，wriversities churches （set in thyme of couse），knot gardens，memorial gardens，cemeteries and civic gardens.
Armillary sundials are especially aesthetically pleasing，with their circular or spherical shape and make superb garden ornaments.Consisting of several rings，they revolved from the celestial globes used by ancient astronomers to plot the position of the stars.
The word armillary comes from the Latin armilla—a bracelet or ring.One ring representing the equator has the hours walked on it，a second stands for the meridian，and a third the horizon.
The rod through the centre representing the earth's axis shows the time by casting its shadow on to the hour times marked on the equatorial ring.
Sun time is not the same as watch time because it measures time as it is，not as we would like it to be，with noon today exactly 24 hours away from noon tomorrow.Before the world became a small place and people didn't move around very much，local time was a perfectly satisfatory measurement.But as modern communication and means of travel grew more sophisticated standard time zones were adopted.As a result，your sundial will agree with your watch only on four days of the year，not because it is inaccurate but because it is measuring a different kind of time.Adjustments for“daylight saving”time throw yet another spoke in the wheel.There's a new kind of tour for you —time travel.It couldn't catch on.
22The sundial is now finding favour once again in the West because____.
A.Nations in the West begin to rely on it for making the time.
B.many quotes or mottoes promoto people's reflection and thought of the use of sundials.
C.sundials can be used to check the accuracy of clocks and watches.
D.sundials can provide the perfect ornament with their inherent dignity and image of scientific order.
23Which of the following statements about sundials is true？
A.Sundials used to be uncrafted but now western sculptors are designing dramatic new sundials.
B.The quotes or mottoes now are inscribed on sundials to promote thought.
C.All sundials are set on a pedestal，consisting of a flat dial face and a slanting piece of metal that casts the shadow
D.The earliest sundials are recorded in use around 300BC when men and women used simple trees and markers to show the time of day as the shadows moved.
24Watch time is different from sun time in that.
A.sun time measures time as people would like to be
B.watch time measures time as it is
C.sun time measures time as it is，wish noon today exactly 24 hours away from noon tomorrow
D.watch time measures time as people wish to be，with noon today exactly 24 hours away from noon tomorrow
The Game of the Name
Here comes John Smith walking toward me.Even though he is but a passing acquaintance，the American greeting ritual demands that I utter a few words to reassure him of my good will.But what form of address should I use？John？Smith？Dr.Smith？A decision such as this is usually made unconsciously.
As native speakers in the American speech community，we have grown up learning the rules of address at the same time that we were acquiring the grammatical rules of American-English.At first thought，it might seem a trivial pursuit to examine the ways in which we address one another.But forms of address reveal many assumptions we make about memebers of our speech community.
Our initial decision about the appropriate address form is based on relative ages.If the person being addressed is a child，then almost all the rules that we have unconsciously assimilated can safely be ignored，and we use the simple formula First Name.The child，in turn，addresses an adult by using the formula Tilte plus Last Name.
But defining a“child”is not always easy.I address my son's roommate at college by FN，even though he is an adult under the law.I，too，have the relative age of a child to a 75-year-old acquaintance who calls me Pete.Let us assume that John Smith is not a child who can be addressed by FN but is either my contemporary or my elder.The next important deteriminer for the form of address will then be the speech situation.
If the situation is a formal one，then I must disregard all other rules and use social Identity plus Last Name.John Smith will always be addressed as Dr.Smith （or sometimes simply as Doctor，with Last Name understood） in the medical setting of office or hospital.（I am allowed to call him if my status is at least as high as his or if we are friends outside of our social roles，but the rest of my utterance must remain respectful.）
We are also obliged to address certain other people by their social Identity in formal situation：public officials （Congressman：Your Honor），educators （Professor or Doctor），leaders of meetings （Mr.Chairman），Roman Catholic priests （Father Dafly） and nuns （Sister Anna），and so forth.By the way，note the sexist distinction in the formulas for priests and nuns.The formula for a priest is Father plus Last Name，but for a nun it is Sister plus Religious Name （usually an FN）。
Most conversations，however，are not carried on in formal speech situations，and so the basic decision is when to use FN to TLN.A social acquaintance or newly hired colleague of approximately the same age and rank is usually introduced on an FN basis.“Pete，I'd like you to meet Harvy.”Now a problem arises if both age and rank of cone of the parties are higher：“Pete，I'd like you to meet Attorney Brown.”
