外语教育网
您的位置:外语教育网 > 基础英语 > 英语翻译 > 经验技巧 正文
  • 站内搜索:

英汉翻译原理 9

2006-07-05 09:22

  Unit 9

  I、课外练习参考译文:

  如果在11世纪作一项职业调查的话,也许会发现,竟有90%的人住在农村,依靠农耕、放牧、捕鱼或采伐谋生。当时如果拍下一张航摄照片的话,可以看到未经铺设的道路连接的散落村子,中间隔着一片片的森林或沼泽。也有几座城镇,但人口很少有超过一万的。在14世纪中叶再拍一张照片,可以看到村子的数目多了,分布也广了,因为欧洲人开辟了新的定居地区,从而拓展了疆域。道路上和江海上往来的人多了,他们把粮食或原料运往城镇。城镇的数目多了,规模大了,重要性也增加了。但是,如果在1450年前后拍一张照片的话,就会看到在此以前的几百年间几乎没有继续发展。

  要想描写这几百年间农村的情形无法做到,困难有二。首先,我们必须观察的是欧洲375万平方英里的大部分地区,而不仅仅是地中海一带地方。其次,这一广阔地区的居民无法用我们的标准模式去进行划分,他们也不是一成不变。

  1450年时可能大多欧洲人住在村落里,但有些地区山陵起伏,缺少沃土,或者砍伐过度,村落难以维持,只有一些孤独的牧民集居于此。有些地区通往集市的交通较其他地区方便,因而从事商业性农业多于单一耕作。大土地主比小地主更有可能对其地产,尤其是其领地,进行系统化的管理——而且作了记载,使我们得以从中了解有关本课题的大部分情况。有些地区没有实施过多少封建统治,农民很少受到领主的管辖,甚至很少受到地主的管辖。有些地区是新定居地,对租地户提供宽松的租赁条件来吸引他们开垦荒地。最后一点是时代因素:作为12到15世纪时期特征的发展和繁荣所产生并具有的种种条件,并不适合在此之前的动荡岁月,也不适合在此之后的贫乏年代。

  II、英汉翻译原理第四讲:怎样表达译文?(续)

  二、要避免照搬英汉词典的释义:(续)

  「例70」The team is famous for its arsenal of veteran players.

  「译文」这个球队拥有众多经验丰富的老队员,很有名气。

  「例71」These new shoes squeak.

  「译文」这双新鞋走起路来咯吱咯吱响。

  三、要充分运用汉语独特的表达优势:

  「例72」Whatever you like to eat, just tell me.

  ×无论你想吃什么东西,只要告诉我。

  「译文」想吃什么,只要告诉我。

  「例73」Even if you go there, there wouldn't be any result.

  ×即使你去了,也不会有什么结果。

  「译文」你去了也是白去。

  「例74」I grieve to leave Thornfield: I love Thornfield —— I love it, because I have lived in it a full and delightful life —— momentarily at least. I have not been trampled on. I have not been petrified. I have nor been burned with inferior minds, and excluded from every glimpse of communion with what is bright and energetic and high. I have talked, face to face with what I reverence, with what I delight in —— with an original, a vigorous, an expanded mind. I have known you, Mr. Rochester; and it strikes me with terror and anguish to feel I absolutely must be torn from you for ever. I see the necessity of departure; and it is like looking on the necessity of death.

  「译文」离开桑菲尔德,我黯然神伤:我爱此地——因为此地曾有过一段充实愉悦的日子——至少曾短时间有过。我没有遭人践踏,没有变得麻木,没有埋没于小人堆里,没有脱离过明媚灿烂、生机勃勃、高尚脱俗的一切,始终与之息息相通。在此曾经与一位十分崇敬、乐意与之交谈的人——一位思想独创、精力充沛、心胸开阔的人——直面倾谈。罗切斯特先生,与你相识了,却又一定要与你永远分离,想到此处令我既感恐惧又觉痛楚,犹如面对必将来临的死亡。

  「例75」Wounded as he was, it was wonderful how fast he could move, his grizzled hair tumbling over his face, and his face itself red with his haste and fury.

  「译文」他虽然受了伤, 动作却快得出奇,斑白的头发披散在脸前,脸也因气急败坏而涨得通红。

  「例76」As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but as he was ambitious, I slew him. There is tears for his love; joy for his fortune; honour for his valour; and death for his ambition.

  「译文」因为凯撒爱我,我为他哭泣;因为他幸运,我为他高兴;因为他英勇,我对他尊崇;但因为他有野心,我就刺杀了他。用眼泪汇报他的爱;用欢乐庆祝他的幸运;用尊崇纪念他的英勇;而用刺杀制止他的野心。

  「例77」A big nation has its problems while a small nation has its advantages.

  「译文」大国有大国的问题,小国有小国的好处。

  「例78」Foreign intervention will thus find justification.

  ×外国的干涉因此而找到正当的理由。

  「译文」外国的干涉因此而名正言顺。

  「例79」He spoke with firmness, but his face was very sad and his eyes were dim.

