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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY7

2006-7-28 01:03  

  1998年全国硕士学位研究生入学考试英语试题

  Part IIIReading Comprehension

  Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A, B, C and D. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points)

  Passage 1

  Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is humankinds long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascination. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.

  The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesnt help that building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. Egypts leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkeys bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam.

  But big dams tend not to work as intended. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left - all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

  And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube. The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself.

  Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go ahead to the even more wrong headed Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but they are far from guaranteed.

  Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the cost and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be either proper, or scientific. It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You dont need a dam to be saved.

  51. The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that  .

  A. people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality

  B. the blind could be happier than the sighted

  C. over excited people tend to neglect vital things.

  D. fascination makes people lose their eyesight

  52. In paragraph 5, "the powerless" probably refers to  .

  A. areas short of electricity      B. dams without power stations

  C. poor countries around India D. common people in the Narmada Dam area

  53. What is the myth concerning giant dams?

  A. They bring in more fertile soil.  B. They help defend the country.

  C. They strengthen international ties.   D. They have universal control of the waters.

  54. What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as  .

  A. "Its no use crying over spilt milk"   B. "More haste, less speed"

  C.  "Look before you leap"        D. "He who laughs last laughs best"

  Passage 2

  Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.

  The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-87 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a "disjunction" between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.

  Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace - all that reengineering and downsizing - are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.

  Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.

  Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much "reengineering" has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied reengineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to longterm profitability. BBDOs Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of reengineering consultants as mere rubbish - "the worst sort of ambulance cashing."

  55. According to the author, the American economic situation is  .

  A. not as good as it seems     B. at its turning point

  C. much better than it seems   D. near to complete recovery

  56. The official statistics on productivity growth  .

  A. exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle

  B. fall short of businessmens anticipation

  C. meet the expectation of business people

  D. fail to reflect the true state of economy

  57. The author raises the question "what about pain without gain?" because  .

  A. he questions the truth of "no gain without pain"

  B. he does not think the productivity revolution works

  C. he wonders if the official statistics are misleading

  D. he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses

  58. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

  A. Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity.

  B. New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity.

  C. The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long term profitability.

  D. The consultants are a bunch of good for nothigns.

  Passage 3

  Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Gallileos 17th century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blakes harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century.

  Until recently, the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics - but no longer. As funding for science has declined, scientists have attacked "antiscience" in several books, Notably Higher Superstition, by Paul R. Gross, a biologist at the University of Virginia, and Norman Levitt, a mathematician at Rutgers University; and The DemonHaunted World, by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.

  Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as "The Flight from Science and Reason," held in New York City in 1995, and "Science in the Age of (Mis)information," which assembled last June near Buffalo.

  Antiscience clearly means different things to different people. Gross and Levitt find fault primarily with sociologists, philosophers and other academics who have questioned sciences objectivity. Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts, creationism and other phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview.

  A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber, those manifesto, published in 1995, scorns science and longs for return to a pretechnological utopia. But surely that does not mean environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are antiscience, as an essay in US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest.

  The environmentalists, inevitably, respond to such critics. The true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.

  Indeed, some observers fear that the antiscience epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless. "The term 'antiscience' can lump together too many, quite different things," notes Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti Science. "They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened."

  59. The word "schism"(Line 3, Paragraph 1)  in the context probably means  .

  A. confrontation   B. dissatisfaction

  C. separation      D. contempt

  60. Paragraphs 2 and 3 are written to  .

  A. discuss the cause of the decline of sciences power

  B. show the authors sympathy with scientists

  C. explain the way in which science develops

  D. exemplify the division of science and the humanities

  61. Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  A. Environmentalists were blamed for antiscience in an essay.

