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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY6

2006-7-28 01:03  

  1999年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题(阅读部分)

  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A,  B, C  and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET I by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  Its a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers misfortunes.

  Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing everlonger warning labels, trying to anticipate every possible accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn, among other things, that you mightsurprise!  - Fall off. The label on a child  s Batman cape cautions that the toy "does not enable user to fly".

  While warnings are often appropriate and necessary - the dangers of drug interactions, for example - and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isnt clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.

  Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldnt have changed anything. In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt helmet. "We re really sorry he has become paralyzed, but helmets arent  designed to prevent those kinds of injuries, " says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athletes injury. At the same time, the American Law Institute - a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weightissued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. "Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities," says a law professor at Cornell law School

  who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.

  51. What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?

  A.  Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.

  B.  Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.

  C. Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.

  D. Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.

  52. Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to .

  A.  satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products

  B.  become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products

  C.  make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability

  D.  feel obliged to view customers safety as their first concern

  53. The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that .

  A.  some injury claims were no longer supported by law

  B.  helmets were not designed to prevent injuries

  C.  product labels would eventually be discarded

  D.  some sports games might lose popularity with athletes

  54. The author s attitude towards the issue seems to be .

  A.  biased  B.  indifferent C.  puzzling D. objective

  Passage 2

  In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such businesstobusiness sales make sense because businesspeople typically know what product theyre looking for.

  Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its reliability. "Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier," says senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by conducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the companys private Internet.

  Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to "pull" customers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a continualityupdated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers computer monitors. Subscribers can customize the information they want to receive and precede directly to a companys Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events. But push technology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television fades. Thats a prospect that horrifies Net purists.

  But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall, which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10 years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge.

  55. We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business .

  A.  has been striving to expand its market

  B.  intended to follow a fanciful fashion

  C.  tried but in vain to control the market

  D.  has been booming for one year or so

  56. Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that .

  A.  the technology is popular with many Web users

  B.  businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions

  C.  there is a radical change in strategy

  D.  it is accessible limitedly to established partners

  57. In the view of Net purists, .

  A. there should be no marketing messages in online culture

  B. money making should be given priority to on the Web

  C. the Web should be able to function as the television set

  D.  there should be no online commercial information without requests

  58. We learn from the last paragraph that  .

  A.  pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce

  B.  interactivity,  hospitality and security are important to online customers

  C. leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago

  D. setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power

  Passage 3

  An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction - indeed, contradiction - which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put computers in the classroom.

  An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, justified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not simply to raise everyones job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children to attend school until a certain age, it was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by nature to pursue this kind of education. With optimism characteristic of all industrialized countries, we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computereducation advocates forsake this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the confusion between educational and vocational reasons for bringing computers into schools, computered advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achievement.

  There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student. Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, presumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many businessmen, so many accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.

  But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well developed skills, all other factors being equal,  can be the difference between having a job and not.  Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer, that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take - at the very longest - a couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of course, that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.

  59. The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is .

  A.  farreaching B.  dubiously oriented

  C.  selfcontradictory D.  radically reformatory

  60. The belief that education is indispensable to all children .

  A. is indicative of a pessimism in disguise

  B. came into being along with the arrival of computers

  C. is deeply rooted in the minds of computered advocates

  D. originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries

  61. It could be inferred from the passage that in the author s country the European model of professional training is .

  A.  dependent upon the starting age of candidates

  B.  worth trying in various social sections

  C.  of little practical value

  D.  attractive to every kind of professional

  62. According to the author, basic computer skills should be .

  A.  included as an auxiliary course in school

  B.  highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications

  C. mastered through a lifelong course

  D.  equally emphasized by any school,  vocational or otherwise

  Passage 4

  When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep. President Clinton moved swiftly. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment although no one had proposed to do so - and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. That group - the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) - has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a nearfinal draft of their recommendations.

  NBAC will ask that Clintons 90day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law. But NBAC members are planning to word the recommendation narrowly to avoid new restrictions on research that involves the cloning of human DNA or cells - routine in molecular biology. The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.

  In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning." Shapiro explained during the meeting that the moral doubt stems mainly from fears about the risk to the health of the child. The panel then informally accepted several general conclusions, although some details have not been settled.

  NBAC plans to call for a continued ban on federal government funding for any attempt to clone body cell nuclei to create a child. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos ( the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.