  ×他讲得很坚定,但脸色很凄伤,双眼闪出悲观的神情。

  「译文」他讲话时语气坚定,但面带愁容,眼神暗淡。

  「例80」He was but a man with many grey hairs, with a heavy burden of responsibility, of thoughts and worries.

  ×他已是长了许多灰发、肩负重任、心中充满思考和忧虑的人。

  「译文」他已是鬓发斑白,肩负重任,思绪万千,焦虑满怀。

  「例81」Gathering facts, confirming then, suggesting theories, testing them, and organizing findings —— this is all the work of science.

  ×收集资料,对它们进行论证,提出理论,对它们进行检验,加上对研究成果进行归纳整理——这就是全部的科学工作。

  「译文」收集资料,论证资料,提出理论,检验理论,并对研究成果进行归纳整理——这就是科学工作的全部内容。

  III、课堂练习(将以下句子译成汉语,并注意运用汉语的表达优势使译文尽量通顺流畅):

  1.He intends to take an action in grand style.

  2.He arrived on Sunday night, tired and dusty.

  3.This type of marriage is characterized by constant conflict, tension, and bitterness.

  4.The nation's tradition, its instincts, and its interest make it opposed to Germany.

  5.Education suggests both the process and the result of developing the mind's capacity and scope.

  6.Small talk is what friends make when standing around doing nothing. Small talk serves as a good ice breaker when people do not know each other.

  7.Primary commodities constitute the determining factor of employment, income, living standards and government development expenditure in the vast majority of developing countries.

  8.Under the moral precept we should recoil at human cloning, because it inevitably entails using humans as means to other humans' ends —— valuing them as copies of others we loved or as collections of body parts, not as individuals in their own right.

  IV、课堂练习参考译文:

  1.他想轰轰烈烈地大干一场。

  2.他星期日晚上到了,风尘仆仆,精疲力竭,

  3.这种婚姻关系的特点是冲突不断、关系紧张、怨恨不已。

  4.该民族的历史传统、民族本能和民众爱好都使其与德国势不两立。

  5.教育同时意味着培养智能和拓展视野的过程和结果。

  6.朋友们相聚无所事事的时候会闲谈,陌生人见面为打破沉寂的时候也会闲谈。

  7.初级商品对于大多数发展中国家都是关系到就业收入、生活水平和政府发展费用的决定性因素。

  8.按照这一道德戒律,我们应规避克隆人的做法,因为这种做法必然会造成把人作为他人达到目的的手段,把人看作一个个所爱之人的复制品,或者看作一组组的人体器官,而不是看作一个个具有独立人格的人。

  V、课外练习(正确理解下列短文,并将其译成汉语):

  Science finds order and meaning in our experience, and sets about this in quite a different way. It sets about it as Newton did in the story which he himself told in his old age, and of which the schoolbooks give only a caricature.

  In the year 1665, when Newton was twenty-two, the plague broke out in southern England, and the University of Cambridge was closed. Newton therefore spent the next eighteen months at home, removed from traditional learning, at a time when he was impatient for knowledge and, in his own phrase, “I was in the prime of my age for invention.” In this eager, boyish mood, sitting one day in the garden of his widowed mother, he saw an apple fall.

  What struck the young Newton at the sight was not the thought that the apple must be drawn to the earth by gravity; that conception was older than Newton. What struck him was the conjecture that the same force of gravity, which reaches to the top of the tree, might go on reaching out beyond the earth and its air, endlessly into space. Gravity might reach the moon: this was Newton's new thought; and it might be gravity which holds the moon in her orbit.

  There and then he calculated what force from the earth would hold the moon, and compared it with the known force of gravity at tree height. The forces agreed; Newton says laconically, “I found the answer pretty nearly.” Yet they agreed only nearly: the likeness and the approximation go together, for no likeness is exact. In Newton's science modern science is full grown.    (272 words)

相关热词:翻译 经验 技巧

上一篇:英汉翻译原理 5

下一篇:英汉翻译原理 7

栏目相关课程表
科目名称 主讲老师 课时 免费试听 优惠价 购买课程
英语零起点 郭俊霞 30课时 试听 150元/门 购买
综艺乐园 ------ 13课时 试听 100元/门 购买
边玩边学 ------ 10课时 试听 60元/门 购买
情景喜剧 ------ 15课时 试听 100元/门 购买
欢乐课堂 ------ 35课时 试听 150元/门 购买
基础英语辅导课程
郭俊霞 北京语言大学毕业,专业英语八级,国内某知名中学英语教研组组长,教学标兵……详情>>
郭俊霞:零基础英语网上辅导名师

  1、凡本网注明 “来源:外语教育网”的所有作品,版权均属外语教育网所有,未经本网授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他方式使用;已经本网授权的,应在授权范围内使用,且必须注明“来源:外语教育网”。违反上述声明者,本网将追究其法律责任。
  2、本网部分资料为网上搜集转载,均尽力标明作者和出处。对于本网刊载作品涉及版权等问题的,请作者与本网站联系,本网站核实确认后会尽快予以处理。本网转载之作品,并不意味着认同该作品的观点或真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人转载使用,请与著作权人联系,并自负法律责任。
  3、联系方式
  编辑信箱:for68@chinaacc.com
  电话:010-82319999-2371