Attorney Brown may，of course，at any time signal me that he is willing to suspend the rules of address and allow an FN basis.Such a suspension is his privilege to bestow，and it is usually handled humorously，with a remark like，“I answer quicker to Bruce.”
Complications arise when relative age and relative rank are not both the same.A young doctor who joins a hospital finds it difficult to address a much older doctor.They are equal in rank （and therefore FN should be used） but the great disparity in ages calls for TLN.In such cases，the young doctor can use the No-Name （NN） formula，phrasing his utterances adroitly to avoid using any term of address at all.
English is quite exceptional among the world's languages in this respect.Most European languages oblige the speaker to choose between the familiar and formal second person singular （as in the French tu and vous），as English once did when“thou”was in use.
This is the basic American system，but the rules vary according to speech situations，subtle friendship or kin relationships between the speakers，regions of the country，and so forth.
Southern speech，for example，adds the formula Title plus First Name （Mr.Charlie） to indicate familiar respect.Southerners are also likely to specify kin terms （as in Cousin Jane） whereas in most of the United States FN is used for cousins.
Address to strangers also alters some of the rules.A speaker usually addresses a stranger whose attire and behavior indicate higher status by saying sir.But sometimes speakers with low status address those with obviously higher status by spurning this rule and instead using Mac or buddy—as when a construction worker asks a passing executive，socially identified by his atlacie' case，“You got a match，buddy？”
25According to the author the form of address is not based on____.
A.relative ages B.speech situation
C.relative ranks D.relative incomes
26How do people address a public official correctly？
A.Professor or Doctor B.Father or Sister
C.Mr.Chairman D.His Honor or Congressman
27Which formula is used when a young man addresses an elder person but with the same rank？
A.FN B.NN C.TLN D.SI or SILN
Petrolem，like coal，is found in sedimentary rocks，and was probably formed form long-dead living organisms.The rocks in which it is found are almost always of ocean origin and the petroleum-forming organisms must have been ocean creatures rather than trees.
Instead of originating in accumulating woody matter，petroleum may be the product of the acumulating fatty matter of ocean organisms such as plankton，the myriads of single-celled creatures that float in the surface layers of the ocean.
The fat of living organisms consists of atom combinations that are chiefly made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms.It does not take much in the way of chemical change to turn that into petroleum.It is only necessary that the organisms settle down into the ooze underlying shallow arms of the ocean under conditions of oxygen shortage.Instead of decomposing and decaying，the fat accumulates，is trapped under further layers of ooze，undergoes minor rearrangements of atoms，and finally is petroleum.
Petroleum is lighter than water and，beng liquid，bends to ooze upward through the porous rock that covers it.There are regions on Earth where some reaches the surface and the ancients spoke of pitch，bitumen，or asphalt.In ancient and medieval times，such petroleum seepages were more often looked on as medicines rather than fuels.
Of course，the surface seepages are in very minor quantities.Petroleum stores，however，are sometimes overlain with nonporous rock.The petroleum seeping upward reaches that rock and them remains below it in a slowly acumulating pool.If a hole can be drilled through the rock overhead，the petroleum can move up through the hole.Sometimes the pressure on the pool is so great that the petroleum gushes high into the air.The first successful drilling was carried through in 1859 in Titusville，Pennsylvania，by Edwin Drake.
If one found the right spot then it was easy to bring up the liquid material.It was much easier to do that than to send men underground to chip out chunks of solid coal.Once the petroleum was obtained，it could be moved overland through pipes，rather than in fright trains that had to be laboriously loaded and unloaded，as was the case with coal.
The convenience of obtaining and transporting petroleum encouraged its use.The petroleum could be distilled into separate fractions，each made up of molecules of a particular size.The smaller the molecules，the easier it was to evaporate the fraction.
Through the latter half of the nineteenth century，the most important fraction of petroleum was“kerosene，”made up of middlesized molecules that did not easily evaporate.Kerosene was used in lamps to give light.
