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70天攻克考研英语阅读 DAY62

2006-7-28 01:05  

  DAY62

  Reading comprehension

  Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

  Passage 1

  A rise in the sea level is a potentially serious problem as it relates to global warming. Although a precise estimate of the total potential rise in sea level is not possible at this time, there is a consensus that the level of the sea will in fact rise. In fact, sea level along much of the US coast is already rising at a rate of 2.5 to 3.0mm per year, or about 10 to 12inches per century. The causes for the rise are thought to be twofold: thermal current of ocean water (the primary cause) and melting of glacial ice (a secondary cause)。 The various models predict that the rise may be anywhere from 20cm to approximately 2m (8-80in) in the next century; the most likely rise is probably 20 to 40cm (8-16in)。 One estimate is that sea level will likely rise 15cm by the year 2050 and 34cm by the year 2100. When other factors such as land subsidence and compaction, groundwater depletion, and natural climate variation are considered, some coastal regions could experience a sea level rise of 45 to 55cm by the year 2100. Such a change will have significant environmental impacts; it could easily cause increased coastal erosion on open beaches of up to 50 to 100m (165-230ft), making buildings and other structures in the coastal zone more vulnerable to damage from waves generated by highmagnitude storms. It could also cause a landlord migration of estuaries and salt marshes in the coastal zone. Finally, groundwater supplies for coastal communities may be saltwater intrusion should sea level rise.

  A rise in the sea level of approximately 1m (3.3ft) would have serious consequences. People would have to make significant alterations in the coastal environment to protect investments, and communities would be forced to choose between making very heavy financial investments in controlling coastal erosion and allowing for considerable loss of property.

  Considering the amount of coastal defenses present in the world today, it seems inevitable that a rise in sea level lead to further investment for protecting cities in the coastal zone. Construction of seawalls, dikes, and other erosioncontrolling structures will become more common as coastal erosion threatens urban property. In more rural areas, where development is set well back from the coastal zone, the most likely response to a rising sealevel will be simply to adjust to the erosion that occurs. Coastal erosion is a different problem that is very expensive to deal with; it is prudent to allow erosion to naturally take place where feasible rather than try to control it.

  Finally, when considering a rise in the sea level, we must be concerned with the hundreds of millions of people who live in lowlying areas of developing countries. For example, two cyclones that hit Bangladesh in the last 25 years killed more than 400,000 people and caused over $1.6billion in property damage. The double impact of a rising sea level and more frequent and powerful cyclones and other tropical disturbances (owing to warmer oceans) would have a devastating effect on people in developing countries.

  1. What is the main idea of the first paragraph?

  A. The estimated amount of a rise in sea level.

  B. A rise in sea level.

  C. The factors that influence a rise in sea level.

  D. The estimated amount and impact of a rise in sea level.

  2. According to the passage, which of the following factors will cause a rise in sea level?

  A. Warm current.B. Land subsidence.

  C. Groundwater exhaustion.D. Climate change.

  3. What is the probable meaning of the underlined word “vulnerable” in paragraph 1?

  A. Sturdy.B. Impregnable.C. Staunch.D. Feeble.

  4. Which of the following statements about a rise in sea level is NOT true according to the author?

  A. People may enlarge the investment for protecting metropolises in the coastal zone.

  B. It is sensible to try to control it for longterm consideration.

  C. People may regulate according to the erosion in rural areas.

  D. It will plunge people into a dilemma.

  5. The following statements are impacts a rise in sea level may cause EXCEPT .

  A. It will increase coastal erosion and storms.

  B. Many coastal buildings will become frangible.

  C. It will deplete the groundwater of coastal communities.

  D. It will demolish much coastal property.

  Passage 2

  In Europe, 19th century was dominated by the struggle of the middle class to break the moral and political canons imposed by the upper classes. Literature regarded love, among other factors, as a moral force contributing to the growth of the individual. According to Watt, individualism and love were considered to be the two dynamic forces that brought about the development of the Western bourgeois novel. On the contrary, Japanese society in general and some of the Meiji writers including Soseki, in particular, tended to regard love as the cause of moral destruction. In Sosekis novel, two of the main characters, Sensei and his friend K, whose rigid ideals of becoming a hermit, and thereby denying his human nature, are confused by the charm of the young woman, choose to die rather than give in to the yearnings of the flesh. K leaves Sensei with the prize, but also with the remorse of having sacrificed his friends life and his own peace of mind.

