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考研英语范文阅读(二十)

2006-7-6 21:40  

  When a Scottish research team startled the world by revealing 3 months ago that it had cloned an adult sheep, President Clinton moved swiftly. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment—although no one had proposed to do so—and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. That group—the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC)—has been working feverishly to put its wisdom on paper, and at a meeting on 17 May, members agreed on a near-final draft of their recommendations.

  NBAC will ask that Clinton's 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law. But NBAC members are planning to word the recommendation narrowly to avoid new restrictions on research that involves the cloning of human DNA or cells—routine in molecular biology. The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.

  In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be “morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning.” Shapiro explained during the meeting that the moral doubt stems mainly from fears about the risk to the health of the child. The panel then informally accepted several general conclusions, although some details have not been settled.

  NBAC plans to call for a continued ban on federal government funding for any attempt to clone body cell nuclei to create a child. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.NBAC members also indicated that they would appeal to privately funded researchers and clinics not to try to clone humans by body cell nuclear transfer. But they were divided on whether to go further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning. Shapiro and most members favored an appeal for such legislation, but in a phone interview, he said this issue was still “up in the air.”

  63. We can learn from the first paragraph that ________.

  (A)federal funds have been used in a project to clone humans

  (B)the White House responded strongly to the news of cloning

  (C)NBAC was authorized to control the misuse of cloning technique

  (D)the White House has got the panel's recommendations on cloning

  64. The panel agreed on all of the following except that ________.

  (A)the ban on federal funds for human cloning should be made a law

  (B)the cloning of human DNA is not to be put under more control

  (C)it is criminal to use private funding for human cloning

  (D)it would be against ethical values to clone a human being

  65. NBAC will leave the issue of embryo research undiscussed because ________.

  (A)embryo research is just a current development of cloning

  (B)the health of the child is not the main concern of embryo research

  (C)an embryo's life will not be endangered in embryo research

  (D)the issue is explicitly stated and settled in the law

  66. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that ________.

  (A)some NBAC members hesitate to ban human cloning completely

  (B)a law banning human cloning is to be passed in no time

  (C)privately funded researchers will respond positively to NBAC's appeal

  (D)the issue of human cloning will soon be settled

  答案及试题解析

  BCDA

  63.(B)意为:白宫对这一克隆技术方面的消息反应强烈。

  根据第一段第一、二句,当苏格兰一个研究小组三个月前透露他们克隆了一只成年羊时,消息震动了世界,克林顿总统立即作出了反应,他宣布反对用这种特殊的畜牧技术克隆人,要求禁止使用联邦基金进行这样的研究——虽然尚未有人提出这样做,他要求成立一个由普林斯顿校长Shapiro领导的独立专家小组,就克隆人研究方面的国家政策问题拿出建议,在三个月内向白宫汇报。从这两句的内容来看,白宫的反应不仅迅速而且强烈。

  A意为:联邦基金已被用于一个克隆人的项目中。见对B的解释。

  C意为:NBAC被授权控制克隆技术的滥用。国家生物道德顾问委员会(NBAC)的职责是向白宫提出有关克隆人技术的政策性建议。

  D意为:白宫已得到专家组有关克隆技术的建议。

  64.(C)意为:使用私人基金研究克隆人技术是犯罪行为。

  在本文中,private funding区别于federal funds.根据第二段第三句,专家组还没有在一个关键问题上达成一致,即:是否建议立法,规定私人出资研究克隆人技术是犯罪行为。最后一段第一句也指出,NBAC成员们也表示,他们将呼吁私人资助的研究者和研究机构不要用细胞核移植技术来克隆人。

  A意为:应该立法禁止使用联邦基金研究克隆人技术。根据第二段第一句,NBAC将要求克林顿总统有关使用联邦基金研究克隆人技术的禁令无限期延长,并且可能要求立法禁止。根据第四段,他们也计划呼吁继续禁止使用联邦政府基金利用人体细胞核来克隆婴孩的企图。

  B意为:不再对克隆人体DNA技术作更多的限制。根据第二段第二句,NBAC成员们计划对建议的内容严加措辞,以避免对涉及克隆人体DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)和细胞的研究增加新的限制——因为在分子生物研究中这种研究属常规研究课题。