  B. Politicians are not subject to the labeling of antiscience.

  C. The "more enlightened" tend to tag others as antiscience

  D. Tagging environmentalists as "antiscience" is justifiable

  62. The authors attitude toward the issue of "science vs. antiscience" is  .

  A. impartial     B. subjective

  C. biased      D. puzzling

  Passage 4

  Emerging from the 1980 census is the picture of a nation developing more and more regional competition, as population growth in the Northeast and Midwest reaches a near standstill.

  This development - and its strong implications for US politics and economy in years ahead - has enthroned the South as Americas most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nations head counting.

  Altogether, the US population rose in the 1970s by 23.2 million people - numerically the third largest growth ever recorded in a single decade. Even so, that gain adds up to only 11.4 percent, lowest in American annual records except for the Depression years.

  Americans have been migrating south and west in larger number since World War II, and the pattern still prevails.

  Three sun belt states - Florida, Texas and California - together had nearly 10 million more people in 1980 than a decade earlier. Among large cities, San Diego moved from 14th to 8th and San Antonio from 15th to 10th - with Cleveland and Washington. DC, dropping out of the top 10.

  Not all that shift can be attributed to the movement out of the snow belt, census officials say. Nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too - and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterdays "baby boom" generation reached its child bearing years.

  Moreover, demographers see the continuing shift south and west as joined by a related but newer phenomenon: More and more, Americans apparently are looking not just for places with more jobs but with fewer people, too. Some instances -

  ● Regionally, the Rocky Mountain states reported the most rapid growth rate - 37.1 percent since 1970 in a vast area with only 5 percent of the US population.

  ● Among states, Nevada and Arizona grew fastest of all: 63.5 and 53.1 percent respectively. Except fro Florida and Texas, the top 10 in rate of growth is composed of Western states with 7.5 million people - about 9 per square mile.

  The flight from overcrowded ness affects the migration from snow belt to more bearable climates.

  Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West. There, California added 3.7 million to its population in the 1970s, more than any other state.

  In that decade, however, large numbers also migrated from California, mostly to other parts of the West. Often they chose - and still are choosing - somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog, crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.

  As a result, Californias growth rate dropped during the 1970s, to 18.5 percent - little more than two thirds the 1960s growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.

  63. Discerned from the perplexing picture of population growth the 1980 census provided, America in 1970s  .

  A. enjoyed the lowest net growth of population in history

  B. witnessed a southwestern shift of population

  C. underwent an unparalleled period of population growth

  D. brought to a standstill its pattern of migration since World War II

  64. The census distinguished itself from previous studies on population movement in that  .

  A. it stresses the climatic influence on population distribution

  B. it highlights the contribution of continuous waves of immigrants

  C. it reveals the Americans new pursuit of spacious living

  D. it elaborates the delayed effects of yesterdays "baby boom"

  65. We can see from the available statistics that  .

  A. California was once the most thinly populated area in the whole US

  B. the top 10 states in growth rate of population were all located in the West

  C. cities with better climates benefited unanimously from migration

  D. Arizona ranked second of all states in its growth rate of population

  66. The word "demographers" (Line 1, Paragraph 7) most probably means  .

  A. people in favor of the trend of democracy

  B. advocates of migration between states

  C. scientists engaged in the study of population

  D. conservatives clinging to old patterns of life

  Passage 5

  Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots. Unlike most of the worlds volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earths surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. Most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. The hot spots and their volcanic trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.

  That the plates are moving is not beyond dispute. Africa and South America, for example, are moving away from earth other as new material is injected into the sea floor between them. The complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earths interior. It is not possible to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it. Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. From an analysis of the hot spot population it appears that the African plate is stationary and that it has not moved during the past 30 million years.