  Such lack of selfaffirmation created a background against which Meiji literary works dealing with the problems of the individual appeared and were widely disseminated, mirroring a focal shift from the collective to the individual. However, as Pollack points out, even before authors could talk about individuality, and about an “I”, they had first to ask a more fundamental question: what is an I? Indeed, Meiji Japan is dominated by the quest for an identity to match the Western values. Meiji intellectuals were looking for an analogue to the Western “self”, as the necessary precursor to the political concepts of liberty, freedom, and rights. However, since the old coexisted with the new trend, a major conflict between tradition and innovation occurred, leading to the sense of confusion and despair which pervades Sosekis novel.

  During the Meiji cultural enlightenment, Japanese intellectuals abandoned traditional principles and turned to Europe for guidance. Translations of great European thinkers like Mill, Darwin, Spencer and Kant helped in disseminating Western ideas of individuality, freedom, rights, equality, progress, etc. the absorption of these ideas promoted a change in the Japanese individuals conception of self and his relationship to the world. Thus, a free and more materialistic individual emerged in place of the person, who guided himself after Confucian and Buddhist doctrines of effacing the self, or always relating to and relying upon the group. In his An Encouragement of Learning, Fukuzawa Yukichi deals with the concept of independence. The ideals of independence and achievement in life gradually started to replace the traditional social cohesion.

  From the point of view of individual emancipation, the Meiji enlightenment played in Japan a role similar to that of the Renaissance in Europe, where individualism was a social system in which the individual is ideally alone in a secularized world, freed from the bonds of family and tradition. However, while in Europe ideas about society, individuality or freedom took centuries to develop, Japanese intellectuals expected to assimilate them in a very short period of time, and without the historical, political and social background presumed necessary for this assimilation. Old concepts gave way to new ones, while new concepts were naturalized even though the reality they were supposed to reflect did not match the Japanese state of affairs. This resulted in the dissemination of terms whose sense was unintelligible to the common reader, such as society, individual, freedom, etc.

  1. What is the probable purpose of the example of Sosekis novel in Paragraph 1?

  A. To illustrate love as the cause of moral destruction.

  B. To provide some information about Japanese literature.

  C. To emphasize the disparity between European and Japanese literatures.

  D. To explain love as a moral force contributing to the growth of an individual.

  2. Which of the following statements does NOT accord with Japanese traditions according to the passage?

  A. Love is the reason of demoralization.

  B. Confucian and Buddhist doctrines erase the self.

  C. The ideals of independence dominated peoples minds.

  D. Japanese traditional principles relied upon collectivism.

  3. The underlined word “unintelligible” in the last paragraph possibly means .

  A. Incredible.B. Unintelligent.C. Pellucid.D. Elusive.

  4. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the last paragraph?

  A. There would be difficulties in Japanese understanding and absorption of the European ideas.

  B. Japanese intellectuals paid little attention to their own backgrounds when disseminating the European ideas.

  C. The Meiji cultural enlightenment was similar to the Renaissance in Europe.

  D. It would be impossible for Japan to finish its cultural transformation.

  5. What does the whole passage mainly concern about?

  A. Japanese cultural transformation in the Meiji enlightenment.

  B. The import and implications of Western culture upon Meiji Japan.

  C. The differences between European and Japanese cultures in Meiji period.

  D. The Meiji cultural enlightenment in Japan.

  Passage 3

  Despite the convenience and the increased property values resulting from municipal (urban) sewerage systems, their implementations are often opposed by the taxpayers. Even when the benefits or the needs are obvious, authorities must generally provide some legal or economic inducement to get the project under way and to control it once it is in operation. Incentive payments, direct regulation and municipal bylaws are some of the tools available for improving environmental quality. Public awareness of environmental problems can be another effective means for stimulating corrective measures.