Toward the end of the nineteenth century，however，engines were developed which were powered by the explosions of mixtures of air and inflammable vapors within their cylinders.The most convenient inflammable vapor was that derived from“gasoline，”a petroleum fraction made up of small molecules and one that therefore vaporized easily.
Such“internal combustion engines”are more compact that earlier steam engines and can be made to start at a moments' notice，whereas steam engines require a waiting period while the water reserve warms to be boiling point.
As automobiles，trucks，buses，and aircraft of all sorts came into use，each with internal combustion engines，the demand for petroleum zoomed upward.Houses began to be heated by burning fuel oil rather than coal.Ships began to use oil；electricity began to be formed from the energy of burning oil.
In 1900，the energy derived from burning petroleum was only 4 percent that of coal.After World WarⅡ，the energy derived from burning the various fractions of petroleum exceeded that of coal，and petroleum is not the chief fuel powering the world's technology.
The greater convenience of petroleum as compared with coal is，however，balanced by the fact that petroleum exist on Earth in far smaller quantities than coal does.（This is not surprising，since the fatty substances from which petroleum was formed are far less common on Earth than the woody substances from which coal was formed.）
The total quantity of petroleum now thought to exist on Earth is about 14 trillion gallons.In weight that is only one-ninth as much as the total existing quantity of coal and，at the present moment，petroleum is being used up much more quickly.At the present rate of the use，the world's supply of petroleum may last for only thirty years or so.
There is another complication in the fact that petroleum is not nearly so evenly distributed as coal is.The major consumers of energy have enough local coal to keep going but are，however，seriously short of petroleum.The United Stated has 10 percent of the total petroleum reserves of the world in its own territory，and has been a major producer for decades.It still is，but its enormous consumption of petroleum products is now making it an oil importer，so that it is increasingly dependent on foreign nations for this vital resource.The Soviet Union has about as much petroleum as the United States，but it uses less，so it can be an exporter.
Nearly three-fifths of all known petroleum reserves on Earth is to be found in the territory of the various Arabic-speaking countries.Kuwait，for instance，which is a small nation at the head of the Persian Gulf，with an area only three-fourths that of Massachusetts and a population of about half a million，possesses about one-fifth of all the known petroleum reserves in the world.
The political problems this creates are already becoming crucial.
28Petroleum is unlike coal in the way.
A.petroleum is found in sedimentary rocks and was probably formed from long-dead living organisms.
B.once the petroleum was obtained，it could be moved overland in freight trains.
C.petroleum is not nearly so evenly distributed as coal is.
D.petroleum exists on Earth in far greater quantities than coal does.
29The use of petroleum is greatly encouraged by.
A.the fact that petroleum is lighter than water
B.the fact that petroleum is the produce of the accumulating fatty matter of ocean organisms.
C.the fact that obtaining and transporting petroleum is very convenient.
D.the fact that the energy derived from burning petroleum is only 4 percent that of coal.
30Which of the following is a petroleum fraction made up of small molecules and one that therefore vaporized easily？
A.kerosene. B.gasoline C.asphalt D.vapor
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING ［10 min.］
In this section there are seven passages followed by ten multiple-choice questions.Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Coloured ANSWER SHEET.
First read the following question.
31The purpose of this passage is to.
A.tell the truth that the world is dual
B.analyze the fact that the world is dual
C.inform people of that the world is dual
D.warn people against long-time mismanagement
Now read the text quickly and answer question 31.
Polarity，or action and reaction，we meet in every part of nature：in darkness and light；in heat and cold；in the ebb and flow of waters；in male and female；in the inspiration and expiration of plants and animals；in the systole and diastole of the heart；in the undulations of fluids，and of sound；in the centrifugal and centripetal gravity；in electricity，galvanism，and chemical affinity.Superinduce magnetism at one end of a needle；the opposite magnetism takes place at the other end.If the south attracts，the north repels.To empty here，you must condense these.As inevitable dualism bisects nature，so that each thing is a half，and suggests another thing to make it whole：as spirit，matter；man，woman；subjective，objective；in，out；upper，under；motion，rest；yea，nay.