  D意为:克隆人类将是违背道德价值观的。第三段第一句指出,Shapiro在5月17日开会讨论的建议序言草稿中表示,专家组已取得广泛的一致意见,认为“试图利用成人细胞核克隆技术来创造人是不道德的。”65.(D)意为:有关这个问题法律己经作出了明确的陈述和规定。

  根据第四段第二句,因为现行联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金创造供研究用的胚胎,或有意识地危害胚胎的性命,NBAC的建议将不再涉及胚胎的研究。

  A意为:胚胎研究只不过是代表克隆技术的新发展。

  B意为:婴儿的健康状况不是胚胎研究所主要关心的问题。

  C意为:胚胎的性命在胚胎研究中不会受到威胁。

  A、B、C提到的内容均与文章内容不符。

  66.(A)意为:某些NBAC成员对彻底禁止克隆技术的研究表示犹豫不决。

  根据最后一段第二句,在是否进一步呼吁制定联邦法律彻底禁止克隆人技术研究方面,NBAC成员意见不一。虽然Shapiro和多数成员都赞成呼吁做这样的立法,但是,在一次电话采访中,他称这一问题仍然“悬而未决”。

  B意为:禁止克隆人技术研究的法律将很快获得通过。

  C意为:私人资助的研究者将会响应NBAC的呼吁。根据最后一段第一句,虽然不作出法律上的强行禁止,NBAC成员们也表示,他们将呼吁私人资助的研究者和研究机构不要用细胞核移植技术来克隆人。但是这里并没有提到——也没有足够的证据推测出私人资助的研究者对这一呼吁的态度。

  D意为:克隆人技术研究这一问题将很快获得解决。

  翻译句子

  1、Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment—although no one had proposed to do so—and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.

  [参考译文]他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类,并下令不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验——尽管还没有人建议这么做——他还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得?夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。

  2、But they were divided on whether to go further by calling for a federal law that would impose a complete ban on human cloning.

  [参考译文]但他们在是否进一步要求联邦立法强令彻底禁止克隆人这一问题上存在分歧。

  补充难句翻译

  ①Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment—although no one had proposed to do so—and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.[参考译文]他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类,并下令不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验——尽管还没有人建议这么做——他还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得?夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。

  [结构剖析]这个长句严格来说主语只有一个he和两个谓语(order和ask)。第一个逗号之前是一个表示伴随状态的现在分词短语,declaring 后面是一个that引导的宾语从句,注意其中有一个use…… to……的动词结构,然后是主句,第一个谓语ordered后面也是一个that引导的宾语从句,这个从句用了虚拟语气,在谓语动词be前面省略了 should;破折号之间是个although引导的让步从句,是对前面的补充;and后面是第二个谓语asked,用了短语搭配ask…… to……,ask的宾语其实是panel,这个单词的前后都是它的修饰成分,尤其是有过去分词chaired引导的短语,表明的是这个panel的领导者是谁;to后面的动词report接的是目的地the White House,时间要求in 90 days,内容recommendations,后面的for短语说明的是recommendations的内容。

  [阅读重点]理解这个句子的关键在于找到主句的两个谓语,然后理清两个谓语动词后面的宾语成分;再者就是句子开始的现在分词结构和破折号之间的补充成分。

  ②NBAC will ask that Clinton's 90-day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law.[参考译文]NBAC会要求将克林顿所颁布的在90天内禁止联邦基金用于克隆人的禁令无限期地延续下去,还可能要求将之立法。

  [结构剖析]这个句子的主语是NBAC,谓语ask后面是两个并列的宾语从句,从句都用了虚拟语气的谓语形式,即省略了should,谓语动词用原形 be.第一个从句的主语是ban,这个词前后都是修饰成分;第二个从句还是用that引导,句式简单。要注意的是,如果把第二个从句补齐的话,应该是 and possibly ask that it be made law.

