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温家宝:纽约美国银行家协会午餐会上的演讲

2006-07-07 20:23

Work Together to Open a New Chapter in China-US Trade and Economic Cooperation——Address by Premier Wen Jiabao of China at Luncheon Hosted by the American Bankers Association in New York

共同开创中美经贸合作的新局面
——在纽约美国银行家协会举行的午餐会上的演讲

2003/12/08

  Mr. Chairman,

  Ladies and Gentlemen,

  With the approach of the 25th anniversary of China-US diplomatic ties, I have come to your country on an official visit at the invitation of President Bush. New York City is the first leg of my current trip and I am really delighted to join so many old and new friends here. I wish to express my special thanks to the American Bankers Association for its gracious hospitality, and to pay my respects to all those who have for years dedicated themselves to greater trade and economic cooperation between our two countries. I also wish to convey, through you, my cordial greetings and best wishes to the great American people.

  In recent weeks, China and the US have been coping with some differences and frictions over the trade issue. As such, my current visit has been given rather intense attention. Let me first assure you that I have come to this country to seek friendship and cooperation, and not to fight a “trade war”。

  Many a difference derives from a lack of understanding. I am convinced that with dialogue and consultation,China and the US are entirely able to narrow their differences and broaden their areas of cooperation.

  When talking about China-US trade, we should not overlook one fundamental fact, that is, in the past 25 years, two-way trade has experienced a tremendous expansion. From merely 2.5 billion US dollars in 1979 to over 100 billion today, the increase is dozens of times. Does such a huge increase benefit only one side at the expense of the other? Or is China the winner and theUS the loser? The answer is obviously no. In fact, both countries have reaped tremendous benefits from the rapid expansion of China-US trade.

  No one in his wildest imagination could have expected 25 years ago the sheer magnitude of China-US trade and economic relations of today. With over 40,000 US-invested enterprises, the paid-in value of the total US investment in China now stands at 43 billion US dollars. Of the top 500 UScompanies, more than 400 have come to China, and most of them are making a handsome profit. The McDonald's and KFC chain stores are found in almost every Chinese city, large or small. Products bearing such famous American brands as Microsoft, Intel, Motorola, P&G, Kodak and GM sell quickly on the Chinese market. Of every ten rolls of films used by Chinese consumers, seven are made by Kodak. Wal-Mart and other US retailing firms are also doing successfully in China. At the same time, many Chinese merchandizes have become favored choices of US consumers. The number of Chinese-invested enterprises in the US has surpassed 700.

  As we all know, trade and commerce form the economic foundation of our bilateral relations. Being mutually beneficial and win-win, China-US trade and economic ties have not only delivered tangible economic benefits to the two peoples, but underpinned the overall relationship, giving it a powerful driving force for a steady expansion. As for the contribution made by the thriving China-US economic partnership to the prosperity of the surrounding areas and the world economic growth, it is there for all to see.

  The reason for such a rapid growth in China-US trade lies, in the final analysis, in the high degree of complementarity of the two economies, which, to a large extent, stems from their big differences in economic resources, economic structures and consumption levels.China is the world's largest developing country with a huge market, fast development and a low cost of labor, but short in capital and relatively backward in technology and management. On the other hand, the US is the world's largest developed country, big in economic size, abundant in capital, and advanced in science and technology. But the cost of labor in the US is very high. Such diversity and complementarity will remain for a long time, and are likely to feature more prominently in the ongoing economic globalization. This, in my view, is the material basis for the sustained and rapid expansion of China-US trade.

  Depicting how climbers of the towering Mount Tai feel, an ancient Chinese poem goes, “I must ascend the mountain's crest; it dwarfs all peaks under my feet.” When approaching problems in China-US trade, we also need to take a strategic perspective of vision and foresight. Problems such as US trade deficit withChina, the RMB exchange rate, and IPR protection, are of concern to many quarters of US society. But they are also problems that come along with expanded China-US trade, and they can be ironed out gradually since common understanding on them is entirely obtainable. They should not, and will not, stand in the way of the larger interests of China-US trade. As whirlpools are sometimes found in a surging river, the flows of history can also be interrupted by some occasional setbacks. As bilateral trade and economic relations grow in size, some frictions are hardly avoidable. So long as the two sides act in good faith, such problems can be resolved properly through equal consultation and expanded cooperation.

  During my interview with The Washington Posttwo weeks ago and my meetings with American friends at other times, I explained our positions on the above hot issues. If you still have some questions, I will be glad to answer them later on.