Whilst the world is thus dual，so is every one of its parts.The entire system of things gets represented in every particle.There is somewhat that resembles the ebb and flow of the sea，day and night，man and woman，in a single needle of the pine，in a kernel of corn，in each individual of every animal tribe.The reaction so grand in the elements is repeated within these small boundaries.For example，in the animal kingdom，the physiologist has observed that no creatures are favorites，but a certain compensation blances every gift and every defect.A surplusage given to one part is paid out of a reduction from another part of the same creature.If the head and neck are enlarged，the trunk and extremities are cut short.
The theory of the mechanic forces is another example.What we gain in power is lost in time；and the converse.The periodic or compensating errors of the planets is another instance.The influences of climate and soil in political history are another.The cold climate invigorates.The barren soil does not breed fever，crocodiles，tigers，or scorpions.
The same dualism underlies the nature and condition of man.Every excess causes a defect；every defect an excess.Every sweet hath its sour；every evil its good.Every faculty which is a receiver of pleasure has an equal penalty put on its abuse.It is to answer for its moderation with its life.For every grain of wit there is a grain of folly.For everything you have missed，you have gained something else；and for everything you gain，you lose something.If riches increase，they are increased that use them.If the gatherer gathers too much，nature takes out of the man what she puts into his chest；swells the estate，but kills the owner.Nature hates monopolies and exceptions.
Things refuse to be mismanaged long.Though no checks to a new evil appear，the checks exist and will appear.If the government is cruel，the governor's life is not safe.If you tax too high，the revenue will yield nothing.If you make the criminal code sanguinary juries will not convict.Nothing arbitrary， nothing artificial can endure.
First read the following question.
32The general tone of this letter is____.
A.encouraging B.arbitrary C.imposing D.exaggerate
Now read the text quickly and answer question 32.
My Dear child，—I am very well pleased with your last letter.The writing was very good，and the promise you make exceedingly fine.You must keep it，for an honest man never breaks his word.You engage to retain the instructions which I give you.That is suffcient，for though you do not properly comprehend them at present，age and reflection will，in time，make you understand them.
With respect to the contents of your letter，I believe you have had proper assistance；indeed，I do not as yet expect that you can write a letter without help.You ought，however，to try，for nothing is more requisite than to write a good letter.Nothing in fact is more easy.Most persons，who write will，do so because they aim at writing better than they can，by which means they acquire a formal and unnatural style.Whereas，to write well，we must write easily anmd naturally.For instance，if you want to write a letter to me，you should only consider what you would say if you were with me，and then write it in plain terms，just as if you were conversing.I will suppose，then，that you sit down to write to me unassisted，and I imagine your letter would probably be much in these words：
My dear Papa：I have been at Mr.Maittaire's this morning，where I have translated English into Latin and Latin into English，and，so well that at the end of my exercise he has written optime. I have likewise repeated a Greek verb，and pretty well.After this I ran home，like a little wild boy，and kplayed till dinner-time.This became a serious task，for I ate like a wolf，and by that you judge that I am in very good health.Adieu.
Well，sir， the above is a good letter，and yet very easily written，because it is exceedingly natural.Endeavour then sometimes to write to me of yourself，without minding either the beauty of the writing or the straightness of the lines.Take as little trouble as possible.By that means you will by degrees use yourself to write perfectly well，and with ease.Adieu.Come to me tomorrow at twelve，or Friday morning at eight o'clock.
by Philip Dormer Stanhop Chesterfield
First read the following question.
33The index is most probably from a book on.
A.Hart Crane B.Daniel Aaron C.William Faulkner D.W.H. Audern
Now read the text quickly and answer question 33.