  NBAC members also indicated that they will appeal to privately funded researchers and clinics not to try to clone humans by body cell nuclear transfer. But they were divided on whether to go further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning. Shapiro and most members favored an appeal for such legislation, but in a phone interview, he said this is sue was still "up in the air".

  63. We can learn from the first paragraph that .

  A. federal funds have been used in a project to clone humans

  B. the White House responded strongly to the news of cloning

  C. NBAC was authorized to control the misuse of cloning technique

  D. the White House has got the panels recommendations on cloning

  64. The panel agreed on all of the following except that .

  A. the ban on federal funds for human cloning should be made a law

  B. the cloning of human DNA is not to be put under more control

  C. it is a crime to use private funding for human cloning

  D. it would be against ethical values to clone a human being

  65. NBAC will leave the issue of embryo research undisguised because .

  A. embryo research is just a current development of cloning

  B. the health of the child is not the main concern of embryo research

  C. an embryo s life will not be endangered in embryo research

  D. the issue is explicitly stated and settled in the law

  66. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that .

  A. some NBAC members hesitate to ban human cloning completely

  B. a law banning human cloning is to be passed in no time

  C. privately funded researchers will respond positively to NBAC s appeal

  D. the issue of human cloning will soon be settled

  Passage 5

  Science, in practice, depends far less on the experiments it prepares than on the preparedness of the minds of the men who watch the experiments. Sir Isaac Newton supposedly discovered gravity through the fall of an apple. Apples had been falling in many places for centuries and thousands of people had seen them fall. But Newton for years had been curious about the cause of the orbital motion of the moon and planets. What kept them in place? Why didnt they fall out of the sky? The fact that the apple fell down toward the earth and not up into the tree answered the question he had been asking himself about those lager fruits of the heavens, the moon and the planets.

  How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictability is part of the essential nature of research. If you dont have unpredictable things, you don t have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it.

  In talking to some scientists, particularly younger ones, you might gather the impression that they find the "scientific method" a substitute for imaginative thought. Ive attended research conferences where a scientist has been asked what he thinks about the advisability of continuing a certain experiment. The scientist has frowned, looked at the graphs, and said, "The data are still inconclusive." "We know that," the men from the budget office have said, "but what do you think? Is it worthwhile going on? What do you think we might expect?" The scientist has been shocked at having even been asked to speculate.

  What this amounts to, of course, is that the scientist has become the victim of his own writings. He has put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he not only believes them himself, but has convinced industrial and business management that they are true. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team".

  67. The author wants to prove with the example of Isaac Newton that  .

  A. inquiring minds are more important than scientific experiments

  B. science advances when fruitful researches are conducted

  C. scientists seldom forget the essential nature of research

  D. unpredictability weighs less than prediction in scientific research

  68. The author asserts that scientists  .

  A. shouldnt replace "scientific method" with imaginative thought

  B. shouldnt neglect to speculate on unpredictable things

  C. should write more concise reports for technical journals

  D. should be confident about their research findings

  69. It seems that some young scientists .

  A. have a keen interest in predictionB. often speculate on the future

  C. think highly of creative thinkingD. stick to "scientific method"

  70. The author implies that the results of scientific research .

  A. may not be as profitable as they are expected

  B. can be measured in dollars and cents

  C. rely on conformity to a standard pattern

  D. are mostly underestimated by management

  51. 「B」问题是:在20世纪80年代里, 当意外发生时会出现什么情形?

  文章第1段最后一句,作者指出,自80年代初以来,陪审团开始认为,更多的公司应该对其顾客遭受的不幸负责。句中 "misfortune"与问题 "accident" 是同一概念,即顾客不幸的意外。很明显从句中可以得出,陪审团的这一决定实际上是对发生意外的顾客提供法律上的保护,即B项内容。

  52. 「C」问题是:在本文提到,制造商们倾向于。

  文章第2段作者讲到公司感到很大威胁,它们通过撰写比以前更长的警示标签保护自己,试图预料各种可能发生的事故。作者又在第3段第2、3行明确指出,制造商和卖家们充分利用标签来保护自己,避免承担对受伤用户的法律责任,即C项内容。