  Municipalities have been the recipients of government subsidies in the form of lowcost, longterm loans and outright grants. In Canada, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) supplies funds during the sixties and seventies, covering twothird of the cost of pollution control projects. Of this amount, 25 percent of was forgiven, with the balance repaid over 25 tears at a low fixed interest rate. In the United States, federal loans covering up to 75 percent of the cost of wastewater treatment plants have been available to municipalities since 1973. Repayment for these projects may be from general taxation or by revenue bonds repaid from sewer rental fees based on each users water bill.

  Many regulations to control water pollution have been enacted. In Ontario, for example, there are 25 federal statutes, 40 provincial statutes and countless bylaws to control environmental pollution. These regulations are in addition to the federal, state and provincial requirements for the acceptability of wastewater effluents or the quality of receiving waters. Direct regulation, enforced by fines and penalties, has been the predominant practice for the past 20 years or more. However, control by regulation has limitations: it is politically unpalatable, fines are usually a fixed amount that is too low to encourage compliance, and in some case the rigid standards are unwarranted. Fines proportional to the degree of violation provide a better approach, but unless fines are greater than the cost of correcting the situation, little improvement can be expected.

  At the municipal level, considerable control over water pollution is exercised through bylaws which control subdivision development, sewer use, and industrial waste discharges. These bylaws may stipulate that developers provide a certain level of sewage collection and storm drainage services in new subdivisions. The capital costs of these services are borne by those who purchase the lots, the operating and maintenance costs by the municipality. Seweruse bylaws and individual waste bylaws establish the types of wastes that are accepted by the municipality and may include a system of surcharges which are assessed against those whose wastes are stronger than normal domestic sewage. Certain industries may have to pretreat their wastes in order to make them acceptable to the municipality.

  Public awareness of the contamination of our water supplies, the consequences of eutrophication, and the loss of recreational waters have contributed significantly to the progress in wastewater technology. As measures to control water pollution from municipal systems have been implemented, the emphasis has been shifted from this relatively narrow concern to the broader implications associated with the treatment and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes.

  1. It can be inferred from the first sentence in Paragraph 1 that

  A. Municipal sewerage systems are actually unprofitable to urban citizens.

  B. Municipal sewerage systems are not thoroughly enforced.

  C. Municipal sewerage systems have some side effects.

  D. Municipal sewerage systems involve expensive investments.

  2. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to Paragraph 2?

  A. Government is suggested to offer direct funds for pollution treatment.

  B. CMHC had only to pay 25 percent of the average interest rate.

  C. Government should penalize those factories which produce much pollution.

  D. Government allowance is an effective way to control water pollution.

  3. According to the second half of Paragraph 3, the underlined word “unpalatable” probably means

  A. Disadvantageous.B. Defenseless.C. Disgusting.D. Indefinite.

  4. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the last paragraph?

  A. The emphasis of controlling water pollution should be shifted upon municipal systems.

  B. Public involvement plays an important role in controlling pollution.

  C. Controlling water pollution should be deepened.

  D. Treatment of solid and hazardous pollutions will be the next step.

  5. The following measures of controlling water pollution is official EXCEPT

  A. Public involvement.B. Legislation.

  C. Government subsidies.D. Municipal bylaws.

  Passage 4

  The Africans wish to express Christian beliefs in their own way has led to the growth of many small nativistic churches, which are based on persons who broke away from established churches. These churches often include African practices in the rituals, such as dancing, and generally operate at a higher emotional pitch than the more formal missionarybased churches. Their presence and popularity in Africa represents a wish to not only place Christianity in a fuller African setting, but also of Africans to have a larger share in the leadership and organization of the modern religious structure, as they control the traditional sphere since missionaries were associated with Europe and America — and, sometimes in the minds of Africans with the colonial administrations and governments — there has been suspicion in their motivations. However the gaining of control of their own church affairs by Africans in recent years has changed the role of missionaries to that of important helpers.