Absalom， Absalom！，3，55，127；British responses to，116，120—21；community in，39—40；endurance as theme in，25：“fatherless”children in，78—79；Gnosticism as theme in，130，134—35，156—57；importance of historyin，145，148，157，158；love and compassion in，24—25；race as theme in，24，25，130：“Stoic Christianity”in，134
—characters in，24，25，26，39，40，73，78—79，129—130，134，1576；Charles Bon，24，2577；Quentin Compson，79，94，158；Judith Sutpen，24—25，26，55，78，129—35 passim，156—57，158
American Deam，136—44 passin，147，151
The American Dream：What Happened to it？：circumsances of writingof，136—38.See also“On Fear”：“On Privacy”
Anderson，Sherwood，34—35，37，50，52；influence of，on Faulkner，45，45n，46，46n；and Winesbury Ohio，34—35，45，46，46n，49，51
Animals，19，63，See also“The Bear”
As I Lay Dying，4，11，71，72，107，111
“The Bear Shot，”56
Blacks：as characters in Faulkner's fiction，7，48，49，55，62—63，67，73，74，111—12，127；and white characters，88—89；civil rights of，95，139；community of，76—77；as witnesses to Christianity，125，127
Cathars，and courtly love，99，100，101
Christianity，125，142，149—50；Faulkner's views on，16—17，28，123，124，129，131，145，153，156；and“Stoic Christianity，”134，135；as theme in Faulkner's fiction，17—18，62—63，123，124，127—28
Civil War，1，14，57，139；Faulkner's views of，144，153—54；in Faulkner's fiction，7，21，22，24，35，48，60，70，74，128
Community：Faulkner's concern for，35，38，93，140，142—43，145；and individualism，140—41；as theme in Faulkner's fiction，29—43 passim，47，49，51，52，91，92—93，129
“Damon and Pythias Unilimited，”47
Depravity，as theme in Faulkner's work，110
Despair，as theme in Faulkner's work，127
Elito，T.S，52，91，137—38，143，148；and The Waste Land，51—52；125
Father：depicted in Faulkner's fiction，68，73，74；in Faulkner's family，68
Faulkner，William：bohemianism of，137，143；as commentator on Southern.
First read the following question.
34The author tries to point out that____.
A.the children who have the smoking habit shouldn't try to quit smoking.
B.the earlier children start smoking，the more severe the damage to health remains.
C.use of tobacco early will not permanently impair normal processes of cell renewal.
D.children who smoke can not be immortal as long as the stop in time.
Now read the text quickly and answer question 34.
Kids who smoke like to think that they are immortal—or at least that if they stop in time，their lungs will heal.But a report in last week's Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggests early smoking may trigger changes in DAN that put young smokers at higher risk for cancer even if they later quit.Researchers studying lung cancer patients found that those with the worst genetic damage were not those who smoked longest but those who started youngest.What's more，the earlier they started，the more severe the damage.
The findings are particularly alarming because they arrived the same week as the results of a survey showing that American children seem to be taking up cigarettes at even younger ages.The National Parents'Resource Institute for Drug Education，based in Altanta，reported that 4% of fourth-graders，7% of fifth-graders and nearly 15% of sixth-graders had already smoked. Add to this the more than 3 million teenagers with the habit，and you have a major health problem.
Doctors used to blame the higher incidence of lung cancer among those who started smoking in their youth on their prolonged exposure to tobacco.But the new study，involving 143 subjects in the Boston area—some of whom lit up as early as age seven—suggests a more insidious cause.Explains epidemiologist John Wiencke of the University of California at San Francisco：“Use of tobacco so early aparently permanently impairs normal processes of cell renewal.Otherwise，their DNA damage would long since have been repaired.”
That's not to say kids who have the smoking habit shouldn't try to quit as soon as they can.After all，there are plenty of other tobacco-related diseases—for example，heart disease，stroke and emphysema—that only get worse the longer you smoke.
First read the following questions.
35How many times did Phyllis Thaxter get married？
A.once B.twice C.thrice D.never
36When did she first appear on television？
A.1947 B.1966 C.1945 D.1953
Now read the text quickly and answer questions 35 and 36.
THAXTER，Phyllis，actress；b Portland，Maine，20 Nov. 1920；d of Sidney S F Thaxter and his wife Marie Phyllis （Schuyler）；e Deering High School，Portland，and Ste Genevieve School，Montreal，Canada；m （l） James T Aubrey （mar dis）；（2） Gibert Lea；prepared for the stage at he Montreal Repertory Theatre.