  53. 「A」问题是:Schutt头盔的案例说明了。

  文章第4段第一句, "现在潮流似乎扭转过来了。"(Now the tide appears to be turning.)是本段的中心句。以下Schutt头盔的案例是作者用来证明现在事态的新情况,即不像从前,某些因伤害提出的索赔不再受法律保护了,即 A项内容。

  54. 「D」问题是:作者对于这个问题的态度似乎是。

  全文据实报道,文体平实,有足够的信息量。但几乎没有作者主观意见的发表,可以说作者的态度是客观的。

  外面的世界很危险:迈出门去,你有可能被门口的垫子滑倒摔断腿;生个炉子,你有可能把房子烧毁。幸好,如果门垫和炉子忘了提醒你可能的危险,一场成功的诉讼就会赔偿你的损失。大约从20世纪80年代初开始,陪审员开始越来越多地裁定公司必须为其顾客的不幸负责。

  公司方面感觉到了危险,于是警告标签越写越长,力图预见各种可能发生的事故。现在,梯子上贴的标签有几英寸长,令人吃惊的是,它警告的内容甚至包括你有可能摔下来。孩子们玩的蝙蝠侠玩具斗篷则警告"这件玩具不能用来飞行".

  尽管警告通常是合理的也是必要的——比如说,警告某些药物会相互作用——而且联邦和地方法律也要求很多产品要有警告标签。但是一旦顾客受到损害,它们却无法保护生产者和商家免于责任。一旦被告上法庭,在50%的情况下公司方面会输掉官司。

  现在,这种情况似乎有所改变。随着人身伤害索赔事件不断发生,一些法庭开始站在被告一方,尤其是在即使贴了警告标签也没有用的情况下。五月份,依利诺伊州 Schutt 运动器械公司经理Julie Nimmons 成功地打赢了一场官司。一位佩带他们生产的头盔的橄榄球运动员在比赛中瘫痪了,Nimmons 说:"得知他瘫痪了我们很难过,但是头盔并不能防止这样的损伤。"陪审员同意了他的说法,认为是比赛而不是头盔导致了这位运动员受伤。与此同时,美国法律协会——一个由法官、律师和学者组成的、说话相当有分量的群体——起草了新的民事法指导方针,认为公司不需要提醒顾客显而易见的危险,或是列出一长串所有可能的危险。康奈尔大学法学院的一位帮助起草这项指导方针的教授说:"重要信息可能被淹没在一大堆细枝末节之中。"如果这个法律协会的目的能够得以实现,那么产品信息就真正是用来服务于消费者,而不是商家用来对付法律诉讼的了。

  55. 「A」问题是:我们从文章的开始得知,网络贸易。

  文章第一段指出,在网络公司创办的最初一两年中,大部分措施是围绕着开拓消费者市场。第2句便告诉我们网上贸易的发展由开始的 "tap the consumer" 到 "businesstobusiness".这证明网络贸易一直在开拓市场,即A项内容。

  56. 「C」问题是:在提到可利用网上技巧营销时,作者暗示了。

  根据第3段,这里所说的变化是从"推"到"拉"的变化。两种营销策略迥然不同。

  57. 「D」问题是:在网络 "纯正主义者"看来,。

  根据第3段后4句,"推"的策略受到了许多网上用户的厌弃,在线用户们极力推崇这种用法:信息应根据特定要求载入屏幕。商业信息一旦在没有要求的情况下就被推入用户的屏幕,那么,网络和电视的区别就不存在了,这种前景正是Net pursists所惧怕的。 "purist"的意思是"纯粹主义者","力求纯正的人",在这里指那些不愿自己电脑受到不请自来的商业信息侵扰的人。因此选D.

  58. 「B」问题是:我们从最后一段得出。

  在最后一段作者指出,网上的公司不使用"推"的策略也肯定能赚钱,作者举出例子来表明,销售对路产品的网址加上互动、礼貌、安全等特点,将同样会吸引网上客户。选B.A项与文章内容相反;C,D项与问题不相干。

  在互联网经济的第一个年头,大多数的行动还只是围绕着开发消费者市场开展的。最近,随着逐渐证明网络不仅仅是一种时尚,公司之间开始互相购买产品和服务。因为商人大都知道他们需要什么样的产品,所以这种BtoB的销售模式是行得通的。