  The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. It now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe. When a continental plate come to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from deeper layer creates a broad dome. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures(cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. Thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability(inconstancy)。

  67. The author believes that  .

  A. the motion of the plates corresponds to that of the earths interior

  B. the geological theory about drifting plates has been proved to be true

  C. the hot spots and the plates move slowly in opposite directions

  D. the movement of hot spots proves the continents are moving apart

  68. That Africa and South America were once joined can be deduced from the fact  that

  A. the two continents are still moving in opposite directions

  B. they have been found to share certain geological features

  C. the African plates has been stable for 30 million years

  D. over 100 hot spots are scattered all around the globe

  69. The hot spot theory may prove useful in explaining  .

  A. the structure of the African plates   B. the revival of dead volcanoes

  C. the mobility of the continents      D. the formation of new oceans

  70. The passage is mainly about  .

  A. the features of volcanic activities

  B. the importance of the theory about drifting plates

  C. the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies

  D. the process of the formation of volcanoes

  51. 「C」问题是:本文第一段第3句暗示了。

  文章第1段第1句作者讲到在重大技术所创造的东西中,很少有比大坝更能体现人的幻想的。第二句讲到也许是因为人类长期遭受洪水和干旱的袭击,使人类(通过筑坝)制服洪水的愿望更加兴奋不已。第1句作者陈述了一个事实,第2句作者给出自己对第1句的解释。但是第3句笔锋突变:But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. 第4句作者指出问题所在:"Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.". A项与文中内容相反;B项文中没有提及。而D项是为第1段第3句直接讲叙的,并不是它所暗示的。

  52. 「D」问题是:第5段中的 "the powerless"很有可能指的是。

  文章第5段,"the powerless"出现的那句话翻译出来是"一个银行顾问指出大坝将会对 'powerless'带来痛苦。给环境带来破坏。" A,B项内容使句子变得可笑,无逻辑,显然不可选。C项内容中没有给予提示。只有D,住在Normada dam地区的贫民, 符合作者意图。与之相对应的是下句中提到的 "the powerful",  有权势者。此外,形容词可作名词用,指具有这样的特征的人,通常前面加定冠词 "the". 如:the poor, the rich, the hungry, the thirsty等。

  53. 「D」问题是:关于巨坝的神话到底是什么?

  文章第4段第1句作者指出"the myth of controlling the waters",制服洪水的神话。 或者,我们可以换个角度理解这个短句,——"the myth which is controlling the waters",即D项内容。注意 "waters"在文中是以复数形式出现,意思是全世界所有地方的洪水。

  54. 「C」问题是:作者试图给出的建议最好可以概括为。

  文章第1段作者便指出,对于修建大坝的兴奋有时候也会表现为盲目。随后几段里,也都给了具体例子加以说明。在最后一段结尾处作者暗示了在针对建设大坝这个问题上,我们应该保持一个正确、科学的态度,即三思而后行,C项内容。

  没有什么技术发明像大型水坝这样能体现人的想象力。也许是因为人类长期遭受洪水和干旱的折磨,所以让水听命于人类这个想法特别令人着迷。但有时,令人着迷的东西也会使人盲目。几个大型水坝项目对人们的威胁似乎都要大于它们的益处。

  水坝给我们的一个教训是,大的并不总是美的。建造一个大型水坝,结果却变成国家和人民展示自己的权威和成就的象征,这样做并没有什么好处。阿斯旺 大坝坚固了埃及在阿拉伯世界的领袖地位;土耳其则将阿塔特克大坝当作一个争取第一世界国家地位的砝码。

  但是大水坝经常起不到预期作用。以阿斯旺水坝为例,它阻止了尼罗河的洪水,但埃及再也得不到洪水留下的富含养料的淤泥;与此同时,大坝里却因为积满了淤泥,几乎已经无法发电了。

  然而,对水的控制仍然具有神奇的吸引力。就在这个星期,在欧洲文明的中心,斯洛伐克和匈牙利因为在多瑙河修筑水坝问题上的争端差一点兵戎相见。这一巨型工程可能也会有大型水坝所有的问题,但是斯洛伐克正在和捷克讨论独立,所以需要用一座水坝来证明自己的力量。