  [阅读重点]找出ask的两个宾语从句是理解这个句子的关键,同时注意虚拟语气的运用,明白谓语动词为什么用be动词原形。

  ③The panel has not yet reached agreement on a crucial question, however, whether to recommend legislation that would make it a crime for private funding to be used for human cloning.[参考译文]但是,这个专家组还没有对一个关键问题达成协议,那就是,是否该建议立法机关把将个人资金用于克隆人的行为定为是一种犯罪。

  [结构剖析]这个简单句的宾语agreement跟了一个on引导的短语,说明的是agreement的内容,即a crucial question;question后面有一个whether引导的不定式短语,其中包含了一个宾语从句,从句的主语缺省,应该是 legislation.在这个从句中有一个形式宾语it,真正的宾语是后面的for…… to……结构。

  [阅读重点]whether引导的不定式短语是这个句子的关键,注意其中的宾语从句以及it作为形式宾语所替代的真正宾语。

  ④In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be “morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning”。[参考译文]在5月17日的会议上所讨论的这份建议书的序言草案中,夏皮罗提出,专家组已经达成广泛共识,那就是“试图通过成人细胞核克隆来制造人类幼儿的做法在道德上是不可接受的”。

  [结构剖析]这个简单句的主干其实就是Shapiro suggested that从句。主语前面的部分是该句的状语,其中recommendations后面的过去分词结构是表明时间的修饰成分。主句的宾语从句中包含了一个 consensus的同位语从句,解释的是consensus的内容,这个同位语从句中的it充当的是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning.

  [阅读重点]该句的主要信息集中的两个地方,一个是the panel…… found…… consensus……,另一个是对于consensus的解释,尤其是对其中形式主语的理解。

  ⑤Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos(the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.[参考译文]因为现今的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆胚胎(人类后裔在出生前的最早阶段)用于研究或者有意地威胁胚胎的生命, NBAC在胚胎研究上将保持沉默。

  [结构剖析]在这个主从复合句中,前面是because引导的原因状语从句,这个从句的宾语是 use,of短语说明了use的对象(federal funds),随后是两个并列的不定式短语,表明的是用途(create embryos;to knowingly endanger an embryo's life),其中括号里的内容是对embryos的解释,然后才是主句,注意介词on(关于)的用法。

  [阅读重点]这个句子的关键在于use后面的修饰成分,尤其是两个to不定式的意义,说明了禁止的内容。再者注意括号里对embryos的解释。

  语言点详解

  1.startle使吃,凉[大纲词汇]startle v.惊吓,使吃惊[经典例句]His announcement to take up the job startled all his friends.

  2.clone克隆(无性繁殖)[扩充词汇]clone v.无性繁殖

  3.swiftly迅速地[大纲词汇]swift a.快速的,敏捷的[经典例句]The news spread swiftly all over the community.

  4.animal husbandry畜牧业[扩充词汇] husbandry n.农业,饲养业poultry husbandry家禽饲养业

  5.panel of experts专家小组[大纲词汇]panel n.面,板;控制板,仪表盘;专门小组[经典例句]The panel consists of experts in their various subjects.

  6.recommendation建议[大纲词汇]recommend v.推荐,介绍;劝告,建议[衍生词汇]recommendation推荐;建议[经典例句]The board of directors adopted his recommendation for a new sales manager.

  7.feverishly忙乱地[大纲词汇]fever n.发热,狂热[衍生词汇]feverish a.发热的;狂热的;忙乱的[经典例句]He packed his bag feverishly.

  8.ban禁止[大纲词汇] ban v.取缔,查禁;( from)禁止; n.禁止,禁令[经典例句]The government removed the ban on foreign publications.

  9.indefinitely无限地[大纲词汇]definite a.明确的,肯定的,限定的[衍生词汇]indefinite a.不定的,不确定的;无限的[经典例句]The strike seemed to go on indefinitely.

  10.word the recommendation narrowly将建议严谨措辞[扩充词义] word v.措辞,用语言表达narrowly ad.严密地,仔细地[经典例句]The police searched the house narrowly. He didn't know how to word his complaint.

  11.molecular biology分子生物学[大纲词汇]molecule n.分子[衍生词汇]molecular a.分子的molecular structure分子结构

  12.crucial至关重要的[大纲词汇]crucial a.至关重要的,决定性的[经典例句]He remained calm at the crucial moment.