  但是,许多公司对使用互联网仍然心存疑虑,因为他们对网络的可靠性仍不放心。Forrester Researcher 的资深分析家Blane Erwin 说:"商家需要觉得对连接他们和供货商之间的渠道完全值得信赖。"一些公司只和长期的业务伙伴进行网上交易,以此减少风险,只有固定的业务伙伴才能进入公司的内部网络。

  网络经济模式的另外一个主要的变化是销售技术的进步。以前,网上销售主要集中于把顾客"拉"进某个站点里。而最近几年里,软件公司研发出了能让公司把信息直接"推"到顾客面前的工具,使市场信息能够直接到达既定顾客群。其中最有名的有Pointcast 网络公司,他们使用一种屏幕保护程序,不断将最近的信息和广告传送到订阅者的电脑上。订阅者可以定制希望接受的信息,并直接进入公司的网站。像 Virtual Vineyards 这样的公司已经开始使用类似的技术,把促销、产品推广和其他活动的信息直接推向顾客。但是这种推销手段受到很多互联网用户的轻视。因为网上文化非常看重这样一个理念,那就是电脑屏幕上出现的信息应该是应邀而来的。一旦商业促销任意充斥屏幕,网络和电视就没有什么区别了。这对网络纯正主义者来说是可怕的事情。

  但是,互联网上的公司并不一定要靠向顾客强行推销来赚钱。Virtual Vineyards, Amazon和其他一些先驱者的例子表明,一个网络,如果卖的产品对路,再加上适当的互动性、热情的服务和良好的安全性,就会吸引网上客户。而且计算机的价格不断下降,这对那些在网上开店的企业来说,是个好兆头。五年或十年以后,人们再回头看看今天,一定会奇怪为什么只有那么少的公司上网了。

  59. 「B」问题是:作者认为现今急促地将电脑放到教室里是。

  文章第一段指出,有人主张为学生的未来工作而进行计算机课堂教学,有人则主张为教育而进行计算机课堂教学;在这两种人之间存在一条看不见的界线。可见,在这两句中已经提到了计算机教学的目的不清的问题。

  60. 「D」问题是:教育对所有孩子们来说是必不可少的,这样的信念是。

  文章第2段8至9行,作者明确地指出,"随着所有工业化国家都以乐观主义为特点,我们开始认为每一个人都适于教育。" 在前面几句作者曾提到,"如果没有必要的教育,(上下文中指国家义务教育)一个人的个性不能得以完整(a character who is incomplete),从而无法充分地评价外在因素对其生活和幸福的影响。"由此可见教育对所有的孩子们来说是必不可少的。而这种信念又是根深于工业主义国家的乐观主义态度,即D项内容。

  61. 「C」问题是:可从文章中推断出,欧洲学校的职业培训模式在作者的国家中是。

  文章第3段作者提到许多欧洲国家学校采用了职业培训模式。但下一句中,作者对此作法给予否定(its however presumptuous……)。随后第3句指出,这种做法(指欧洲式的职业教育)很难培养出所需要的各类专业人员。即C项内容。

  62. 「A」问题是:根据作者的观点,基础的电脑技能应当被。

  文章第4段第三句指出,无论如何,在成为任何一类专业人员所需要的众多真才实学中,计算机基础技能只是一种辅助技能。这里的complementary和选项A中的auxiliary是同义词。

  对于课堂上进行计算机教育的问题有两派不同的意见,一种是站在学生未来工作的角度考虑,一种是站在教育改革的大背景下考虑。这两派意见之间存在一种无形的界限。很少有人探讨过这一区别——实际上,是一矛盾——它直指计算机教育运动错误的核心。

  目的在于为学生找到一份工作的教育是职业教育,进行职业教育的原因和为什么教育普遍受法律保护的原因有天壤之别。法律规定每个孩子上学必须上到十多岁,这并不仅仅是为了提高个人的就业机会。事实是,我们对美国公民有一种特定的期望,那就是如果一个人无法了解外界的力量如何影响他的生活和幸福,那么他的人生就是不完整的。但实际情况并不总是这样,在法律规定孩子到了一定年龄必须入学之前,人们普遍认为有些人的资质太差,不适合接受教育。但是和其他工业国家一样,我们有乐观的性格,我们认为所有的人都适合接受教育。但是计算机教育的支持者放弃了这一乐观的态度,即使表面上看起来令人振奋,但他们的态度实际上是悲观的。在计算机教育的教育目的和职业训练目的之间,计算机教育的支持者强调的总是学生毕业后的工作前景,而忽略了教育的成果。

