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埃德蒙·伯克 控告沃伦·哈斯丁

2006-07-07 17:19

Edmund Burke

INDICTMENT OF WARREN HASTINGS

1788

  My lords,I do not mean now to go farther than just to remind your lordships of this—that Mr.。Hastings' government was one whole system of oppression,of robbery of individuals,of spoliation of the public,and of super session of the whole sys-tem of the English government,in order to vest in the worst of the natives all the power that could possibly exist in any government;in order to de-feat the ends which all governments ought,in common,to have in view.In the name of the Commons of England,I charge all this villainy upon Warren Hastings,in this last moment of my application to you.

  My lords,what is it that we want here,to a great act of national justice?Do we want a cause,my lords?You have the cause of oppressed princes,of undone women of the first rank,of desolated provinces and of wasted kingdoms.

  Do you want a criminal,my lords?When was there so much iniquity ever laid to the charge of any one?No,my lords,you must not look to punish any other such delinquent from India.Warren Hastings has not left substance enough in India to nourish such another delinquent.

  My lords,is it a prosecutor you want?You have before you the Commons of Great Britain as prosecutors;and I believe,my lords,that the sun,in his beneficent progress round the world,does not behold a more glorious sight than that of men,separated from a remote people by the material bounds and barriers of nature,united by the bond of a social and moral community—all the Commons of England resenting,as their own,the indignities and cruelties that we offered to all the people of India.

  Do we want a tribunal?My lords,no example of antiquity,nothing in the modern world,nothing in the range of human imagination,can supply us with a tribunal like this.We commit safely the interests of India and humanity into your hands.Therefore,it is with confidence that,ordered by the Commons,I impeach Warren Hastings,Esquire,of high crimes and misdemeanors.

  I impeach him in the name of the Commons of Great Britain in Parliament assembled,whose parliamentary trust he has betrayed.

  I impeach him in the name of all the Commons of Great Britain,whose national character he has dishonored.

  I impeach him in the name of the people of India,whose laws,rights and liberties he has subverted;whose properties he has destroyed;whose country he has laid waste and desolate.

  I impeach him in the name and by virtue of those eternal laws of justice, which he has violated.

  I impeach him in the name of human nature it-self,which he has cruelly outraged,injured and oppressed,in both sexes,in every age,rank,situation,and condition of life.

  My lords,at this awful close,in the name of the Commons and surrounded by them,I attest the retiring,I attest the advancing generations,between which,as a link in the great chain of eternal order,we stand.We call this nation,we call the world to witness,that the Commons have shrunk from no labor;that we have been guilty of no prevarication;that we have made no compromise with crime;that we have not feared any odium whatsoever,in the long warfare which we have carried on with the crimes,with the vices,with the exorbitant wealth,with the enormous and overpowering influence of Eastern corruption.

  My lords,it has pleased Providence to places in such a state that we appear every moment to abe upon the verge of some great mutations.There is one thing,and one thing only,which defies all mutation:that which existed before the world,and will survive the fabric of the world itself—I mean justice;that justice which,emanating from the Divinity,has a place in the breast of every one of us,given us for our guide with regard to ourselves and with regard to others,and which will stand,after this globe is burned to ashes,our advocate or our accuser,before the great Judge,when He comes to call upon us for the tenor of a well-spent life.

埃德蒙·伯克

控告沃伦·哈斯丁

1788年

  议员们,我长话短说只是提醒爵爷们,哈斯丁先生的政府是对个人和公众强取豪夺、与整个英国政府体制相背的实行压迫的完整体系,其目的在于把政府所能拥有的一切权力授予土著中最坏的人,并使一切政府通常应考虑的目标落空。我谨以英国下院的名义,在向你们提出请求的这个最后时刻对沃伦·哈斯丁的恶行提出指控。

  议员们,为在全国大力伸张正义,我们这里需要什么?我们要有个控告的理由吗,议员们?你们有王公贵族被压迫,最高贵妇被毁灭,一些省份田地荒芜和一些王国财力耗尽作为控告的理由。

  你们要罪犯吗,议员们?什么时候指控过一个人犯有如此严重的罪恶?没有过,议员们,你们不必指望在印度会惩罚其他与此类似的违法者。在印度,沃伦·哈斯丁没有留下足够的钱财来培育此类违法者。

  议员们,你们要的是检察官吗?你们面前的大不列颠下院议员都是检察官;议员们,我相信太阳在将其仁慈光辉普照大地的过程中,从来没有见过如此壮丽的情景:这里的人同远方的人民中间虽然隔着具体的界限和自然的障碍,却结合在一个社会的、道德的团体之中——英国的全体下院议员把我们给印度全体人民带去的屈辱和残暴视为他们自身遭受的折磨而忿恨不已。

  我们要一个法庭吗?议员们,古代没有这样的例子,现代世界没有,人们的想象力也不会给我们提供这样一个法庭。我们放心地把印度和人类的利益托付给你们。因此,满怀信心地按照下议院的决定:

  我控告沃伦·哈斯丁先生犯有重罪和轻罪。

  我以大不列颠下议院的名义在议会会议上控告他有负议会的信任。

  我以大不列颠全体下院议员的名义控告他玷污了国家的名声。

  我以印度人民的名义控告他破坏了印度的法律、权利和自由;他毁掉了印度的财产;他使印度的土地荒芜。

  我以他所违背的永恒的正义的法律的名义,并根据这些法律控告他。

  我以人性的名义控告他,他肆意践踏人性,不管男女老少、地位高低和境况好坏都遭他中伤与迫害。

  议员们,在这即将作出结论的重要关头,我以下议院议员及其周围人们的名义向即将退休的一代和蒸蒸日上的一代人证明:作为永恒秩序这一伟大系列的一个环节,我们正站立在两代人之间。我们呼唤这个国家,呼唤这个世界注意:下议院未曾回避责任;我们未曾互相推诿罪名;我们从未与犯罪行为妥协;在与犯罪、恶行、暴发户以及东方式腐败的不可抗拒的巨大影响的长期斗争中,我们从未害怕过来自任何方面的憎恨。

  议员们,令人高兴的是上帝把我们置于时时刻刻接近某些重大变化的情况下。有一个东西,仅仅一个东西经受得住一切变化:世界存在以前,世界构成以后都存在的东西——那就是正义。正义源自上帝,在我们每个人的心中都有它的地位,指导我们怎样做人,怎样待人;在地球毁灭之后,上帝来召唤我们去过美好生活时,在这位伟大的法官面前,正义将成为我们的辩护者或控告者。

  王德华 译

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