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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY26

2006-7-28 01:04  

  Increasing reading speed

  Direction:Do the word recognition drills below.Note the word on the left  then underline it every time it appears in the same form to the right.No regression, no vacalization.Try to finish in 15 seconds or less.

  Starting Time:

  1. fictionfictional fictive fixation fiction field

  2. insect               insert insight inside insect section

  3. purchase       purchaser purpose pursue pursuit purchase

  4. respond        response respite respire respond responsive

  5. perform        perfume perfuse perform performer permit

  6. variety              varied variant varnish various variety

  7. typical              typify typist typically typical typewrite

  8. perfect              perfectly perfective effect perfect percent

  9. camera               camel campus camera campfire campaign

  10. detect              dental detest detection detective detect

  Finishing Time:  Total Reading Time:

  Errors:  Check each line carefully for mistakes.

  RobotsNot long ago, the only time you'd see a robot is when you were reading a comic book or watching a science fiction movie such as Star Wars. Today,however,science fiction is fast becoming science fact. Robots are starting to make their presences felt in our everyday lives.

  These robots come in all sizes,shapes,and colors. Some look like giant insects,while others look like - well,like robots. Some work in factories,while others are homebodies. Some cost several hundred thousand dollars,others - such as the "inexpensive" home models - can be purchased for as little as $ 999.

  These robots all have the same type of "brain" - tiny silicon chips imbedded with thousands of electronic pathways. These kinds of chips also serve as brains for microcomputers.

  Factory RobotsBut robots do more than microcomputers. They not only "think," but they also sense, respond to, and alter their surroundings. Because they interact more directly with the world around them, robots are likely to change our lives even more dramatically than microcomputers.

  Leading the robot revolution are industrial robots - robots that work in factories. Some 5,000 robots work in U.S. factories, most of them in automobile plants.

  Industrial robots perform a variety of jobs that are often boring and sometimes dangerous. These jobs include loading and unloading machinery,spray painting,and arc welding.

  Robots are so good at these jobs that there may be between 100,000 and 200,000 of them hard at work by 1990 in the U. S. alone. By that time,the United Auto Workers (the auto workers union) predicts that assembly line work performed by human beings will be cut in half.

  Home RobotsRobots are also coming to American homes, though not as quickly as they are invading factories. Until recently, a home robot was quite expensive,with a typical price tag of about $20,000. This year, however, robots can be bought for as little as $999 a piece.

  These robots arent as friendly and bright as R2D2 or C3PO of Star Wars fame. But, their makers claim, today's home robots walk (actually roll), sense objects in their way (and sometimes crash into them),and even carry objects (which they sometimes drop)。 Well, nobodys perfect.

  We may joke about home robots today, but someday they may see and hear better than humans do. We humans can only see certain wavelengths of light,and hear certain frequencies of sound. Thats because our eyes and ears have limitations.

  Robots, however,need not have the same limitations we have. Robots may also be equipped with sensors that pick up information humans can'ts such as radio waves or ultraviolet light.

  Programming robots to interpret what their sensors pick up is a tough task. Remember, silicon brains handle information, including sensory data, as zeroes and ones. Imagine the difficulty in trying to explain to a robot what a baseball looks like - using only zeroes and ones.

  Heres one way its done. The robot is given certain information about the size and shape of a baseball. Then it analyzes pictures taken by its "eye," which is really a camera. The robot transforms the thousands of dots that compose the picture into zeroes and ones, depending on how dark each dot is.Making Robots "Smart"If the baseball is white and so is the background, the robot wont see the ball at all. But if the baseball is colored, the robot would detect a mass of dark dots. It would compare the measurements of this dark mass with information programmers gave it about baseballs.

  One example of how robots use different senses than humans use is the way robots avoid obstacles when they move about. Much as bats do, robots send out ULTRASONIC SIGNALS  (extremely highpitched sounds the human ear cant hear)。 By analyzing how such signals bounce off objects, robots can figure out how close they are to bumping into something. That way,they can even put together a "map" of their surroundings.

  Will tomorrows robots ever be as smart and efficient as science fiction robots are?What do you think?

  ——from Science World, April 1, 1983

  Time:  677 words=wpm

  minutes

  EXERCISESⅠ。 READING COMPREHENSION

  Select the answer which is most accurate according to the information given in the passage.