  有人支持为学生提供适合他们类型的技术教育。很多欧洲的学校在早期引入职业训练的概念,就是为了确保为孩子将来能够从事他们希望的职业提供合适的训练。然而,你很难说就有那么多的工作机会提供给那么多的科学家、商人和会计。此外,在一个像我们这么大的国家里,在我们这样一个经济扩展到那么多国家、有那么多跨国公司的国家里,很难保证为各行各业提供数量刚好合适的从业人员。

  但是,对人数不多的一群学生来说,职业训练可能是行得通的,因为在其他条件相同的情况下,良好的职业技能决定一个人是否可以得到工作。当然,使用电脑的基础知识很简单,人们并不需要花很长时间来学习使用不同的软件。当然,如果你想成为一名电脑工程师,那就另当别论了。电脑的基本技能最多几个月就能掌握。不论如何,相对于能使人胜任各种职业的真正技能来说,电脑的基本技能只是一个补充。因此,不论是职业学校还是普通学校,都不能混淆电脑教育的目的。

  63. 「B」问题是:从文章第1段我们可以得出。

  文章第一段讲到克林顿总统立即作出反应,他宣布反对用这种特殊的畜牧技术克隆人,要求禁止使用联邦基金进行这样的研究,即B项内容。A,C,D项均与文中内容不符。

  64. 「C」问题是:专家小组一致同意以下几点,除了。

  文章第2段第3句,专家还没有在一个关键问题上达成一致,即:是否建议立法,规定私人出资研究克隆人技术是犯罪行为,即C项内容。

  65. 「D」问题是:NBAC将不会对胚胎研究问题进行讨论因为。

  根据第4段第2句,因为现行联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金创造供研究用的胚胎,或有意识危害胚胎的性命,NBAC的建议将不再涉及胚胎的研究。即D项内容。

  66. 「A」问题是:从本文最后一段可以推断出。

  文章最后一段第2句,在是否进一步呼吁制定联邦法律彻底禁止克隆人技术研究方面,NBAC成员意见不一。虽然Shapiro和多数成员都赞成呼吁制定这样的立法,但是,在一次电话采访中,他称这一问题仍然"悬而未决".可见某些NBAC成员仍对彻底禁止克隆技术的研究表示犹豫不决,即A项内容。

  三个月前,一支苏格兰的研究小组公布了一条让全世界震惊的消息:他们克隆了一头成年绵羊。对此克林顿总统立刻做出了反应,宣布反对利用这项非同寻常的畜牧技术来克隆人体,他同时下令禁止政府资助这种试验——尽管目前还没有人提出要这样做——并命令一个由普林斯顿大学校长Harold Shapiro 带领的独立专家小组在90天内向白宫汇报,对制定人体克隆方面的政策提供建议。这个小组——国家生物伦理学顾问委员会(NBAC)以极大的热情投入工作,将意见写成报告,并在5月17日的会议上,形成几乎是最终的草案。

  NBAC将要求无限期地延长克林顿总统做出的90天内不允许政府资助人体克隆的决定,并有可能将这一决定立法。但NABC的成员会注意控制其建议的措辞,以免出现新的条令禁止克隆人类DNA和细胞的试验——这类试验在分子生物学中是很常见的。然而,在一个非常重要的问题上,也就是是否建议立法将私人赞助人体克隆视为犯罪这一问题上,小组的意见还未达成一致。

  在5月17日会议讨论的建议草案的前言中,Shapiro 建议说,"试图通过克隆成人细胞来产生儿童,这是人类道德无法接受的",这一点在小组成员中取得了广泛的共识。Shapiro 解释说,这种道德上的忧虑主要来源于担心孩子的健康遭到损害。小组非正式地形成了几条广泛的结论,但一些细节问题还有待解决。

  NBAC打算呼吁长期禁止政府资助任何企图通过克隆细胞来产生婴儿的行为。由于现行的联邦法律已经禁止了政府资助为研究目的制造胚胎(婴儿出生前的最初阶段)或故意危害胚胎的生命,因此在胚胎试验方面NBAC将不发表意见。

  NBAC的成员还表示,他们将呼吁由私人赞助的研究机构和医院不要试图利用体细胞移植来克隆人体。但是在是否进一步要求联邦立法以完全禁止人体克隆的问题上,小组内部还存在分歧。Shapiro 和大多数成员赞成制定类似的法律,但在一次电话采访中,他透露说这一问题"仍悬而未决".