  A review of China-US trade and economic relations in the past quarter of a century reveals certain important experience and lessons that we should bear in mind. Now, I would like to propose the following five principles for fair trade and economic partnership betweenChinaand the US for your consideration:

  First, mutual benefit and win-win result. Thinking broadly, one should take account of the other's interests while pursuing its own.

  Second, development first. Existing differences should be resolved through expanded trade and economic cooperation.

  Third, greater scope to coordinating mechanisms in bilateral trade and economic relations. Disputes should be addressed in a timely manner through communication and consultation to avoid possible escalation.

  Fourth, equal consultation. The two sides should seek consensus on major issues while reserving differences on minor issues, instead of imposing restrictions or sanctions at every turn.

  Fifth, do not politicize economic and trade issues.

  These five principles are based on the WTO framework and existing norms of international trade. They are essential for a correct understanding and proper handling of possible trade disputes or frictions between our two countries in the years ahead. The core elements of these principles are development, equality, and mutual benefit. Development is our driving force, equality the premise, and mutual benefit our goal. This, in my opinion, also serves the need for a constructive and cooperative relationship to which both sides are committed.

  Take the problems of our trade imbalance for example. By putting development first, we mean to take a forward-looking approach that allows us to narrow the trade gap through continued expansion of two-way trade. As you all know, we do not go after an increase of US trade deficit with China. But reducing Chinese exports to the US is no good answer, for so doing serves neitherChinanor the US in solving its unemployment problem. Instead, it will seriously harm the interests of millions of American consumers and US firms operating inChina. A more realistic solution is for the US to expand its export to China. We on our part have demonstrated the utmost sincerity and made our greatest effort by substantially increasing import of farm products and machinery from theUS, and placing more purchasing orders for needed American commodities. At the same time, we hope theUS will recognizeChina's market economy status, and lift its export restrictions on high-tech products. I ardently hope that the relevant US departments will make a clean break with those obsolete concepts and anachronistic practices, and throw them into thePacific Ocean, so as to boldly keep pace with the times.

  Ladies and Gentlemen,

  I for one have full confidence in the future of China-US trade and economic cooperation. The road ahead might not be all smooth sailing, but the prospect is surely promising. Internationally, China-US economic partnership faces a window of rare strategic opportunity. A pattern featuring economic interdependence, mutual benefit and win-win, a pattern of each having something of the other, is taking shape. I have noticed that theUSeconomy has started its long-awaited rebound. And I would like to tell you in a responsible manner that China's economy will maintain a sound growth momentum for a considerably long time to come.

  -Chinaas a whole has entered the crucial stage of industrialization and urbanization. And the strong domestic demand will keep its economy growing continuously.

  - Continued structural innovation has made Chinese economy increasingly dynamic. The market now plays an essential role in the allocation of resources. The public sector has become more vigorous thanks to restructuring, reorganization and upgrading, and the non-public sectors have made giant strides.

  - The Chinese Government is more capable of macro-economic control and regulation. We successfully coped with the impact of the Asian financial crisis, and managed to pull off an 8.5 percent growth this year, despite the SARS epidemic.

  -China's opening-up is getting even wider and its investment environment better.Chinais now one of the world's safest places. We have done a fruitful work in honoring our WTO commitments, and more and more foreign investors have been attracted toChina.

  Given the above, we are confident in our ability to maintain an economic growth rate of around 7 percent for a long time to come, reaching a GDP level of over 4 trillion US dollars by 2020. In the next three years,China plans to import over 1 trillion US dollars worth of goods, and its service sector will open still wider to the outside world. The rapidly growing Chinese economy will not only benefit the 1.3 billion Chinese people, but expand the horizon of trade and economic cooperation betweenChinaand other countries, the US included, creating a huge number of opportunities for Chinese and American businesses.

  The Chinese Government will continue to encourage foreign investment and protect foreign investors inChina. As its consumption structure and industrial structure upgrade,China needs more and more advanced know-how, equipment and services. The southeast coastal region ofChina, in particular, is well poised to becoming home to a number of manufacturing hubs. Moreover, while we are pressing ahead with the western development program, the large-scale overhaul of Northeast China and other old industrial bases is under way. American business and financial communities are welcome to seize these opportunities and expand their presence in the Chinese market. We want to see more large US firms working together with Chinese enterprises, and we hope the small and medium-sized US firms can also join in.