First appeared on the stage at the Ogunquit Playhouse.Ogunquit，Maine，as Daphne，with Lauretter Taylor in the latter's play At the Theater；first appeared in New York at the Biltmore in 1938，when she took over the role of a schoolgirl in the long-runing What a Life；Alvin，Apr 1940，playedLempi in There Shall Be No Night，a role she played again when the play was revived in Sept 1940；Selwyn，Chicago，1941，the title-role in Claudia；went to Hollywood and appeared in many films；re-appeared on the stage at the Shubert，New Haven，Conn，Feb 1947，when she took over the role of Kate Bannion in Heartsone；Belasco，Sept 1948，Nancy in Sundown Beach；returned to the stage at the BiltAgnes Carol in Time Out for Ginger；Paper Mill Playhouse，Millburn，New Jersey，Feb 1966，Played in The Women；Royal Poinciana Playhouse，Palm Beach，Florida，Jan 1967，played in The Impossible Years；films in which she has appered since 1945 include Thirty Seconds over Tokyo，Weekend at the Waldorf，Sea of Grass.Bewitched，The World of Henry Orient，etc；first appeared on television，1953，and programs include Wagon Train，Alfred Hitchcock，The US Steel，Playhouse 90，General Electric Theatre，The Fugitive，etc.
Recreations：Interior decorating，riding，swimming，tennis.Address：Actors Equity Association，1500 Broadway，New York，NY，USA 10036.
Frist read the following questions.
37How many suppers are included in the price of the tour？
A.65 B.22 C.16 D.51
38What color is Lake Louise？
A.pin B.green C.yes sow D.blue
Now read the text quickly and answer questions 37 and 38.
HOW YOU WILL TRAVEL
The MAJESTIC AMERICAN— travels iva deluxe motorcoach and in sleeper accommodatins on North Americas great name trains Ait tours utilize a combination of Std.Pullman and Superliner sleeping cars.Tour rates are the same for both.Here's how you will travel：
From/To〖〗Train〖〗 EquipmentNy/Cht/ny〖〗Broadway Limited〖〗Std.PullmanChi/Salt LK〖〗California Zephyr〖〗SuperlinerGlacier/Chi〖〗Empire Bulder〖〗SuperlinerMeak：B-breakfast；L-lunch；D-Dinner，meals included out of 65；22B；13L；16D.
Day 14 Mon—KAMLOOPS/YELLOWHADE PASS/JASPER NAT'L PARK：Heead for Jasper Nat'l Park this morning via secnic Yellowhead Pass.En route we'll see the legendary Thompson River.Jasper Park Lodge B-L-D
Day 15 Tue—JASPER NAT'L PARK：Today we tour the best of Jasper—Canada's largest national park.Jasper Park Lodge B-D
Day 16 Wed—COLUMBIA ICEFIELDS/“SNOCOACH”RIDE/LAKE LOUISE/BANFF：We head toward the Columbia lcefields—where Four Winds has arranged a safe but exhilarating snocoach ride across six-mile Athabasca Glacier.Later we'll stop at Lake Louise—mineral deposits have given it a unique green color.Spend the next two nights at one of Canada's most elegant hotels.Banff Spring HotelB-L-D
Day 17 Thu—BANFF NAT'L PARK：You have the whole day at leisure to enjoy Banff Nat'l Park's varied beauty.You can visit the Natural History Museum.Banff Spring HotelB-D
Frist read the following questions.
39Which of the following sociologists is a female？
A.Daniel Bell B.Reinhard Bendix C.Ruth Benedict D.Basil Bernstein
40Bernard Jessies is best known for her work on____.
A.education B.personality and culture
C.industrial society D.marriage and family
Now read the text quickly and answer questions 39 and 40.
Bell，Daniel （1919— ） Bell is an American sociologist best known for his presiction that CLASS CONFLICT was nearing an end with the END OF IDEOLOGY and the emergence of the POSTINDUSRIAL and INFORMATION SOCIETIES organized primarily around technology and informationg.He later retreated somewhat from this postion with the observation of a funcdamental conflict among the values of economic efficiency，individual rights and wellbeing，and the hedonistic lifestyle promoted by advanced capitalist societies.
Major works include The end of ideology （1960）；The coming of postindustrial society（1973）；and The cultural contradictions of capitalism （1976）。
Bendix，Reinhard （1916— ） A German-born immigrant to the United States，Bendix is known for his interpretation of the work of Max WEBER and for his work in comparative and HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY，especially in relation to industrial society and its ties to the working class.