  与此同时,在印度,世界银行批准了甚至更加执迷不悟的Narmada大坝工程,尽管银行的顾问认为建这座大坝会给平民带来苦难,也会给环境造成破坏。大坝的益处很难保证,但即使有利,也是对那些有权有势的人来说的。

  对大坝可能带来的影响,对治水的成本和收益进行合理的、科学的分析,这样做有利于解决这些矛盾。不用建如此巨型大坝也可以实现水力发电、控制洪水和灌溉农田。但是当你面临神话般的吸引力时,你就无法进行合理、科学的分析。现在,全世界都应该从阿斯旺大坝身上得到教训。你并不需要一座大坝来拯救自己。

  55. 「A」问题是:根据作者,美国的经济状况。

  第一段第三、四句指出,美国到处都在谈论所谓公司的振兴(tales of corporate revival),但是,商界自认为正在进行的所谓生产力革命究竟是否名副其实(for real),这一点却很难确定。该句实际上是全文的主旨,从反面提出了下文旨在回答的问题,所谓生产力革命根本不存在,官方的统计数字也并不怎么乐观。该段第四句指出,问题是:最近显示出的增长部分是由商业领域里此时出现的政策的反弹(rebound)造成的,因此,不能将它看作是更深层的(当指生产力)振兴的证据。

  56. 「B」问题是:关于生产力增长的官方统计。

  第二段指出,官方的统计数字也并不怎么乐观,如果将制造业和服务业算在一起(lump……together),1989年以来生产力平均增长了 1.2%,比前十年的平均指数略有增长;1991年后,生产率每年增长约2%,是1978年至1987年这十年平均指数的一倍多。然而问题是:最近显示出的增长部分是由商业领域里此时出现的正常的反弹造成的,因此,不能将他看作是更深层的(当指生产力)振兴的证据。正如财政部长鲁宾所说的那样,一方面,大量的商业神话似乎表明生产力的激增(leap),另一方面,(官方的)统计数字又是另一番景象,二者之间存在着一个"差距"(disjunction)。

  57. 「B」问题是:作者提出,"那么没有收获的痛苦又怎样呢?"这个问题是因为。

  第一段指出,人们常说:不劳则无所获,但是,要是劳而无获呢?美国到处都在谈论所谓公司的振兴,但是,商界自认为正在进行的所谓生产力革命究竟是否名副其实,这一点却很难确定。作者的观点在此其实已表达得很清楚。

  另外,从第三段来看,所谓的生产力革命包括了改组企业(business restructuring, reengineering)等一系列措施,正如第四段所指出的,近年所进行的一些重组措施也许并未奏效,而且,即使有所成效,效果也没有人们想象的那样广泛。在最后一段,作者应用了几个专家的评价,这几位专家对目前进行的促进生产力发展的措施更是持否定态度。作者的引用当然带有很大的倾向性,用以支持自己的观点。

  58. 「A」问题是:以下哪一句文中没有提到?

  这是本文所未提到的,作者只指出促进生产力革命的措施并未奏效,未达到人们想象的效果,而并未提到应该如何应对。

  人们常说不劳而获,这话不错。但是假如努力了也没有收获那又怎么样呢?在美国,到处都流传着公司起死回生的故事。但是我们难以确定,生意人认为的他们在经历的生产力革命是否是真实的。

  政府的统计数据有些令人失望:如果将生产部门和服务部门算在一起,劳动生产力自1987年以来以1.25%的平均速度增长,这比前十年的速度要快。自从 1991年以来,生产力每年增长2%,这个速度比1978-1987的两倍还多。问题是,造成目前加速增长的原因部分在于经济循环过程中正常的反弹,并无实质性的证据证明复苏是潜在的趋势。正如财政部长Robert Rubin 所说,众多商界传闻显示的生产力大幅度提高和统计数据显示的结果明显不符。