  Let me tell you this, I plan to make a proposal to President Bush to raise the level of the Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, so as to better serve bilateral trade and economic cooperation. I am sure he will agree with me.

  Ladies and Gentlemen,

  China's development relies mainly on domestic demand. We do not seek long-standing, excessive trade surplus, but work to maintain a basic balance between import and export. We hope the two sides will set store by the larger interests of China-US relations, seize the opportunities by enhancing trust and dispelling suspicion, and work persistently to bring bilateral trade and economic cooperation to a new high.

  As a famous American saying goes, “The golden age is before us, not behind us.” We are ready to work together with our friends from the US business and financial communities to open a new chapter in China-US trade and economic cooperation.

  Thank you.


  主席先生,

  女士们,先生们:

  在中美建交25周年前夕,我应布什总统的邀请正式访问贵国。纽约是我访美的第一站,在这里能与各位新老朋友欢聚一堂,我感到很高兴。在此我要特别感谢美国银行家协会的盛情款待,向多年来为推动中美经贸合作做出积极贡献的各位朋友表示敬意!并通过你们向伟大的美国人民致以诚挚问候和良好祝愿!

  近一段时间,中美贸易方面有些分歧和摩擦。各方面对我此次美国之行颇为关注。我首先要告诉诸位,我这次是为了寻求友谊与合作而来,不是来打“贸易战”的。

  有些分歧问题的产生,实际上是相互不了解。我深信,中美双方通过对话与磋商,可以缩小我们之间的分歧,扩大我们之间的合作。

  谈到中美贸易问题,首先要看到一个最基本的事实,这就是25年来我们两国之间的贸易有了巨大的发展。从1979年的不足25亿美元,发展到今天的 1000多亿美元,增长了几十倍。这种巨额增长,是不是只对一方有利而对另一方不利?或者说只是中国赚了而美国亏了?不是。事实上,两国都从迅速发展的中美贸易中获得了巨大的利益。

  25年前,也许谁也不曾想到,中美经贸合作能有今天这样大的规模。今天,美国在华投资设立企业超过4万家,实际投资430亿美元。美国500强企业中,已有400多家进入中国,大多数企业获利丰厚。麦当劳、肯德基遍及中国大小城市。微软、英特尔、摩托罗拉、宝洁、柯达、通用汽车等美国驰名品牌的商品畅销中国市场。中国人用的胶卷,每10卷中就有 7卷是柯达产品。沃尔玛等零售企业在中国也有很大发展。与此同时,在美国的市场上,许多中国商品受到美国消费者的青睐。中国在美国投资设立企业超过700 家。

  大家知道,经贸关系是两国关系的经济基础。互利共赢的中美经贸关系,不仅给两国人民带来了实实在在的经济利益,而且成为中美关系发展的重要基础和强大动力。至于中美经贸合作的迅速发展,对于周边地区经济繁荣乃至世界经济增长所起的促进作用,更是有目共睹。

  中美贸易之所以能迅速发展,根本原因在于两国经济具有极大的互补性。这种互补性,很大程度上来自两国经济资源条件、经济结构以及消费水平存在着很大的差异。中国是最大的发展中国家,市场广阔,发展迅速,劳动力成本低,但资金短缺、科技和管理相对落后。美国是最大的发达国家,经济总量大,资本充足,科技发达,但劳动力成本高。这种差异性和互补性,将在今后长期存在,在经济全球化的大背景下显得更加突出。我认为,这就是中美贸易能够持续快速发展的客观基础。

  中国有一句描写登泰山感受的古诗:“会当凌绝顶,一览众山小”。我们对待中美贸易问题,要有这种高瞻远瞩的战略眼光。诸如美中贸易逆差问题,人民币汇率问题,知识产权保护问题,贵国社会各界甚为关注。所有这些问题,是在中美贸易发展中出现的问题,是可以取得共识,也是可以逐步得到解决的,不应该也不可能影响中美经贸发展大局。滔滔长河有时会卷起漩涡,漫漫历史进程难免会发生波折。随着中美经贸合作规模的扩大,有点摩擦在所难免。只要双方有诚意,这类问题完全可以通过平等协商和扩大合作来加以妥善解决。

  两周前,我在北京接受《华盛顿邮报》采访和会见美国朋友时,已就上述“热点”问题作了阐述。如果在座诸位还有什么问题,稍后我乐意解答。

  回顾中美经贸关系发展25年的历史,我们应当从中汲取一些重要的经验和教训。我愿意,就发展中美公平贸易和经济合作提出五条原则,与各位商榷。这五条原则是:

  第一、互利共赢。从大处着眼,既要考虑自己利益,又要考虑对方利益。

  第二、把发展放在首位。通过扩大经贸合作来化解分歧。

  第三、发挥双边经贸协调机制作用。及时沟通和磋商,避免矛盾激化。

  第四、平等协商。求大同存小异,不动辄设限和制裁。

  第五、不把经贸问题政治化。

  这五条原则,是建立在世贸组织框架和国际贸易基本准则基础上的,也是正确认识和妥善处理今后一个时期中美贸易可能出现的分歧和摩擦所需要的。这五条原则的核心和精髓是六个字:发展,平等,互利。发展是动力,平等是前提,互利是目的。我想,这完全符合我们两国之间发展建设性合作关系的要求。

  以解决两国贸易不平衡为例。所谓把发展放在首位,就是强调向前看,通过进一步扩大两国贸易来缩小不平衡。大家知道,美中贸易逆差扩大,这不是我们所追求的。但是,靠减少中国对美国的出口,这不是一个好办法。因为这样做,既不利于中国,也无助于解决美国内失业问题,反而会严重损害美国广大消费者和美国在华企业的利益。比较现实的办法是,美国进一步扩大对中国的出口。为此,我们已经以最大的诚意和最大的努力,大幅度增加了对美国农产品和机电产品的进口,并将进一步扩大我所需商品的采购。同时,我们也希望美国承认中国市场经济国家地位,解除对中国高新技术出口的限制。在这方面,我真诚地希望,美国有关方面把那些陈旧观念和不合时宜的做法抛到太平洋去,来一个大胆的与时俱进。

  女士们、先生们:

  我对中美经贸合作的前景充满信心。也许道路是不平坦的,但前途一定是光明的。纵观国际形势,中美两国经贸合作正面临一个难得的重要战略机遇期。中美在经贸领域相互依存、互利共赢、你中有我、我中有你的格局已经初步形成。我注意到,美国的经济已开始复苏。同时,我还要负责任地告诉诸位,中国的经济将在今后相当长一个时期内保持良好的发展势头。

  ——中国从总体上已步入工业化和城市化的重要时期。旺盛的国内需求,是经济增长的不竭动力。

  ——中国体制创新使经济充满活力。市场机制在资源配置中发挥着基础性作用。公有制经济的活力通过改革、改组、改造得到释放,非公有制经济已经有了很大的发展。

  ——中国政府调控宏观经济的能力得到增强。我们成功应对了亚洲金融危机的冲击,今年在遭受非典疫情的情况下仍保持8.5%的经济增长。

  ——中国对外开放的领域进一步扩大,投资环境日益改善。目前,中国是世界上最为安全的地方之一。我们履行加入世贸组织承诺所作的努力是卓有成效的,正吸引着越来越多的各国投资者。

  总之,我们有信心使国民经济在今后较长时期内保持7%左右的增长速度。预计到2020年,国内生产总值将达到4万多亿美元。今后三年,中国货物进口总额将超过1万亿美元,服务业也会进一步开放。中国经济的持续快速发展,不仅会造福于13亿中国人民,也将为包括美国在内的世界各国开辟经贸合作的广阔空间,为中美两国企业家提供巨大商机。

  中国政府将继续坚定不移地鼓励和保护外国投资者来华投资。中国消费结构和产业结构正在加快升级,对先进技术、设备和服务的需求日趋旺盛。特别是中国东南沿海地区已经具备发展若干个制造业中心的良好条件,西部大开发正在大力推进,东北地区等老工业基地的调整改造已经启动。我们欢迎美国工商金融界的朋友们,抢抓机遇,到中国开拓市场。我们欢迎更多的美国大企业与中国企业合作,也希望中小企业积极跟进。

  我可以高兴地告诉诸位,我准备向布什总统提议:提高中美商贸联委会的级别,更好地为拓展两国经贸合作服务。我相信布什总统会同意我这个建议。

  女士们、先生们:

  中国的发展主要依靠内需,不追求长期、过大的贸易顺差,致力实现进出口的基本平衡。我们希望,双方都以中美关系大局为重,把握先机,增进释疑,积极进取,把中美经贸合作推上新水平!

  贵国有句名言:“黄金时代在我们的前面”。我们愿与美国工商金融界的朋友们一道,共同开创中美经贸合作的新局面!

  谢谢大家。

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