  It should be recognized that the mission organizations brought the educational system into being in Africa, and that the modern African churches will carry a great deal of this burden. The colonial governments established few schools, relying heavily on missionaries. Today, the modern African governments have entered strongly into the educational picture. The presence of schools and the academic type of education have influenced traditional values and activities. School children are no longer as free in time and energy to help with farms. They have less of a chance to take part in traditional ceremonies. They are taught things that denigrate some aspects of the traditional lives of their parents. The school system has helped to reduce greatly the respect for age and seniority in Africa, putting it more on achievement and status. It turns persons away from an interest in agriculture and herding to other occupations. Yet, as educated adults, they seem to be able to bridge the gap between tradition and the modern world more readily.

  A word should be said here about Islamic beliefs. Islam is extremely popular in Africa and it has been spreading in the subSaharan area at a more rapid rate than has Christianity. Most of the Sudan area is Moslem, and the belief has penetrated successfully into the forest regions to the south. It is popular on the east coast of Africa, introduced by Arabs. Where it is practiced, many of the traditional public rituals are no longer carried out — or are done only in modified form — and traditional art work and shrines are often destroyed. Why then its popularity?

  There is no ready answer to the question as to why this rival “great tradition” should be important; however, the fact that the proselytization is carried out by Africans is significant. Also, while Christianity is outwardly a closed system of belief, allowing for little incorporation of traditional ideas. Islam in Africa does allow for some traditional magical and healing practices to be carried out and for belief in a variety of traditional spirits to be retained. Islam has not been identified with the colonial order of the west, yet it is associated with a great literary and central tradition. Its popularity may also derive from the fact that a Moslem is allowed to have as many as four wives. Islamic influence in subSaharan Africa will continue to grow.

  1. Which of the following statements about “nativistic churches” is NOT true?

  A. The church rituals are mostly Africanized.

  B. Their ceremonies involve a lot of local peculiarities.

  C. The part of missionaries is primarily assistant.

  D. These churches possess a dense color of colonialism.

  2. The following influences are brought by educational system EXCEPT

  A. Pupils will not be engaged in herding.

  B. Teaching may contradict to African traditions.

  C. Intellectuals will take over the task of internationalization.

  D. People in Africa will respect the senior more.

  3. What is the probable meaning of the underlined word “denigrate” in Paragraph 2?

  A. Stain.B. Challenge.C. Contradict.D. Abolish.

  4. Which of the following statements is NOT a reason for popularity of Islam over Christianity in Africa?

  A. Christianity is a symbol of colonialism.

  B. Many of the traditional public rituals are no longer carried out.

  C. There is room for modification in Islamic.

  D. Islam permits polygamy.

  5. What does the passage concern about?

  A. Christianity in Africa.B. African religious beliefs.

  C. African religious situation.D. Christianity and Islam in Africa.

  Keys and notes for the passage reading:

  Passage 1

  由于全球变暖,海平面将会上升,这将给沿海区域带来各种灾难。对此,海防投资将会扩大,但有些地方将不得不任其自然发生。在发展中国家这种灾难将会更严重。

  When other factors such as land subsidence and compaction, groundwater depletion, and natural climate variation are considered. 将其他因素考虑在内,如土地下陷压紧,地下水枯竭,气候的自然变化。

  1. 「D」第一段主要讲了两个方面的问题:首先是对今后海平面上升高度的各种推测;然后是由此对沿海区域环境的影响。所以选D.