  1. Robots can be different in all aspects but .

  A. the sizeB. the color

  C. the shape D. the type of "brain" containing miraculous chips

  2. What is the one function that can be performed by both the microcomputer and the robot?

  A. To sense the surroundings.                   B. To "think".

  C. To respond to the surroundings.              D. To alter the surroundings.

  3. The jobs done by industrial robots are characterized by .

  A. boredom and danger B. ease and slowness

  C. complexity and exactness D. simplicity and repetition

  4.  It is estimated that by the year 1990, the number of American workers who work on the assembly lines will be reduced by half .

  A. due to the deteriorating economic situations

  B. for their employers believe that the fewer the workers the higher the profits

  C. because industrial robots will replace them

  D. owing to the declining demand of their products

  5. What does the sharp decrease in the price of home robots most probably indicate?

  A. A fast growing demand for home robots.

  B. An abrupt increase in the supply of home robots.

  C. A sharp rise in the value of the American dollar.

  D. Home robots are now on sale.

  6. Presentday home robots can perform all of the following functions except .

  A. walkingB. cooking meals

  C. sensing objects            D. carrying objects

  7. We can learn from the passage that .

  A. a home robot has two eyes

  B. an onboard camera serves as the eye of a home robot

  C. the eye of a home robot looks exactly the same as that of a human being

  D. a home robot can perceive more colors than men can

  8. What will happen if the object to be analyzed by the robot and the background are of the same color?

  The robot will

  A. still be able to tell what the object is

  B. have to work long hours before it can tell what the object is

  C. not find the object

  D. make a wrong analysis of the object

  9. How does a robot avoid crashing into an obstacle when it wanders around somewhere?

  A. Its eye can figure out how close it is to an obstacle.

  B. It follows a map of its surroundings, which has been stored in its silicon "brain."

  C. It determines the location of an obstacle by means of ultrasonic waves reflected from the obstacle.

  D. It can feel an obstacle with the two artificial antennae on the top of its head.

  10. Why did the author write this text?

  A. To compare industrial robots with home robots.

  B. To explain the difficulty in programming robots to interpret what their sensors pick up.

  C. To encourage readers to buy some robots.

  D. To introduce briefly both industrial and home robots and the functions they perform.

  Ⅱ。 CONTEXTUAL REFERENCE

  Read the following article and figure out the meaning of the words in italics using the context given and wordbuilding skills.

  Robots Bone Up on Operating Techniques

  A surgical robot, "Robocloc," carried out its first operation in the U. S. this month when it was used to grind a leg bone very precisely to replace the hip of a dog with severe arthritis. The robotic arm, developed by scientists at the University of California and IBM, should be ready to conduct surgery on humans after another year of development, the scientists say.

  Robotic devices have been used for some time to position tools for surgeons, but this is the first time one has been programmed to actually do the cutting, according to Hap Paul, a researcher at the University of Californias Davis School of Medicine and the veterinarian (兽医) doing the surgery.

  To replace a hip, doctors remove the head of the leg bone and insert a metal pin with a balljoint at one end. Making a hole in the leg into which the pin will fit snugly (紧贴合适地,恰好地) is crucial to the success of the operation, but the usual technique of cutting out a hole with a steel bit and a mallet (木槌) "doesnt work too well," Paul says.

  ——from New Scientist, June 23, 1990

  Ⅲ。 CLOZE

  Complete the following passage by filling in the blanks with appropriate words.

  Electronic smog may sound the stuff of science fiction - but it kills. Not only that, but it can   1  robots do the killing     2     it. Japan    3     about 80,000      4      toiling in its factories    5     is starting to get worried.

  6     the Japanese Ministry of Labour started     7    casualties in 1978, ten Japanese factory 8     have died at the hands of robots. Several      9     are injured every year   10   robots go berserk (狂暴)。    11   each instance,    12   triggered the robot    13   unexpected action. In one   14   in 1984 - a black year in   15   robots    16   four people - a robot   17   inspection suddenly moved forward, and    18   over its inspector. In another incident in the same year, a robot arm swung at a worker, giving him a deadly, automated karate chop(空手道的一劈)。

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