1 Singapore is an independent city-state in southeastern Asia， consisting of one major island -the Singapore island-and more than 50 small islands， located off the southern tip of Malay. The city of Singapore， the capital of the country， is at the southeastern end of the Singapore Island； it is one of the most important port cities and commercial centers of Southeast Asia. The total area of the republic is 640 sq.km.
2 Low-lying Singapore Island has no outstanding relief（轮廓鲜明的） features. A central area of hills rises to the maximum height of 176m. The country has a wet tropical climate， with an average annual temperature of 27.20°C. The average annual rainfall is 2.413 mm， the wettest months are November through January.
3 Singapore is governed under a constitution of 1959. A president， elected to a four-year term， is head of state， and a prime minister is head of government. The president used to be selected by Parliament， but by 1991 constitutional amendment （修正案）， the president is now elected directly by the people. The Parliament is the law-making body with its 81 members popularly elected.
4 In the late 1980s the country had some 290 primary schools with 278，300 pupils and 160 secondary schools with 200，200 students. The main institution of higher education are the National University of Singapore， several technical colleges， and a teachers college.
5 Singapore has one of the highest standards of living of any country in Asia. In the late 1980s the gross domestic product was estimated at $23.7 billion， or $8，870 per person. The fishing industry is centered on the port of During， on southwestern Singapore Island. Industry has grown rapidly since the 1960s， and Singapore now produces a diversity（多样化的） of goods， including chemicals， electronic items， clothing， and processed foods， etc. Shipbuilding and petroleum refining are also important.
1. Paragraph 2____
2. Paragraph 3____
3. Paragraph 4____
4. Paragraph 5____
B Land and climate
C State system
D Natural resources
5. Singapore is a small state in the southeast of Asia_____.
6. According to the constitution of Singapore， the president of the state is selected____.
7. Compared with people in other Asian countries， the Singapore____.
8. Though small， Singapore has an industry of its own and can ____.
A live a better life
B made up of more than 50 islands
C have more farmland
D not by the Parliament， but by the people
E produce goods of various kinds
F have a big population
Keys： BCAEB DAE
Paris， the capital and the largest city of the country， is in north central France. The Paris metropolitan area contains nearly 20% of the nation s population and is the economic， cultural， and political center of France. The French governments have historically favored the city as the site for all decision making， thus powerfully attracting nearly all of the nation s activities.
Paris has grown steadily since it was chosen as the national capital in the late 10th century. With the introduction of the Industrial Revolution， a great number of people moved to the city from the country during the 19th century. The migration was especially stimulated by the construction of railroads， which provided easy access to the capital. After World War II more and more immigrants arrived.
The city is the centralized control point of most national radio and television broadcasting. It is a place of publication of the most prestigious newspapers and magazines and an international book publishing center. With more than 100 museums， Paris has truly been one of the greatest concentrations of art treasures in the world. The Louver， opened as a museum in 1793， is one of the largest museums in the world.
In the late 1980s about 4.1million pupils annually attended about 47，000 elementary schools. In addition， about 5.4 million students attended some 11，200 secondary schools. Approximately 1.2 million students were enrolled annually at universities and colleges in France in the late 1980s. French centers of learning have served as academic models throughout the world.
Paris is the leading industrial center of France， with about one quarter of the nation s manufacturing concentrated in the metropolitan area. Industries of consumer goods have always bee drawn to Paris by the enormous market of the big population， and modern， high-technology industries also have become numerous since World War II. Chief manufactures are machinery， automobiles， chemicals and electrical equipment.
A History of the city
B Industries of the city
C Population grown
E Cultural center
5. Paris has in history been the center of___________
6. Since the 10th century， the population of Paris__________.
7. Many valuable works of art_________.
8. Paris is not only the center of education of France ， but also the center_____________.
A can be found in Paris
B the major events of the nation
C of the country s industries
D a lot of cinemas and theaters
E has been growing steadily
F has been decreasing rapidly