  2. 「A」文中提到海平面上升的主要原因就是海水暖流,即选项A.选项B(陆地下陷)和选项C(地下水枯竭)会造成海平面下降;选项D(气候变化)不一定会造成上升,也可能下降。

  3. 「D」海岸侵蚀会使沿海建筑物变得易碎,即vulnerable.选项A,B,C都是坚固的意思,只有选项D符合题意。

  4. 「B」选项A,C,D都可以从文中找出相对应的答案;选项B,第三段最后一句认为“让海蚀自然发生而不是试图控制,这一点是考虑周到的”,由此可见,企图控制并不明智。

  5. 「C」选项C认为海平面上升会使沿海区域的地下水枯竭是不正确的,它只会使地下水受到盐海水的入侵。其他选项都符合文章本意。

  Passage 2

  西方文化认为爱是个人发展的道德动力,日本文化则相反。明治时期,知识分子开始传播西方的先进思想,使得个性、自由、平等等思想在日本逐渐取代孔儒思想,但是这也需要一个过程。

  This resulted in the dissemination of terms whose sense was unintelligible to the common reader, such as society, individual, freedom, etc.这就导致了在传播社会、个人、自由等术语时使普通读者难以理解。

  1. 「A」在举这个例子之前,作者认为日本文化认为爱使人道德沦落,这个例子正好证明了这一点。故选A.

  2. 「C」选项C认为独立的理想统治着人们的思想,是与文中表述传统的日本孔儒、集体等思想相违背的,所以选C.其他选项都与正文相符。

  3. 「D」Unintelligible意为难解的,无法了解的。A为难以置信的,B为无知的,C为易懂的。

  4. 「D」最后一段认为由于西方文化经过几个世纪的发展,日本要在短时间内全部吸收会有困难。选项A, B,C均正确;选项D太过绝对,违背了作者的原意。

  5. 「B」通观全文,作者始终将西方文化和日本明治时期的文化转变联系在一起,并强调其影响及意义。

  Passage 3

  对于如何有效地控制城市水污染,作者提出了四个方案措施:第一,向企业提供政府津贴;第二,加强立法工作;第三,制定城市法规;第四,提高市民意识。

  Despite the convenience and the increased property values resulting from municipal (urban) sewerage systems, their implementations are often opposed by the taxpayers. 尽管,城市污水处理系统给人们带来了便利和财富,但是市民对其贯彻执行却并不满意。

  1. 「B」从上面的难句解析中可知,纳税人是对其执行不满。故选B.

  2. 「D」第二段subsidies意为allowance补助金,津贴。其他句子可在原文中找到相应的正确句子。

  3. 「C」Unpalatable意为不好吃的,令人讨厌的。

  4. 「A」最后一段认为控制水污染的重心要转到处理固体及危险污染上来,因而选项A错。

  5. 「A」选项A为公众参与,并非官方行为。

  Passage 4

  本文主要介绍了非洲具有浓郁地方特色的,与殖民时期的基督教堂截然不同的基督教堂的发展和对教育事业的作用。也涉及到伊斯兰教在非洲的发展。

  Islam in Africa does allow for some traditional magical and healing practices to be carried out and for belief in a variety of traditional spirits to be retained. 但是在非洲,伊斯兰教却允许人们从事传统的魔法治疗活动,也允许保留对各种传统鬼神的信仰。

  1. 「D」选项D认为这些教堂有着浓郁的殖民色彩,实际上,这个特点是殖民时期时非洲教堂所具有的。因而是错的。

  2. 「D」选项D,文中提到人们通过受教育,会减少对年龄的尊敬,而更加注重成就和身份。因而是错的。

  3. 「A」单词denigrate意为毁誉,玷污,与stain同意。选项B,C,D意思分别为挑战,冲突,废除。

  4. 「B」选项B认为传统仪式不再举行,这是伊斯兰教在当地流行的结果,而不是伊斯兰教流行的原因。因而是错的。

  5. 「C」这篇文章主要是介绍非洲宗教现状,如人们的宗教信仰,宗教的影响,基督教与伊斯兰教在非洲的比较。

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