  有些现象很好解释。对工厂进行调查——例如企业重组和缩小规模——只是改变整个经济中劳动生产力的一个方面,影响生产力的还有其他很多因素,例如对机器设备的投资、新的科学技术、对教育和培训的投资等。而且,公司所做的调整大部分都是为了获利,而并不总能带来生产力的提高:转向新的市场和提高产品质量同样也是十分重要的。

  另外两种解释比较没有事实依据。第一种是近年来开展的企业改组方法不对;第二种是,即使改组是正确的,它所涉及的面也没有人们想象的那么广。

  Leonard Schlesinger 是一位哈佛大学的学者,并曾担任过一家增长迅速的连锁饮食店Au Bong Pain的执行长官,他说很多企业进行的重组都是十分粗糙的,在很多情况下,重组造成的财政损失大于成本的削减。他的同事Michael Beer说,很多的公司在重组中只是一味地削减成本,而没有足够地考虑长期效益。BBDO公司的Al Rosenshine 说话更加坦率,他认为许多企业重组顾问的工作纯粹是一堆垃圾——就知道浪费客户的钱,什么用也没有。

  59. 「C」问题是:文章第1段第3行中 "schism"这个词在上下文中有可能意思是。

  文中出现 "schism"一词的句子可翻译为"如果本世纪有什么变化的话,那就是科学与人文学科的'schism'加深了。"B,D项可以马上排除,因它们使句子与文章文体不符;A,C项看似意思差不多,但要注意,"confrontation"的形式所需过程一般很短,且突然。"separation"则暗示了一个漫长演变的过程。这也正是为什么作者举几世纪前的例子,告诉读者这个 "schism"实际上是个历史遗留问题。

  60. 「D」问题是:第二段和第三段的目的是。

  第二段指出,直到近期,科学界(the scientific community)力量壮大,没有必要理睬其批评者。现在情况不同了(but no longer)。由于科学经费减少,科学家开始著书抨击"反科学"倾向。第三段指出,科学的维护者也在聚会上表达他们的担忧。这两种表现都是二者矛盾公开化、加深的表现。

  61. 「A」问题是:根据文章内容以下哪一项是正确的?

  第六段第二句指出:但是,这当然不意味着为工业的无限制的扩展而担忧的环境保护者都是反科学者,《美国新闻与世界报道》五月刊的一篇文章似乎是想把他们归为反科学者。对该句的理解可以在第七段第一句中找到线索,该句可译为:环境保护者当然对这种批评进行了还击。如果没受到攻击,当然也没有必要还击。

  62. 「A」问题是:作者对于科学VS反科学这个问题的态度是。

  作者似乎只是客观地叙述了科学和人文学科之间的分歧,而并未评价孰是孰非。

  科学与其他文化领域的关系一向不睦。比如你可以回想一下17世纪伽利略因为其叛逆思想而在天主教堂受到审判,或者是诗人William Blake 对牛顿的机械论世界观的猛烈抨击。到了本世纪,科学和人文学科之间的裂痕愈加扩大了。

  以前科学界的势力曾经非常强大,以至于可以忽略它的批评者,但是近来情况发生了变化。随着对科学研究资助的减少,科学家开始写书批判"反科学",例如比较有名的书有:弗吉尼亚大学生物学家Paul R .Gross和Rutgers 大学数学家 Norman Levitt 所著的《更高级的迷信》,以及康奈尔大学的Carl Sagan 所著的《鬼魂出没的世界》。

  科学的维护者还在一些会议上表达他们的关切,例如1995年在纽约召开的"科学与理性的方向"会议,和去年6月在布法罗附近召开的主题为"信息/错误信息时代的科学"的会议。

  反科学对于不同的人来说,意义也不同。Gross 和 Levitt 批判的对象主要是社会学家、哲学家和其他对科学的客观性提出质疑的学者。Sagan 反对的对象则主要是那些相信鬼魂、创世论及相信其他与科学观点背道而驰的现象的人。