  13.preface序言[大纲词汇]preface n.序言,引言,前言[经典例句]She made acknowledgement to all who had help her with the book in the preface.

  14.consensus一致[大纲词汇] consensus n.(意见等)一致,一致同意[经典例句]The directors reached a consensus on abandoning the project.

  15.stem from基于[大纲词汇]stem n.茎,干;词千[扩充词义]stem v.(from)起源于,基于[经典例句]Her hatred to Mary stemmed from envy.

  16.cell nuclei细胞核[大纲词汇]nucleus n.[pl…… nuclei]核,核心,原子核[经典例句]These young people formed the nucleus of the club.

  17.embryo胚胎

  18.appeal to呼吁[大纲词汇]appeal v.(to)呼吁,要求;对…有吸引力;申诉,上诉n.(to)呼吁,要求;吸引力;申诉,上诉[经典例句]The international community appealed to the hijackers to release the hostage.

  19.call for要求[大纲词汇]call for邀请;要求,需要[经典例句]The environmentalists called for a campaign against pollution.

  20.impose强加于[大纲词汇]impose v.征(税);(on)把…强加给[经典例句]He imposed on me his own idea about the TV series.

  21.up in the air未决定[扩充词汇] up in the air(计划、问题等)未决定,悬而未决[经典例句]Although they held several meetings,the decision still up in the air.

  22.ethical道德的[扩充词汇]ethical a.道德的;合乎道德的ethics n.道德准则,行为准则[经典例句]The chairman voiced his ethical concerns on the project.

  23.explicitly明确地[大纲词汇]explicit a.详述的,明确的;坦率的[词汇比较]implicit a.含蓄的,模糊的[经典例句]I would have done it better if you had explained it to me more explicitly,

  24.in no time立即[大纲词汇]in no time立即,马上[经典例句]The police came to the accident in no time.

  全文翻译

  当一个苏格兰研究小组透露三个月前他们克隆了一只成年绵羊时,世界为之震惊,克林顿总统迅速做出反应。他宣称反对利用这种非同寻常的畜牧业技术去克隆人,并下令禁止使用联邦资金做这样的实验——尽管还没有人提议要那样做——并责成成立一个由普林斯顿大学校长哈罗德?夏皮罗为首的独立专家小组,在90天内拿出有关克隆人的国家政策的建议,向白宫汇报。这个名为“全国生物伦理道德顾问委员会”(NBAC)的小组一直在非常积极地工作,集思广益,并诉诸笔端;在5月17日的一次会议上,委员们就接近定稿的意见书取得了一致意见。

  NBAC将要求克林顿总统禁止使用联邦资金克隆人的90天禁令无限期地延长,并且还可能要求将之立法。但是,NBAC成员们正计划在建议的措辞上更为严谨,以避免给克隆人体DNA或细胞等研究带来更多地限制—— (这属于)分子生物研究中的常规课题。然而,该小组尚未在一个关键问题上达成一致,即是否建议立法机关把将私人资金用于克隆人的行为视为犯罪。

  在5月17日会议上讨论的建议序言草案中,夏皮罗表示,专家组已取得广泛的共识,认为“试图利用成人细胞核去克隆婴儿将是违背道德伦理的”。夏皮罗解释说在与会期间,道德上的怀疑主要源于对婴儿健康带来危害的担忧。随后,该小组非正式地接受了几条一般的结论,尽管有些细节尚无定论。

  NBAC计划呼吁继续禁止使用联邦政府基金利用人体细胞核去克隆婴孩的任何企图。因为现行的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆研究用的胚胎(人类子代出生前的最早阶段)或有意识地危及胚胎的生命,NBAC在胚胎研究这一问题上保持沉默。

  NBAC的成员明确表示,他们呼吁由私人提供资金的研究人员和机构不要试图通过人体细胞核转移去克隆人。但他们在是否进一步要求联邦立法强令彻底禁止克隆人这一问题上存在分歧。夏皮罗和大多数委员赞成将此立法,但在电话采访中,他透露这一议题仍“悬而未决”。

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