  67. 「A」问题是:作者借用Isaac Newton的例子来证明。

  文章第1句作者便指出,在实践中,科学发现更多地取决于实验观察者,思维上得有所准备, 而更少的依赖于实验本身。 紧接着作者借用Isaac Newton的例子来阐明这一点。而这个 "preparedness of the minds" 在Newton的例子上具体表现在 "he was just wondering"(第2段第2行)。这与A项内容相符。

  68. 「B」问题是:作者坚信,科学家们。

  文章第2段指出,不可预测性是科学研究的本质内容(不可缺少)的一部分。如果没有不可预测性,就无所谓研究。科学家们在为科学杂志写作千篇一律的报告时往往忘记这一点,但是历史上充满了这样的例子(指像牛顿一样通过预测没有预料到的现象获得重大发现的例子)。

  69. 「D」问题是:一些年轻的科学家似乎。

  文章第3段第1句中,作者把 "scientific method" 和 "imaginative thought" 放在一起形成鲜明对比。 "Imaginative thought" 正是前段中作者认为大多数科学家所欠缺的。 而科学家们,特别是年轻的却热衷于与之相反的 "scientific method"(注意这两个词在文中出现于引号中)。

  70. 「A」问题是:作者暗示科学研究成果。

  文章第4段在比较完"想象思维"和"科学方法"后,作者指出,遵循这种不科学的科学方法 (scientific method)的结果是科学家们倒成为自己研究成果的牺牲品。第4段第3句指出,假如科学实验像科学杂志登载的论文所显示的那样完全按事先的计划设计完成,那么,管理者如果期望实现会产生可以用美元和美分测量的结果就会是完全符合逻辑的。言外之意,科学实验中总是会存在一些难以预测的现象,因此所产生的结果有时难以预测到,因此,不能肯定地说某项实验必定会产生经济效益。

  在实际生活中,科学对实验的依赖,远远不如它对有备而来的实验观察者的依赖。人们认为牛顿是因为看到苹果落下而发现了地心引力。但是很久以来很多地方都有苹果落下,成千上万的人都曾看到过苹果落下。但只有牛顿,他有一直都对月亮和其他星球沿轨道运行的原因感到好奇:是什么力量使它们总是处在原位?它们为什么不会从天空中落下来?苹果向地面掉落而不向树上掉落这一现象,回答了这个他一直在思考的问题,也就是关于天空中那些大个儿的苹果:月亮和星星的问题。

  有多少人会想到苹果向树上掉落的可能性呢?牛顿就想到了,因为他没有试图去预见任何事情,他只是觉得好奇。他的思想准备好了接受不可预测的事件。不可预见性正是实验研究的一个重要性。没有不可预测的事件就没有研究。科学家在为科学杂志写那些老掉牙的报告时,经常会忘记这一点,但是历史上有的是这样的例子。

  在和一些科学家交谈,尤其是和年轻科学家交谈时,你可能会得到这样的印象,就是他们认为"科学的方法"替代了想象力。我曾参加过一个研讨会,会上一位科学家被问及他是否认为某项试验应该继续下去,他皱着眉头,看着曲线图,然后说"数据仍然不够完全。"负责预算的人问道:"这我们知道。但你是怎么看的?试验值得进行下去吗?你觉得会有什么样的结果呢?"这位科学家因为被要求做出推测而大为惊骇。

  这说明了什么?它说明这位科学家已经成为自己写的报告的牺牲品。他经常重复那些不被质疑的论调,以至于不仅他自己对这些论调深信不疑,而且还说服了工商业的管理者们。如果实验都是分毫不差地按照科学杂志的报告所写的那样计划和进行的,那么管理者们期望知道这些实验究竟能产生多少经济效益也是合理的。审计账务的人也完全有理由相信,那些清楚地知道自己的目的、也知道该如何去实现的科学家,在做实验的同时也可以分心关注一下经济收入。如果真像他们的科学报告中反映的那样,规律性和符合规定对科学家非常重要的话,也不必批评管理者歧视研究者中的"异类",而倾向于那些"擅长团队工作"的传统型思想家了。

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