  1996年进行的一次对新书的调查显示,"反科学"的标签也被贴在了很多别的人群的身上,包括提倡根除残余的天花病毒的权威机构,以及提倡削减基础科学研究资金的共和党人。

  将"反科学"的标签使用在Unabomber组织身上是无可非议的。他们在1995年发表的宣言中嘲笑科学,并希望回到一个没有科学技术的乌托邦。但是去年五月《美国新闻和世界报道》上的一篇文章称那些对无控制的工业增长表示关切的环境主义为"反科学",这显然是没有道理的。

  对于这样的批评,不用说,环境主义者当然反击。斯坦福大学环境研究的先锋Paul Ehrlich评论说:科学的真正敌人,是那些对全球变暖、臭氧层损耗和其他工业增长导致的恶果不愿相信的人。

  实际上,观察家们担心"反科学"的头衔正面临着推动意义的危险。哈佛大学的哲学教授Gerald Hilton在他1993年出版的《科学和反科学》一书中指出:"反科学一词包含那么多不同的内容,这些内容只有一点是共同的,就是它们能够激怒或者威胁到那些自认为比别人更有知识的人。"

  63. 「B」问题是:从1980年人口调查所提供人口增长来观察,美国在70年代里。

  第二段指出,在人口统计史上,美国南部第一次成为人口最稠密的地区,这一变化对美国未来几年(in years ahead)的政治和经济都有很大影响;第四段指出,自第二次世界大战以来,美国人一直有南迁和西迁的趋向,现在还是如此(and the pattern prevails)。所谓西迁,主要是指向位于西南部的加利福尼亚州迁移(见第五、九段);另外,本文所提到的人口增长速度较快的加利福尼亚、亚利桑那、内华达等州都在美国西南部。

  64. 「C」问题是:这次人口普查与以往关于人口流动调查不同的是。

  第七段指出,除了继续的南迁和西迁趋向外,人口统计学家还发现了一个相关的新现象:美国人迁移的目的不仅是寻找工作,而是越来越明显地寻找人口稀少的地区居住;第八段指出,离开拥挤的地区同时也改变了过去美国人一味逃离寒带、迁向气候温和地带(morebearable climates)的作法;第九段也指出,1980年的统计最清楚地表明:美国人迁向最西部地区,是因为他们想寻找宽阔的生存空间(spacious living)。

  65. 「D」问题是:我们从可提供的统计中看出。

  第七段第二例子指出,在所有州中,内华利州和亚利桑那州人口增长最多,分别为63.5%和53.1%.可见亚利桑那州位居人口增长第二,选D.

  66. 「C」问题是:第7段第1行中 "demographers" 这个词的意思很有可能是。

  该词意为:人口统计学家。A,B,D项内容都与文章内容不相关。1980年的人口普查显示,在国内,各地区之间的竞争愈演愈烈,东北部和中西部地区的人口增长几乎处于停顿状态。

  这一发展态势表明,在美国的人口普查历史上,南方第一次成为美国人口最稠密的地区,这对美国未来的政治和经济都有很重要的指导作用。

  20世纪70年代美国的人口总数增加了2320万,从绝对人数上来说,是有记录以 来,10年内人口增长位于第三位的。即使是这样,增加的人口只占总人口的11.4%,是除了经济衰退时期之外,年增长率最低的。

  第二次世界大战以后,大批的美国人开始向南部和西部移民,这种趋势现在仍在继续。

  佛罗里达、得克萨斯和加利福尼亚,三个位于阳光地带的州加起来,在1980年的人口总数比10年前增加了大约一千万。在大城市中,圣地亚哥从第14位上升到第8位,圣安息东尼奥从第15位上升到第10位,而克利夫兰和华盛顿则被挤出了前10位。

  人口普查员说,这种种变化并不完全是因为人们搬离冰雪地带造成的。还有其他原因,比如不断到来的外国移民浪潮,还有在前一次生育高峰诞生的婴儿又到达了生育年龄,因此又有大批新生儿出生。

  在人口不断向南和向西迁移的同时,人口统计学家也发现了一个新的现象,那就是:越来越多的美国人不光在寻找有更多工作机会的地方,而且也在寻找人口更稀少的地方,下面几个例子可以证明:

  ——从地区上来看,洛基山脉附近几个州的人口增长率最快:1970年,在这片广大土地上的居民只占美国人口总数的5%,而这里现在的人口速度增长却达到了37.1%.