Major works include Work and authority in industry （1956）；Social mobility in industrial society （1959）；Max Weber；An intellectual portrait （1960）；and Nation building and citizenship （1964）。
Benedict，Ruth （1887—1948） Trained first in English literature and only later in life as an anthropologist，Benedict made major contributions to the study of the relationship between personality and culture.Her basic insight was that each culture promotes the development of some human potentialsd to the neglect of other，and that people shape themselves in ways that tend to fit their cultural context.Culture is，in Benedict's words，“personality writ large，”and societiescan be seen as integrated wholes of cultural forms and human beings.An accomplished field observer，rigorous researcher，and lucid writer，Benedict combined the humanities and the scientific study of culture in often powerful ways and left a significant legacy for the study of culture and perosnality.
Major works include Patterns of culture （1934）；Zuni mythology，2 vols.（1935）；and The chrysanthemum and the sword：Patterns of Japanese culture （1946）。See also Margaret Mead，An anthropologist at work：Writings of Ruth Benedict （1959）。
Bernard，Jessie （1903— ） Bernard is an American sociologist best known for her work on marriage，the family，the status of women，communities，social problems，and public policy.It was she，for example，who first explored the phenomenon of “his”and“hers”marriages，recognizing that marriage has distinct advantagesfor men that are not shared by women.Especially during and following the 1970s.Bernard created a rich body of work detailing the nature of women's lives in contexts ranging from the family to higher education.Bernard is also known for her expertise on the history of sociology as a discipline and as a cofounder of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.
Major words include Academic women （1946）；Women and the public interest （1971）；The future of marriage （1972）；The sociology of community （1973）；The future of motherhood （1974）；The female world in a global perspective （1987）；and The origins of American sociology，with L.L.Bernard （1943）。See also Women in sociology，edited by Mary Jo Deegan （1991）。
Bernstein，Basil （1924— ）。Bernstein is a British sociologist specializing in education，SOCIOLINGUSITICS，and the relation between language，knowledge and schooling on the one hand and SOCIAL CLASS and SOCIAL CONTROL on the other.In his theory of SPEECH CODES，Bernstein argues that social calss faects how students learn language in family and school environments，and this，in turn，affects their achievement potential and social class possibilities.His interest in language extends to a general interest in how class systems are maintained through control over knowledge and the language needed to access and use it in complex and creative ways.
Major works include Class，codes，and control，3 vols.（1971，1973，1975）。
TIME LIMIT：［120 MIN.］
PART Ⅳ TRANSLATION ［60 min.］
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the following underlined part of the text into English， write your translation ANSWER SHEET THREE.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following underlined parts of the text into Chinese.Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
One wet night I was coming home through Hyde Park from working late on a job in Paddington.Pain and wind and swept boughs and sickly gasights on the wet asphalt；and poles nad scaffolding about in preparation for the Jubilee celebration.I had sent a couple of attempts on the subject to the Bulletin，and had got encouragement in Answer to Correspondents.And now the idea of“Sons of the South”or“Song of the Republic”came.I wrote it and screwed up courage to go down to the Bulletin after hours，intending to chop the thing into the letter box，but just as I was about to do so，or rather making up my mind as to whether I'd shove it in，or take it home and have another look at the spelling and the dictionary，the door opened suddenly and a haggard woman stood there. And I shoved the thing into her hand and got away round the corner，feeling something like a person who had been nearly caught on the premises under suspicious circumstances and was not safe yet by any means.
I hadn't the courage to go near the Bulletin often again，but used to lie awake at night and get up very early and ship down to the nearest news-agent's on Thursday mornings，to have a pep at the Bulletin，in fear and trembling and half furtively， as if the news-agent-another hard-life woman，by the way，named Mrs Furlong—would guess my secret.At last，sick with disappointment，I ment to the office and saw Mr Archibird，who seemed surprised，encouraged me a lot and told me that they were holding the “Song of a Republic”over for a special occasion—Eight Hours Day.
PART Ⅴ WRITING
As the ever-increasing popularity of computer and internet，the life and the life style has greatly been altered.The future world would become an interactive world；the future leisure activities and future businesses would also change.
Thus，the impact of science and technology on human civilization is very great.
Write an essay about 300 words，expressing your view on the compact of science and technology on human civilization.
In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details.In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary.Marks will be awarded for organization as well as for syntactic variety and appropriate word choice.