  ——在所有的州里,内华达和亚利桑纳的增长速度最快,分别是63.5%和53.1%.除了佛罗里达和得克萨斯,人口增长最快的前10个州都位于西部,这些州的人口增长了750万,大约每平方英里增长9个人。

  逃离拥挤的人群,这也影响着从冰雪地带迁移气候和地区的迁移模式。根据1980年人口普查结果,美国人追求生活这一现象在美国西部得以最充分的体现。加利福尼亚在70年代人口增加了370万,比其他任何州的增长都要多。

  然而,也是在70年代,大批人口也在离开加州,大多数人搬到了西部的其他地区。这些人通常会选择(而且仍在选择)相对比较寒冷的地方,比如俄勒冈、艾达荷和阿拉斯加,这样做是为了逃离烟雾污染、犯罪和城市中的其他烦恼。

  其结果是,70年代加州的人口增长率下降至18.5%,这个数字仅仅是60年代的三分之二,比西部其他各州的比率都要低。

  67. 「B」问题是:作者相信什么。

  第二段的第一句话就说"That the plates are moving is now beyond dispute", beyond dispute 意思是毋庸置疑,所以作者相信关于板块漂移的地质学的理论。

  68. 「B」问题是:非洲和南美大陆曾经相连是基于的事实。

  在第二段的第三句话中说到,互补的海岸线和某些相似的地质特征能证明它们曾经相连。所以选择B——它们有一些地理上的共性。

  69. 「D」问题是:关于热点地区的理论为解释提供了有力的证据。

  在第三段的倒数第二句话说到了hotspots 导致了新的大洋的产生。所以选D.

  70. 「C」问题是:全文的主旨大意是。

  全文三个段落各介绍了热点地区某一方面的内容,使读者了解了热点地区的性质、特点和对地球物理学研究的意义。

  在地球上散布着一百多处小范围的火山活动地区,地质学家称它们为热点地区。和其他大多数火山不同,它们并不总是处在构成地表的大型漂移板块的边缘,相反,它们之中有很多深深地潜伏在板块的内部。大多数的热点地区运动得非常缓慢,有时板块运动经过它们,会留下死火山的踪迹。这些热点地区及其火山踪迹标志出板块的运动情况。

  板块是运动的,这一点现在已经无需质疑了。比如,由于新的物质不断加入非洲和南美洲之间的大洋底部,这两块大陆正在越漂越远。互补的海岸线和似乎跨越大洋的某些地质特征提醒着人们这两块大陆曾经一度是相连的。大陆板块的相对运动被人们详细地复制出来,但是板块之间的相对运动并不能看成是板块相对于地球内部的运动。很难判定到底是两块大陆同时向相反方向移动,还是一块大陆是静止的,而另一块正在逐渐漂离。热点地区牢牢扎根于地球的深处,为解决这一问题提供了依据。从对热点地区的数量分析可以看出,非洲板块是静止的,在过去的三千万年中没有移动过。

  热点地区的重要性并不仅仅局限于作为参考依据,它们对推动全球板块的物理变化也有重要影响。当大陆板块停在一个热点地区上时,地球深处涌出的物质就形成了一个宽阔的穹顶,随着穹顶不断生长,就会产生深深的裂缝。有些时候,大陆会沿着某些这样的裂缝完全裂开,这样热点地区就导致了新的大洋的诞生。就像早期理论解释了大陆的可移动性一样,热点地区能够解释大陆的不稳定性。

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